The involvement of circulating microparticles in inflammation, coagulation and cardiovascular diseases

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Bologna and S Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Italy.
The Canadian journal of cardiology (Impact Factor: 3.94). 04/2010; 26(4):140-5. DOI: 10.1016/S0828-282X(10)70371-8
Source: PubMed


Microparticles (MPs) are small vesicles, ranging in size from 0.1 microm to 2 microm, originating from plasma membranes of endothelial cells, platelets, leukocytes and erythrocytes. MPs can transfer antigens and receptors to cell types that are different from their cell of origin. Circulating MPs provide a procoagulant aminophospholipid surface for the assembly of the specific enzymes of coagulation. Both tissue factor and phosphatidylserine are exposed on MP outer membranes. In addition, MPs can play a significant role in vascular function and inflammation by modulating nitric oxide and prostacyclin production in endothelial cells, and stimulating cytokine release and tissue factor induction in endothelial cells, as well as monocyte chemotaxis and adherence to the endothelium. Finally, increased levels of MPs have been found in the presence of acute coronary syndromes, ischemic stroke, diabetes, systemic and pulmonary hypertension, and hypertriglyceridemia. From a practical point of view, MPs could be considered to be important markers of cardiovascular risk, as well as surrogate end points for assessing the efficacy of new drugs and therapies.

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    • "Microparticles (MPs) are submicron membrane vesicles that are produced by various vascular or peripheral blood cells following cellular activation or apoptosis[1]. MPs with complex procoagulant and proinflammatory properties circulate in the blood and can be accumulated in complicated atherosclerotic plaques[2]. The sequestered MPs within atherosclerotic plaques can also be exposed to circulation by plaque erosion or rupture[3]. "
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    ABSTRACT: High levels of microparticles (MPs) circulate in the blood of patients with atherosclerotic diseases where they can serve as potential biomarkers of vascular injury and cardiovascular outcome. We used virtual histology intravascular ultrasound (VH-IVUS) to evaluate the relationship between the levels of circulating MPs and the coronary plaque composition in patients with stable angina. We included 35 patients with stable angina (22 men, age 64 ± 9 years) and a de novo target lesion. Preintervention gray-scale and VH-IVUS analysis was performed across the target lesion. Volumetric analysis was performed over a 10-mm-long segment centered at the minimum luminal site. Blood samples were obtained from the femoral artery before coronary angioplasty. MPs were measured using a solid-phase capture assay from a commercial kit. We divided participants into either a low MPs group or high MPs group based on the median value of MPs. There was no significant difference in baseline characteristics between the groups. The plaque burden and remodeling index were similar between the groups. The presence of VH-IVUS-derived thin-cap fibroatheroma was not different between the groups. The percentage of the necrotic core (NC) was significantly higher in the high MPs group than in the low MPs group, both in planar (17.0 ± 8.8% vs. 24.1 ± 6.9%, p = 0.012) and volumetric analyses (17.0 ± 4.8% vs. 22.1 ± 4.3%, p = 0.002). Circulating MPs were positively correlated with the percentage of the NC area at the minimal luminal site (r = 0.491, p = 0.003) and the percentage of the NC volume (r = 0.496, p = 0.002). Elevated levels of circulating MPs were associated with the amount of NC in the target lesion in those with stable angina, suggesting a potential role of circulating MPs as a biomarker for detecting unstable plaque in patients with stable angina.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · PLoS ONE
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    • "Acute cerebral infarction is a common clinical cardiovascular disease that occurs suddenly and has a high disability and death rate, and as such, is a serious human health concern (Wartenberg, 2012). Increases in blood viscosity, aggregation of blood platelets, and inflammatory cytokines cascades are primary causes of a second thrombus after thrombolysis and patient death (Orlov et al., 2007; Puddu et al., 2010). Therefore, it is important to effectively decrease blood viscosity and reduce inflammatory reactions to improve hypercoagulable states, which in turn reduces the risk of rebleeding after thrombolysis. "
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of the current study was to investigate effects of Danhong injection on hemodynamics, inflammatory cytokines, and the NF-κB pathway in acute cerebral infarction. In total, 246 patients with acute cerebral infarction were divided into control (N = 121) and observation (N = 125) groups based on treatment. The control group underwent conventional treatment, while the observation group was treated with conventional medicine and Danhong injection. Fourteen days later, the curative effect, hemorheology, mRNA, and protein levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β) in peripheral white blood cells, and changes in the NF-κB signaling pathway were analyzed. The observation group had a significantly higher curative effect compared to the control group. The hemodynamic indices (high shear viscosity, low shear viscosity, plasma viscosity, hematocrit, platelet aggregation rate, and erythrocyte aggregation index) were significantly improved in both groups, although changes were more remarkable in the observation group. Peripheral white blood cells from patients in the observation group had significantly lower mRNA and protein levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β after treatment compared to cells from patients in the control group. NF-κB p65 in the cytoplasm of peripheral blood cells of the observation group increased significantly after treatment compared to that of the control group, while nuclear NF-κB p65 decreased compared to that in the control group. In conclusion, Danhong injection has a significant curative effect on patients with acute cerebral infarction, lowers infilammation, and improves hemodynamic changes; therefore, it is worth clinical application.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Genetics and molecular research: GMR
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    • "Despite several techniques are used in EVS characterization. The measurement of NVs still has standardization problems (Puddu et al., 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: Nanovesicles (NVs) represent a novel transporter for cells signals to modify functions of target cells. Therefore, NVs play many roles in both physiological and pathological process. This report highlights biogenesis, composition and biological roles of erythrocytes derived nanovesicles (EDNVs). Furthermore, we address utilization of EDNVs as novel drug delivery cargo as well as therapeutic target. EDNVs are lipid bilayer vesicles rich in phospholipids, proteins, lipid raft, and hemoglobin. In vivo EDNVs biogenesis is triggered by an increase of intracellular calcium levels, ATP depletion and under effect of oxidative stress conditions. However, in vitro production of EDNVs can be achieved via hypotonic treatment and extrusion of erythrocyte. NVs can be used as biomarkers for diagnosis, monitoring of therapy and drug delivery system. Many therapeutic agents are suggested to decrease NVs biogenesis.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
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