Enzyme technology for precision functional food ingredient processes
BioProcess Engineering Center, Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 4.38). 03/2010; 1190(1):126-32. DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.05255.x
A number of naturally occurring dietary substances may exert physiological benefits. The production of enhanced levels or particularly tailored versions of such candidate functional compounds can be targeted by enzymatic catalysis. The recent literature contains examples of enhancing bioavailability of iron via enzyme-catalyzed degradation of phytate in wheat bran, increasing diacyl-glycerol and conjugated linoleic acid levels by lipase action, enhancing the absorption of the citrus flavonoid hesperetin via rhamnosidase treatment, and obtaining solubilized dietary fiber via enzymatic modification of potato starch processing residues. Such targeted enzyme-catalyzed reactions provide new invention opportunities for designing functional foods with significant health benefits. The provision of well-defined naturally structured compounds can, moreover, assist in obtaining the much-needed improved understanding of the physiological benefits of complex natural substances.
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- "Enzyme-assisted extraction is based on the ability of enzymes to degrade the cell walls and membranes, under mild process conditions, thereby allowing the efficient extraction and release of the bioactive compounds (Gardossi et al., 2009;Pinelo, Arnous, & Meyer, 2006). This method also offers a more ecological approach as food industry and pharmaceutical companies try to find "cleaner" procedures for the extraction of bioactive constituents (Meyer, 2010). Enzymes, such as cellulases, pectinases and hemicellulases hydrolyze cell wall components and disrupt the structural integrity of the plant cell wall. "
ABSTRACT: Industrial tomato processing generates large amount of low-value by-products, primarily used as livestock feed or disposed of; however, being a rich source of natural carotenoids, tomato waste can be used to produce high value-added products for food, cosmetics, or pharmaceutical applications. The objective of this review is to summarize and give an overview of the extraction methods available for the recovery of carotenoids and, especially, lycopene from tomato processing by-products. Organic solvent extraction techniques are presented and the effect of extraction conditions on carotenoids recovery is evaluated. In particular, the use of Ultrasound Assisted (UAE), Microwave Assisted (MAE), Enzyme-Assisted (EAE) and Extraction at High Pressure (HPE) for the recovery of carotenoids is assessed. Also, this review examines the efficiency of Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) and in particular the effect of process parameters on carotenoid recovery from industrial tomato waste.
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ABSTRACT: This paper proposes a model to describe the effect of recycled aggregate (RA) on the chloride diffusion in recycled aggregate concrete (RAC). In this study, RAC is modeled in mesoscope as a five-phase composite material by considering the old and new interfacial transition zones (ITZs) as interphases, and the new mortar, old attached mortar and original aggregate as continuous phases. Based on the multiphase theory, new theoretical equations are derived to calculate the effective chloride diffusivity (Deff ) in the modeled RAC. Using the finite element method (FEM) simulation, a parametric study has been undertaken to understand the effects of the RA volume fraction (Fra ), the RA shapes, the boundary conditions, the adhesive rate of the old adhered mortar (Rrm ) and the thickness of the ITZ (T ITZ) on the chloride diffusivity in RAC. It is concluded that the discrepancy between the chloride diffusivities of different phases may remarkably complicate the chloride diffusion behavior in the modeled RAC. For the same volume of RAC, Deff decreases with the increase of Fra , but increases with Rrm and T ITZ. The RA shape also influences the chloride concentration. Furthermore, the values of Deff calculated from theoretical equation and from the FEM are in reasonable agreement.
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ABSTRACT: Iron deficiency is one of the most common nutritional deficiencies worldwide, in both developing and developed regions. Although the aetiology of iron deficiency and resultant anaemia may be multifaceted, inadequate iron intakes, poor iron absorption and disease status may all be underlying causes. Whilst nutrition and supplement interventions may go some way towards improving iron status in ‘at-risk’ populations, their efficacy can be questioned. New approaches, including food-based strategies, may be an alternative means of improving the iron status and health of the public sectors. Economically, food-based approaches may also be more cost-effective than iron supplements. This paper aims to discuss how the food industry may play an important role in improving the iron status of public sectors, helping to prevent iron deficiency and need for tablet-based iron supplements.
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