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Percent utilization of V̇O2 max at 5-km competition velocity does not determine time performance at 5 km among elite distance runners

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  • University college of Southeast Norway

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The present study investigated to what extent maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 max) and fractional utilization (%VO2 max) in 5-km competition speed correlate with 5-km performance times among elite long distance runners. Eight elite long distance runners with 5-km performance times of 15.10 minutes ( +/- 32 seconds) were tested for VO2 max during an incremental protocol and for %VO2 max during an 8-minute treadmill test at the velocity representing their 5-km seasonal best performance time. There was no correlation between fractional utilization and 5-km performance. The study showed no significant difference between VO2 max obtained during an incremental VO2 max test and %VO2 max when running for 8 minutes at the runner's individual 5-km competition speed. The 5-km time was related to the runner's VO2 max even in a homogenous high-level performance group. In conclusion, the present study found no relationship between fractional utilization and 5-km performance time. Training aiming to increase %VO2 max may thus be of little or no importance in performance enhancement for competitions lasting up to approximately 20 minutes.
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NUMBER 1OF1
AUTHOR QUERIES
DATE 2/27/2010
JOB NAME JSC
ARTICLE 201068
QUERIES FOR AUTHORS Støa et al
THIS QUERY FORM MUST BE RETURNED WITH ALL PROOFS FOR CORRECTIONS
AU1) Please provide the middle initials (if any) for the authors ‘‘Øyvind Støren’’, ‘‘Eystein Enoksen’’
and ‘‘Frank Ingjer’’.
AU2) Is this correct at the very end of the ref list?
PERCENT UTILIZATION OF
_
VO
2
MAX AT 5-KM
COMPETITION VELOCITY DOES NOT DETERMINE
TIME PERFORMANCE AT 5KMAMONG ELITE
DISTANCE RUNNERS
EVA MARIA STØA,
1,2
ØYVIND STØREN,
1
EYSTEIN ENOKSEN,
2
AND FRANK INGJERAU1
2
1
Telemark University College, Department of Sport and Outdoor Life Studies, Bø, Norway; and
2
Norwegian School of Sport
Sciences, Oslo, Norway
ABSTRACT
Støa, EM, Støren, Ø, Enoksen, E, and Ingjer, F. Percent
utilization of _
VO
2
max at 5-km competition velocity does not
determine time performance at 5 km among elite distance
runners. J Strength Cond Res 24(x): 000–000, 2010—The
present study investigated to what extent maximum oxygen
uptake ( _
VO
2
max) and fractional utilization (% _
VO
2
max) in 5-km
competition speed correlate with 5-km performance times
among elite long distance runners. Eight elite long distance
runners with 5-km performance times of 15.10 minutes ( 632
seconds) were tested for _
VO
2
max during an incremental
protocol and for % _
VO
2
max during an 8-minute treadmill test
at the velocity representing their 5-km seasonal best perfor-
mance time. There was no correlation between fractional
utilization and 5-km performance. The study showed no
significant difference between _
VO
2
max obtained during an
incremental _
VO
2
max test and % _
VO
2
max when running for 8
minutes at the runner’s individual 5-km competition speed.
The 5-km time was related to the runner’s _
VO
2
max even in
a homogenous high-level performance group. In conclusion, the
present study found no relationship between fractional
utilization and 5-km performance time. Training aiming to
increase % _
VO
2
max may thus be of little or no importance in
performance enhancement for competitions lasting up to
approximately 20 minutes.
KEY WORDS aerobic capacity, fractional utilization, long
distance running
INTRODUCTION
Long distance running represents distances from
1500 m to ultra marathon. During a 5-km
competition the anaerobic energy expenditure is
responsible for only about 10% of the total energy
expenditure, whereas the aerobic capacity is one of the most
important variables predicting 5-km running performance
(22,27). Maximum oxygen uptake ( _
VO
2
max) represents the
runner’s aerobic capacity and is thus an important de-
terminant of success in distance running (11,15,21).
Previous studies have reported strong correlations bet-
ween long distance performance time and _
VO
2
max (25,27).
However, _
VO
2
max has previously not been shown to predict
race performance in long distance running among runners at
a homogenous _
VO
2
max level (6,7). In a model described
by Pate and Kriska (21), 3 major factors account for
interindividual variance in aerobic endurance performance—
maximal oxygen uptake ( _
VO
2
max), lactate threshold (LT),
and work economy (C). This is in accordance with several
other studies (4,7,9,10,22). Consequently, the runner with the
highest _
VO
2
max, who is able to utilize the highest fraction of
the maximal oxygen uptake for an extended period of time
and with the lowest O
2
cost of running per meter, will most
probably win the competition. In addition to the perfor-
mance-predicting factors mentioned, several studies have
shown that high-level runners are able to utilize a large
fraction of the maximal oxygen uptake for an extended
period (6,9). Le
´ger et al (20) have shown that the correlation
between fractional utilization (% _
VO
2
max) and performance is
dependent on the running time in competition rather than
the running distance. Among world class runners, personal
best 5-km times vary from 12.38 minutes to 13.10 minutes
(13). Based on results from the Norwegian Championships in
2005, runners at a Norwegian national level have personal
best times ranging from 13.40 to 15.50 minutes.
_
VO
2
max is shown to be the physiological variable that
correlates best with performance in competitions lasting
between 4 and 10 minutes, whereas % _
VO
2
max becomes in-
creasingly more important with distance from approximately
Address correspondence to Assistant Professor Eva Maria Støa, eva.m.
stoa@hit.no.
0(0)/1–7
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Ó2010 National Strength and Conditioning Association
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10 km (5,8,19,23). According to Joyner and Coyle (16), the
best marathon runners are those who are able to maintain
a high % _
VO
2
max during the whole competition.
According to Davies and Thompson (8), % _
VO
2
max in 5-km
competition among national-level runners ranges from 92%
to 98% _
VO
2
max. Other studies indicate that the best runners
at this distance have the ability to utilize 100% of their
_
VO
2
max, meaning that they are able to complete the whole
distance at an intensity equal to their _
VO
2
max (8,17). The
5-km world record is 12.37.35 (13). According to A
˚strand
and Rodahl (27), an intensity representing 100% _
VO
2
max
can be maintained for approximately 15 minutes among
elite athletes, indicating that elite runners can race 5 km at
approximately _
VO
2
max. For distances longer than 5 km, the
speed will represent a certain percentage of the runner’s
_
VO
2
max. This % _
VO
2
max should, according to Le
´ger et al
(20), decrease in accordance with the longer time spent in
these competitions.
Only a few studies have investigated the relationship
between 3-km or 5-km running performance and fractional
utilization (8,18,24,). Only the study by Lacour et al (18) is
performed on high-level 5-km runners. The aims of the
present study thus were to explore to what extent maximum
oxygen uptake ( _
VO
2
max) and fractional utilization (% _
VO
2
max)
in 5-km competition speed correlate with 5-km performance
times among long distance runners at a national level and to
investigate if there is a significant difference between _
VO
2
max
and % _
VO
2
max at 5-km competition speed. The hypothesis
was that high-level runners are able to utilize close to 100%
of their _
VO
2
max during a 5-km competition and that
%_
VO
2
max utilized at competition speed is a function of time
rather than distance.
METHODS
Subjects
A group of 8 runners attended this study. All subjects signed
a consent paper approved by the local Human Research
Ethics Committee at the Norwegian School of Sports
Sciences. The paper informed the subjects about the experi-
mental risks and stated that the participation was voluntary
and that they could withdraw from the study without further
explanation. The subjects were regarded as elite runners,
regularly competing on the 5-km distance at a national level,
and they all had a 5-km personal best between 14.26 and 15.50
minutes on track. Running velocity among the subjects is on
average 16% slower than the 5-km world record velocity on
track. The runners in this study were regularly competing at
a national level in either track or field. Three of the runners
were competing at an international level. Their weekly
running kilometer total ranged from approximately 120 to
200 km. They were all tested in their competition season.
All the runners were familiar with running on a treadmill,
and they all had performed _
VO
2
max tests earlier in their
running career. All the runners were thoroughly informed of
the test procedure.
The last days before testing, the runners were told to eat
as normal. Their diets were therefore similar to normal
competition preparation; this is important because the
purpose of the study is to compare the test results with
competition results. All the runners followed a standard
procedure concerning hydration and food intakes before
testing. This procedure implied not eating 2 hours before
testing and not drinking anything other than water within
2 hours before testing.
The subjects’ characteristics are presented in T1Table 1.
Test Procedures and Material
The first test was a standard incremental _
VO
2
max test, as
previously described in Støren et al (26). In this study, a 1.7%
treadmill inclination was used. This inclination is a compen-
sation for air resistance during competition. The velocity at
the beginning of the test was equal to the runner’s individual
lactate threshold velocities. The speed increased by 1 kmh
each minute for the first 3 minutes, and for each following
minute the runner was asked before further increasing
the speed. _
VO
2
(mlkg
21
min
21
) was measured continuously
and the heart rate was taken every 30 seconds. The test
continued up to voluntary exhaustion. In addition, at least
1 of the following criterion was achieved among the runners:
stagnation or reduced oxygen uptake despite increasing
velocity, respiratory quotient $1,10, or heart rate $97 %
HFmax. _
VO
2
max was set to the average of the 2 highest
following _
VO
2
measurements.
According to several studies (11,12,14,15), a velocity that
will exhaust the runner between 4 and 6 minutes is an
accurate workload to reach _
VO
2
max. All the runners in this
study reached voluntary exhaustion between 4 and 6 minutes.
A second test was made to measure the specific % _
VO
2
max
at an individual 5-km velocity (3). According to Bernard et al
(3), when measuring variables concerning a specific distance,
the velocities under testing should reflect the true race
intensity. _
VO
2
data should also be measured at specific
steady-state competition intensity. The methods used to
discover % _
VO
2
max among distance runners vary in previous
studies, and it seems like there is no standard method to find
%_
VO
2
max in long distance running. However, several studies
TABLE 1. Physical and performance characteristics
of runners (n= 8).
Variables
Age (years) 29 62.9
Weight (kg) 66.5 65.8
Height (cm) 178 63.4
Time 5 km (min) 15.02 60.53
Values are mean 6SD.
2
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Fractional Utilization and Running Performance
suggest that the most specific method to measure % _
VO
2
max
is to collect _
VO
2
data when running at the velocity
representing average competition speed at the given distance
(3,24).
Bernard et al (3) have shown that it takes longer time to
reach _
VO
2
steady state during maximal, compared to sub-
maximal, intensities. The % _
VO
2
max test in this study implied
running for 8 minutes at the runner’s individual average 5-km
competition velocity. Because the velocity during this test
represents the runners’ 5-km competition speeds, all the
runners are above lactate threshold (
T3 Table 3). This test is
thus not a measurement of efficiency or running economy
because running economy measured as oxygen cost of
running should be measured at submaximal intensities,
preferably below lactate threshold (9).
The % _
VO
2
max test lasted for 8 eight minutes. The velocity
was calculated from the runner’s individual average velocity
during the present season’s personal best 5-km performance.
After a standard warm-up, the runners had 30 seconds to
reach competition speed, whereupon the test was started.
Both _
VO
2
and heart rate were measured continuously during
the test. The % _
VO
2
max was calculated on the basis of the
average of the 4 highest following _
VO
2
values at steady-state
measurements between 4 and 8 minutes. All the subjects
achieved a steady-state _
VO
2
between the fifth minute and the
eighth minute.
Each test was carried out on 2 different days, with a
minimum of 2 and a maximum of 7 days with easy training in
between the tests. A pilot study was done prior to the
study, and no test-to-test variation concerning _
VO
2
or lactate
measures was observed between the 2 studies.
Equipment
A Woodway PPS 55sport treadmill (Germany) calibrated
for inclination and speed was used for all running tests. _
VO
2
was measured using the metabolic test system Oxycon
Champion (Jaeger-Toennies, Wurtzburg, Germany). All test
Figure 1. The relationship between maximal oxygen uptake ( _
VO
2
max,
mlkg
20.75
min
21
) and 5-km running personal best (minsec). R
2
= 0.684,
p,0.05.
TABLE 2. Physiological results (n= 8).
Variables
_
VO
2
(mlkg
21
min
21
)
_
VO
2
(mLkg
20.75
min
21
)
HR
(beatsmin
21
)La
2
(mmolL
21
)R%
_
VO
2
max(mlkg
20.75
min
21
)
%_
VO
2
max
(mlkg
21
min
21
)
_
VO
2
max intensity 73.1 64.7 207.9 614.0 186 66 7.9 61.2 1.16 60.04 100 60.0 100 60.0
5-km race intensity 71.5 65.8 203.8 616.1 182 66* 6.7 61.5* 1.05 60.0498.0 63.7 97.3 62.6
Values are mean 6SD._
VO
2
max = maximal oxygen uptake; _
VO
2
= oxygen uptake; HR = heart rate; La
-
= lactate; R = expiratory CO
2
/_
VO
2
.
*p,0.05.
p,0.01, significantly different from _
VO
2
max intensity values.
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equipment underwent a standard calibration procedure on
each test day before the testing procedures were carried out.
These calibration procedures are standards at the Exercise
Physiology Laboratory (Norwegian School of Sports Scien-
ces). _
VO
2
values were obtained from a mixing chamber every
30 seconds. Generally, test-to-test variations in _
VO
2
max
measurements have a variability of 63% (27). However, tests
at our laboratory have shown test-to-test variations of less
than 1%.
Lactate measurements were performed using an YSI 1500
Sports Lactate analyzer (Yellow Springs Instruments Co.
Yellow Springs, OH, USA). HR was measured using Polar
s610 heart rate monitors (Polar, Kempele, Finland).
Allometric Scaling
Energy cost for movement does not increase in the same rate
as body weight. According to Bergh et al (2) and Helgerud
(11), comparisons of _
VO
2
max should be expressed relative
to body mass raised to the power of 0.75 when running.
_
VO
2
values are thus mainly expressed in mlkg
20.75
min
21
in
the present study.
Statistical Analyses
In all cases, p#0.05 was taken as the level of significance
in 2-tailed tests. Descriptive statistical analysis was made to
display means and standard deviations (SD). To compare
means, paired T-tests and independent samples T-tests were
used. The data were tested for normal distribution using
quantile—quantile (QQ) plots. Correlations were calculated
by the Pearson correlation test.
Blood Samples
Blood samples were taken from fingertip immediately after
both tests. Before each test, the lactate analyzer was calibrated
with the use of a standardized lactate solution of 5 mmolL
21
.
The linearity for higher lactate values was also controlled for
by the use of a standardized 15 mmolL
21
lactate solution.
According to the user manual for the YSI 1500 Sports
Lactate analyzer, the variability of measurements are 62%
at lactate values between 0 and 5 mmolL
21
and 63% at
lactate values between 5 and 15 mmolL
21
.
Weight
All the runners were weighed wearing running shoes, a t-shirt,
and running shorts/tights at a digital Seca weight (Seca,
Hamburg, Germany) before testing.
TABLE 3. Individual physiological results.
Subject no. 1 2345678
Time performance (minsec) 14.26 14.30 14.33 14.50 14.59 15.30 15.32 15.50
_
VO
2
max (mlkg
20.75
min
21
) 219.4 221.6 210.9 221.9 210.0 200.8 182.3 196.6
%_
VO
2
max 100 98.4 97.9 92.7 98.5 93.8 98.3 99.0
[La
-
]
b
(mmolL
21
) 5.3 6.3 5.9 9.5 8.3 5.5 6.4 6.3
_
VO
2
max = maximal oxygen uptake; [La
2
]
b
= blood lactate concentration after % _
VO
2
max test.
Figure 3. The relationship between time of running and fractional
utilization (% _
VO
2
max). Figure shows results from Lacour et al, Støa et al,
Davies and Thompson, Ramsbottom et al (1987), and Ramsbottom et al
(1992).
Figure 2. Comparison of physiological results at 5-km race intensity and
at _
VO
2
max intensity in percent of _
VO
2
max. *p,0.05. **p,0.01.
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RESULTS
Relationship Between _
VO
2
max and 5-km Performance
The subjects’ average _
VO
2
max was 73 (64.7) mlkg
21
min
21
and 207.9 (614) mlkg
20.75
min
21
. The results showed
a strong correlation between performance and _
VO
2
max
(R
2
= 0.752 and 0.684, respectively) as presented inF1 Figure 1.
Relationship Between Fractional Utilization (% _
VO
2
max) and
5-km Performance
The average O
2
expenditure of the subjects’ competition
speed was 71.5 mlkg
21
min
21
and 203.8 mlkg
21
min
20.75
.
The mean values for _
VO
2
max were 73.1 mlkg
21
min
21
and
207.9 mlkg
21
min
20.75
, which gives an average of 97.3 and
98% _
VO
2
max. The results showed no correlation between
fractional utilization and 5-km performance (T2;T3 Tables 2 and 3).
Eight Minutes Running at the Runner’s Individual 5-km
Competition Speed
No significant difference was seen between _
VO
2
max and the
O
2
expenditure (fractional utilization) during 8 minutes of
running at the runner’s individual 5-km competition speed.
The [la
2
]
b
, HR, and R were found to be 16%, 2%, and 9%
lower after the fractional utilization test compared to the
_
VO
2
max test (F2 Figure 2, Tables 2 and 3).
DISCUSSION
The major findings in this study are that % _
VO
2
max does
not correlate with 5-km performance and that the results
revealed no significant difference between the runners’
_
VO
2
max and their oxygen expenditure during an 8-minute
test at their individual 5-km competition speed. The finding
in this study support previous studies indicating that
%_
VO
2
max is a consequence of time rather than distance
and that % _
VO
2
max can not predict performance at distances
up to and including 5 km.
Time performance in running is mainly a function of
3 factors: _
VO
2
max, running economy, (RE) and LT (21).
According to Bassett and Howley (1) and Joyner and Coyle
(16), fractional utilization is an important factor influencing
running performance irrespective of distance and time spent
in competition. In opposition to this, it is argued that
fractional utilization is merely a consequence of time spent in
competitions, at least regarding distances up to and including
5 km (5,8,20,23). In a heterogeneous time performance
group of runners, those with the best _
VO
2
max and the best
RE will complete a given distance in a shorter time than
those with poorer _
VO
2
max or RE. Consequently, the runners
that complete the distance in the shortest time will be able to
run at the highest individual intensity and thus show the
highest fractional utilization of _
VO
2
max. In a homogenous
time performance group of runners, the runners complete
a given distance in approximately the same time. Conse-
quently, these runners will show approximately the same
fractional utilization of _
VO
2
max. The results of this study
support the latter, indicating that % _
VO
2
max does not predict
running performance among high-level runners at a 5-km
running competition.
Fractional Utilization at Competition Speed
The present study revealed no significant difference between
the _
VO
2
measurements during the fractional utilization test
and the _
VO
2
max test. This implies that these runners during
a 5-km competition perform at an intensity equivalent to
_
VO
2
max. Consequently, the runner’s individual _
VO
2
max level
should have a strong influence on performance.
Relative Importance of _
VO
2
max in 5-km Performance
The results in this study showed a close negative relationship
between the runners’ _
VO
2
max and performance times (R
2
=
0.684), although the runners were characterized as a homog-
enous group of runners. _
VO
2
max should thus explain 68% of
interindividual variance in performance times. We may
speculate that these elite long distance runners after many
years of running have accomplished close to similar RE and
therefore much of the variation in performance times could
be related to the differences in the runners’ _
VO
2
max. How-
ever, RE was not examined among the subjects participating
in this study.
Relationship Between Fractional Utilization and Competition
Time
Several studies have shown that % _
VO
2
max among runners
decrease proportionally with increasing time of running
(5,8,20,23). These findings may indicate that the lower
%_
VO
2
max among the runners in the studies of Ramsbottom
et al (23) and Davies and Thompson (8), compared with the
present study, is reflected by the lower performance level of
the runners and consequently their longer time spent in
competition compared with the runners in this study. The
Figure 4. The relationship between time of running and corrected
fractional utilization (% _
VO
2
max). Figure 4 shows results from Lacour et al,
Støa et al, Davies and Thompson, Ramsbottom et al (1987), and
Ramsbottom et al (1992) and are corrected by the formula of Le
´ger et al:
Y = 126.69 – 11.056 ln X.
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connection between time of running and % _
VO
2
max has
been systemized by Le
´ger et al (20) by the following
equation: Y = 126.69 – 11.056 ln X (r=20.936 ).When
calculating the results from the present study and from the
studies of Ramsbottom et al (23), Lacour et al (18), and
Davies and Thompson (8) with the formula of Le
´ger et al
(20), the measured % _
VO
2
correspond closely to the % _
VO
2
estimated by the formula. This finding is thus in accordance
with studies suggesting that % _
VO
2
is a poor predictor of
performance at shorter long distances (1,500 m–5,000 m), but
is of gradually greater importance with increasing distances
from 10 km (5,8). The present results accompanied with
previous results (8,18,20,23) are presented in
F3;F4 Figures 3 and 4.
The relationship between time of running and fractional
utilization as shown by the formula of Le
´ger et al (20) can
be illustrated by the following example: If 2 runners at
different performance levels run as fast as they can for
10 minutes, the runners will have similar % _
VO
2
max. The
best runner will naturally cover the longest distance and
thus have the best performance. Because they have similar
%_
VO
2
max, this achievement must be a result of another
factor than the fractional utilization. Most likely, the better
performance is a result of a higher _
VO
2
max and/or a better
running economy, as discussed in Pate and Kriska (21).
Further research on this topic should therefore contain
additional measurements of RE, maximal aerobic speed
(MAS), and LT.
PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS
The major finding in this study is that fractional utilization
(% _
VO
2
max) does not correlate with 5-km performance
among elite distance runners. There was no significant
difference between the runners’ _
VO
2
max and their oxygen
expenditure during an 8-minute test at individual 5-km com-
petition speed. The runners’ _
VO
2
max were closely correlated
to performance time.
Because % _
VO
2
max did not correlate with performance in
this study, the differences in performance level among the
runners must be the result of another factor than the
fractional utilization. Most likely, the better performance is
a result from a higher _
VO
2
max and/or a better running
economy, as discussed in Pate and Kriska (21). Generally, to
improve 5-km performance time, the runner should thus
focus on improving _
VO
2
max and RE. This may be achieved
by high-intensity aerobic interval training (12) and maximal
strength training (26). When improving these 2 factors, the
runner will run faster and consequently utilize a higher
percentage of _
VO
2
max during competition.
Based on the results from the present study, we suggest that
the physical variable fractional utilization of maximal oxygen
consumption (% _
VO
2
max) should not be considered a perfor-
mance determinant in short long distance running (duration
up to approximately 20 min). Training aiming to increase
%_
VO
2
max may thus be of little or no importance in
performance enhancement for competitions lasting up to
approximately 20 minutes.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
There is no conflict of interest.
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... Støa et al. (21) have shown fractional utilization of _ VO 2 max to be negligible for time performance when the duration of competition is less than 20 minutes but becoming increasingly more important, as the duration of the competition increases beyond 30 minutes, as shown by Davies and Thompson (3). In endurance sports at high performance level, such as running (21) and cross-country skiing (11), there have been reported a very strong relationship between _ VO 2 max and race performance level. ...
... Støa et al. (21) have shown fractional utilization of _ VO 2 max to be negligible for time performance when the duration of competition is less than 20 minutes but becoming increasingly more important, as the duration of the competition increases beyond 30 minutes, as shown by Davies and Thompson (3). In endurance sports at high performance level, such as running (21) and cross-country skiing (11), there have been reported a very strong relationship between _ VO 2 max and race performance level. In cycling, however, Lucia et al. (16) report that a good cycling economy expressed by a low oxygen cost of cycling (C C ) seems to compensate for relatively low _ VO 2 max values among world-class professional road cyclists. ...
... If _ VO 2 max, fractional utilization of _ VO 2 max, and C (4) are of equal importance for TT performance, the cyclist should theoretically complete a high weekly amount of cycling, both to comply with the principle of training specificity and to improve C C and fractional utilization of _ VO 2 max (15). _ VO 2 max may however play a more important role for TT performance than C C and fractional utilization of _ VO 2 max (11,14,21). In this case, a reduced training volume to allow for more HAIT training may enhance TT performance (2,6,(12)(13)(14) even in an elite cyclist. ...
Article
Støren, Ø, Bratland-Sanda, S, Haave, M, and Helgerud, J. Improved V[Combining Dot Above]O2max and time trial performance with more high aerobic intensity interval training and reduced training volume: a case study on an elite national cyclist. J Strength Cond Res 26(10): 2705-2711, 2012-The present study investigated to what extent more high aerobic intensity interval training (HAIT) and reduced training volume would influence maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max) and time trial (TT) performance in an elite national cyclist in the preseason period. The cyclist was tested for V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, cycling economy (Cc), and TT performance on an ergometer cycle during 1 year. Training was continuously logged using heart rate monitor during the entire period. Total monthly training volume was reduced in the 2011 preseason compared with the 2010 preseason, and 2 HAIT blocks (14 sessions in 9 days and 15 sessions in 10 days) were performed as running. Between the HAIT blocks, 3 HAIT sessions per week were performed as cycling. From November 2010 to February 2011, the cyclist reduced total average monthly training volume by 18% and cycling training volume by 60%. The amount of training at 90-95% HRpeak increased by 41%. V[Combining Dot Above]O2max increased by 10.3% on ergometer cycle. TT performance improved by 14.9%. Cc did not change. In conclusion, preseason reduced total training volume but increased amount of HAIT improved V[Combining Dot Above]O2max and TT performance without any changes in Cc. These improvements on cycling appeared despite that the HAIT blocks were performed as running. Reduced training time, and training transfer from running into improved cycling form, may be beneficial for cyclists living in cold climate areas.
... When LT is expressed as a percentage of V _ O 2 max, elite athletes are expected to have a higher LT than moderately trained or untrained individuals (3,21,27). Green et al. (13) have reported that physically active noncyclists have an LT, defined as onset blood lactate accumulation, and set to concentration of blood lactate ([ Lucia et al. (24) have reported that elite cyclists have an LT (defined similarly as in Green et al. (13)) of 87% V _ O 2 max. On the other hand, Bangsbo (5), Helgerud et al. (15,16), Støren et al. (28,30), and Sunde et al. (31) have reported the adaptability of LT in %V _ O 2 max to endurance training to be minor. ...
... On the other hand, Bangsbo (5), Helgerud et al. (15,16), Støren et al. (28,30), and Sunde et al. (31) have reported the adaptability of LT in %V _ O 2 max to endurance training to be minor. Unfortunately, the vast majority of studies on cycling have not reported LT as a percentage of V _ O 2 max but rather power output at LT (LT W ). While LT velocity or power output at LT has been reported to be influenced by both V _ O 2 max and economy (15), it is LT in %V _ O 2 max that shows the capacity for exercising close to V _ O 2 max over time (27). Fractional utilization of V _ O 2 max in long distance races seems to be closely related to LT expressed as a percentage of V _ O 2 max (10,27) and is reported to be increasingly important the longer the duration of the races (10). ...
... Unfortunately, the vast majority of studies on cycling have not reported LT as a percentage of V _ O 2 max but rather power output at LT (LT W ). While LT velocity or power output at LT has been reported to be influenced by both V _ O 2 max and economy (15), it is LT in %V _ O 2 max that shows the capacity for exercising close to V _ O 2 max over time (27). Fractional utilization of V _ O 2 max in long distance races seems to be closely related to LT expressed as a percentage of V _ O 2 max (10,27) and is reported to be increasingly important the longer the duration of the races (10). However, Støa et al. (27) have shown fractional utilization of V _ O 2 max to be negligible for time performance when the duration of competition is less than 20 minutes. ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine the physiological determinants of endurance cycling time trial performance in a heterogeneous group of competitive male road cyclists. 15 male cyclists who had all competed in cycling the preceding season were tested for the anthropometric variables height, body weight, leg length, ankle circumference and body fat percentage. They were also tested for maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), lactate threshold (LT), metabolic cost of cycling (CC), peak power output and average power output during a 30s Wingate test, 1RM and peak power in half-squats, and a time trial test (TT) on an ergometer. Heart rate (HR) and cadence (RPM) were continuously measured during all cycle tests. Pearson Bivariate correlation tests and single linear regression tests were performed to obtain correlation coefficients (r), effect size (F), standard error of estimate (SEE) and 95% confidence interval (CI). The single variable that correlated best with TT performance was power output at LT (r=0.87, p<0.01). SEE was 7.5%. LT expressed in %VO2max did not correlate significantly with TT performance. An equation representing both aerobic and anaerobic endurance capacity TT (w) = 0.95((VO2max / CC)TT %VO2max)+ 0.05(Wingate average) correlated strongly with TT laboratory performance (r=0.93, p<0.01, SEE = 5.7%). None of the strength, power or anthropometric variables correlated significantly with TT laboratory performance.
... For many endurance athletes, _ VO 2 max testing is a useful tool to examine the changes in physiological response to training stimuli (8). However, the link between maximal oxygen consumption ( _ VO 2 max) and race performance is tenuous (11,21,27,36). Støa et al (27) reported that the percentages of _ VO 2 max used at competition velocity were not predictive of the performance during a 5-km race among elite athletes. ...
... However, the link between maximal oxygen consumption ( _ VO 2 max) and race performance is tenuous (11,21,27,36). Støa et al (27) reported that the percentages of _ VO 2 max used at competition velocity were not predictive of the performance during a 5-km race among elite athletes. Noakes et al (20) reported that in a group of ultramarathon runners the strongest laboratory measure that predicted performance in a group of marathon and ultramarathon athletes was treadmill velocity at _ VO 2 max. ...
... This was based on the fact that maximum oxygen consumption values alone were not able to adequately predict or determine performance that other measure were sought by researchers. Many of these markers were supposed determinants of an ''anaerobic threshold'' the point at which lack of oxygen delivery would lead to increase pyruvate to lactate conversion; however, these ideas recently have been refuted by empirical evidence that tissue hypoxia may not be present during strenuous exercise (27). Nonetheless, measures of both lactate and ventilatory threshold were developed and compared with performance (2)(3)(4)6,9,12,24,25,31,32). ...
Article
Previous research has related the results of tests of maximum aerobic capacity to performance for endurance athletes. These results are often only able to predict the running velocity of races such as the marathon. This investigation sought to determine the absolute VO2 at various respiratory exchange ratio (RER) values (0.85, 0.90, 0.95, 1.0, 1.05, and 1.10) by using a third-order polynomial regression to model the physiological responses for VO2 and RER obtained from an assessment of maximum aerobic capacity. The VO2 determined was subsequently correlated to race performance. The participants in the study were selected from a population of National Collegiate Athletic Association Division 1 crosscountry runners (male n = 7, female n = 7, age 20.5 ± 0.9 years; height 170.3 ± 8.2 cm; weight 59.7 ± 8.7 kg; VO2max 57.0 ± 7.8 ml O2 · kg-1·min-1). Thirdorder regression analysis resulted in strong curve fitting between the variables (r = 0.949 ± 0.03). Partial correlations (controlled for weight) were used to assess the relationship between oxygen consumption at the desired points of RER and race performance. The partial correlations revealed that the absolute oxygen consumptions at all RER points of interest were significantly correlated to race performance (r > 0.740, p < 0.01). There was a significant difference in the strength of the correlations for the points RER 0.95 (t = 2.68957, p = 0.01), 1.0 (t = 2.18516, p = 0.03), and 1.05 (t = 1.85668, p = 0.04) and the correlations found for RER 0.85. After converting the oxygen consumption at the RER points to estimated horizontal running speeds, only the estimate at RER 1.05 was not statistically different from the actual speed achieved in the culminating XC race. It can be suggested based upon these results that coaches of collegiate crosscountry runners who engage in metabolic testing of athletes examine the estimated running pace at RER 1.05 to gain an insight into a runner's potential.
... av konkurransens varighet. Eksempelvis vil ikke utnyttingsgraden nødvendigvis ha betydning som prestasjonsbestemmende faktor dersom konkurransetiden er under ca 30 min (Støa et al. 2010), men mer vaere nettopp et produkt konkurransetiden. ...
... På 5000m kan de beste løperne i Norge og i verden utnytte nesten 100 % av sin VO 2max (Davies & Thompson 1979, Støa et al 2010) ...
... For å ha en god utnyttelsesgrad bør en derfor ha en høy VO 2peak som fører til en kortere konkurransetid. Utnyttingsgraden virker sannsynligvis mer inn som en prestasjonsbestemmende faktor ved lengre konkurransevarighet (Støa et al. 2010), kan påvirkes av faktorer som dehydrering, tømming av glykogenlagre og sentral nervøs tretthet (Gandevia 2002Gandevia , Åstrand et al. 2003). 1. Men laktat peak i staking var som nevnt lik i løping og staking og endret seg ikke med trening. ...
Article
BAKGRUNN: Staking blir en stadig mer benyttet skiteknikk i takt med økt gjennomsnittshastighet i langrennskonkurranser og bedre overkroppstrente utøvere. VO2max korrelerer sterk med prestasjonen i utholdenhetsidretter (Costill et al. 1973, Støa et al. 2010). Ved maksimalt aerob arbeid i staking er det en dårlig utnyttelse av det maksimale oksygenopptaket. VO2peak i staking ligger kun på 85 % av VO2max målt i løping (Hoff et al. 2002, Nilsson et al. 2004). Dette studiet så derfor på om høyintensiv aerob intervalltrening utført som staking på rulleskimølle vil øke VO2peak i staking og flytte VO2peak i staking nærmere VO2max i løping, slik at en kan øke utnyttelsen av maksimalt oksygenopptak ved staking. Det ble også sett på endringer av stakeøkonomi og om en endring av disse prestasjonsbestemmende faktorene ville bedre prestasjonen på 3km staking. METODE: 16 forsøkspersoner med alder på 25 ± 9 år og VO2max på 69,3 ± 9,0 mL∙kg-1∙min-1gjennomførte studien, n = 9 i intervensjonsgruppa (2 jenter) og n = 7 i kontrollgruppa (kun menn). Intervensjonsgruppa gjennomførte 4x4min stakeintervalltrening, 3 ganger i uka i 6 uker på rulleskimølle. Intensiteten var på ≥ 90 % av Hfpeak målt i staking. Kontrollgruppa gjennomførte sin vanlige trening. RESULTATER: VO2peak i staking økte signifikant med 5,7 % fra 51,6 til 54,5 mL∙kg-1∙min- 1 og med 6,2 % fra 214,6 til 228,0 mL∙kg-0,67∙min-1. Arbeidsøkonomien forandret seg ikke signifikant, med det var en god tendens til forbedring. Ingen signifikante endringer ble funnet i VO2max (løping), mens VO2peak endret seg signifikant fra 81,6 til 88,4 % av VO2max. Prestasjonen på 3km staking bedret seg med 164 sek (19,7 %) i intervensjonsgruppa, bedringen var 139 sek (16,7 %) bedre enn i kontrollgruppa. KONKLUSJON: Høyintensiv aerob intervalltrening i staking øker VO2peak, utnyttelsen av maksimalt oksygenopptak ved staking og prestasjonen på 3km staking.
... The V O2max is the main variable for the assessment of the cardiovascular, pulmonary and metabolic systems in which the capacity to transport and use of oxygen is determined, therefore, it is the gold standard for measuring these functions (Poole & Jones, 2017). Such is the relevance of this variable, which has been asserted as the "Maximum oxygen uptake (V O2max) represents the runner's aerobic capacity and is thus an important determinant of success in distance running" (Støa et al., 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives; the aim of this study was evaluate the association between a predictive test of maximum oxygen consumption (V O2max) and performance in a national competition in Chilean CrossCountry athletes. Methods; 18 athletes participated. The V O2max was measured with ergospirometer test (ET), and was estimated with the Cooper and Klissouras test. V O2max was compared between the three methods and were correlated to the competition performance. The SPSS v.22 program was used (p<0.05). Results; there were differences in the V O2max between the three methods [F (2. 53) = 14.147; p<0,001)], between the ET with the Klissouras test (p<0.001), but no with the Cooper test (p=0.355). The V O2max in the Cooper test was the best correlation with the competition (r =-0.908; p<0.001). Discussion; some studies have found no differences between the direct measurement of V O2max on the treadmill and athletic track test. However, there are inverse correlations between an incremental treadmill test V O2max and a field test, where when performing less time on the running track there was a higher oxygen consumption in the laboratory. Conclusions; it is concluded that, Cooper's test is the best related to competition, so it could predict performance.
... In this work, we have identified variables associated with race time in the half-marathon through both laboratory assessment and the Cooper test. In the literature, there were several studies on different performance determinants in middle-and long-distance runners, such as anthropometric variables (Arrese and Ostáriz, 2006;Knechtle et al., 2010Knechtle et al., , 2014Friedrich et al., 2014), variables related to training load (Ramsbottom et al., 1987;Knechtle et al., 2011a;Balsalobre-Fernández et al., 2014) as well as physiological variables (Roecker et al., 1998;Reilly et al., 2009;Rabadán et al., 2011;Ronconi and Alvero-Cruz, 2011;Gómez-Molina et al., 2017;Støa et al., 2010), which have associations with half-marathon performance. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study compared the ability to predict performance in half-marathon races through physiological variables obtained in a laboratory test and performance variables obtained in the Cooper field test. Twenty-three participants (age: 41.6 ± 7.6 years, weight: 70.4 ± 8.1 kg, and height: 172.5 ± 6.3 cm) underwent body composition assessment and performed a maximum incremental graded exercise laboratory test to evaluate maximum aerobic power and associated cardiorespiratory and metabolic variables. Cooper’s original protocol was performed on an athletic track and the variables recorded were covered distance, rating of perceived exertion, and maximum heart rate. The week following the Cooper test, all participants completed a half-marathon race at the maximum possible speed. The associations between the laboratory and field tests and the final time of the test were used to select the predictive variables included in a stepwise multiple regression analysis, which used the race time in the half marathon as the dependent variable and the laboratory variables or field tests as independent variables. Subsequently, a concordance analysis was carried out between the estimated and actual times through the Bland-Altman procedure. Significant correlations were found between the time in the half marathon and the distance in the Cooper test (r = −0.93; p < 0.001), body weight (r = 0.40; p < 0.04), velocity at ventilatory threshold 1, (r = −0.72; p < 0.0001), speed reached at maximum oxygen consumption (vVO2max), (r = −0.84; p < 0.0001), oxygen consumption at ventilatory threshold 2 (VO2VT2) (r = −0.79; p < 0.0001), and VO2max (r = −0.64; p < 0.05). The distance covered in the Cooper test was the best predictor of time in the half-marathon, and might predicted by the equation: Race time (min) = 201.26 – 0.03433 (Cooper test in m) (R2 = 0.873, SEE: 3.78 min). In the laboratory model, vVO2max, and body weight presented an R2 = 0.77, SEE 5.28 min. predicted by equation: Race time (min) = 156.7177 – 4.7194 (vVO2max) – 0.3435 (Weight). Concordance analysis showed no differences between the times predicted in the models the and actual times. The data indicated a high predictive power of half marathon race time both from the distance in the Cooper test and vVO2max in the laboratory. However, the variable associated with the Cooper test had better predictive ability than the treadmill test variables. Finally, it is important to note that these data may only be extrapolated to recreational male runners.
... This is important, as even modest improvements in cycling efficiency have been calculated to provide a worthwhile impact on endurance cycling performance (33). There is also currently debate in the literature about the interaction and relative importance of maximum O 2 uptake (V O 2 max ), fractional utilization of V O 2 max , and cycling efficiency on endurance exercise performance (23,28,45,46). It is unclear how efficiency, V O 2 max , and the fractional utilization of V O 2 max interact to determine cycling perfor-mance and how the aging process might influence this relationship. ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of age, training status and muscle fibre type distribution on cycling efficiency. Forty males were recruited into one of 4 groups: young and old trained cyclists, young and old untrained individuals. All participants completed an incremental ramp test to measure their VO2peak, maximal heart rate (HRmax) and maximal minute power output (MMP); a submaximal test of ratio corrected cycling gross efficiency at a series of absolute and relative work rates; and in trained participants only, a 1-hour cycling time trial. Finally, all participants underwent a muscle biopsy of their right vastus lateralis muscle. At relative work rates, a general linear model found significant main effects of age and training status on cycling efficiency (P<0.01). The percentage type I muscle fibres was higher in the trained groups (P<0.01), with no difference between age groups. There was no relationship between fibre type and cycling efficiency at any work rate or cadence combination. Stepwise multiple regression indicated that muscle fibre type did not influence cycling performance (P>0.05). Power output in the 1-h performance trial was predicted by average VO2 and GE, with standardised beta coefficients of 0.94 and 0.34 respectively, although some mathematical coupling is evident. These data demonstrate that muscle fibre type does not affect cycling efficiency and was not influenced by the ageing process. Cycling efficiency and the percentage of type I muscle fibres were influenced by training status, but only GE at 120 rev⋅min(-1) was seen to predict cycling performance.
... Additional performance prediction measurements made by Noakes et al. (17) were running economy at 16 km$h 21 (r = 20.76 to 0.90) and V _ O 2 max (r = 0.55 to 20.86). Other research has shown that treadmill velocity at V _ O 2 max, V _ O 2 max itself, and running economy may be the best indicators of performance among well-trained athletes (2,5,6,11,13,22,23). These studies show that PTV is an important indicator of performance and that elite runners can run for extended time at speeds of up to 26.91 km$h 21 or 16.72 mph. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study compared the results of graded maximal treadmill testing with and without a safety harness spotting system among collegiate middle and long distance runners. Thirteen (n = 8 males, n = 5 females) collegiate runners completed two randomly selected maximal treadmill tests. One trial used a safety harness and one trial used no harness. All tests were separated by at least 48 h. The subjects began the test at a velocity of 14.5km.hr or 12 km.hr with 1% grade for men and women, respectively, and increased 0.80km per stage. During each trial, metabolic data and running speed values were recorded along with the completion of a safety questionnaire. No significant difference was found for maximal oxygen consumption (60.84 ± 8.89 ml.kg.min vs. 60.733 ± 9.38 ml.kg.min) and velocity at maximal oxygen consumption (5.33 ±0.62 m.s vs. 5.24 ± 0.57m.s) between the no harness and harness trials, respectively. Test time was found to be significantly longer in the no harness trial (611.06 ± 119.34s vs. 537.38 ± 91.83s, p < 0.05). The results of the safety questionnaire demonstrated that the runners felt significantly more comfortable during the safety harness trial (p < 0.05).
... Specifically for many endurance athletes, VȮ 2 max testing is a useful tool to examine changes in physiological response to training stimuli (8). However, the link between maximal oxygen consumption (VȮ 2 max) and endurance performance is tenuous (10,12,16,17,19,25,29). Grant et al. (10) reported that VȮ 2 max was not as strong a predictor of the 3-km run performance as the speed at the lactate threshold or the speed at the point of 4-mM lactate concentration of blood lactate. ...
Article
There are many test available to coaches and practioners that seek to identify a point during exercise when excess lactate is being produced or hyperventilation stimulated as a results of metabolic acidosis. The present investigation sought to determine the relationship between performance and the first occurrence of excess CO2 production due to increased ventilatory buffering. For this investigation two separate studies were performed each examined the predictive value of the two standard ventilatory threshold assessments (V-Slope and examination of ventilatory equilvalents) and the point of equivalence in change (PEC) against performance in an endurance race. PEC was determined by examining the third order trend for VCO2 and VO2 and determining where the change by time was equivalent (ΔVCO2/ΔVO2=1). The first study examined the assessments of PEC vs. ventilatory threshold in a population of 10k race competitors (study 1) and the second a population of NCAA Div 1 cross country runners (study 2). Partial correlations (controlled for weight) were used to assess the relationships with performance. In study 1 the partial correlations revealed that the PEC had the highest correlation to race performance (r=0.961, P<0.001) compared to the other techniques (V-slope r=0.890, p<0.001, Ventilatory Equivalents r=0.733, p=0.01). Analyses of difference in strength of correlations within study 1 demonstrated differences between PEC and mean race speed as compared to V-slope or Ventilatory Equivalents and mean race speed. In study two a similar trend was observed (PEC r=0.863, p=0.001, V-slope (r= 0.828, p=0.002, Ventilatory Equivalents r=0.750, p=0.008). The results of the study suggest that determination of PEC is more related to 10K race performance than two well established methods for VT determination.
Article
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Previous studies have reported strong correlations between 5-km performance times and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) and also for running speeds equivalent to blood lactate concentrations of 4 mM. However, there is little information on the physiological responses of individuals during races over this distance. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to measure the physiological and metabolic responses of endurance trained male (n = 8) and female (n = 8) runners during a 5-km time trial using an instrumented treadmill. Performance times were 18.77 +/- 1.27 min for the men and 21.80 +/- 1.98 min for the women (P less than 0.01). The corresponding times on the athletics track were 17.68 +/- 0.39 min for the men (P less than 0.05) and 20.70 +/- 2.16 min for the women (N.S.). During the treadmill time trials, both the men and women were able to utilize approximately 90% VO2 max, 82% VE max, 98% HR max and produce similar concentrations of blood lactate. Although the physiological and metabolic responses of these endurance-trained men and women to 5-km treadmill running were similar, the faster running times recorded by the men in this study were the result of their higher VO2 max values.
Article
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Oxygen uptake during treadmill running was measured at submaximal and maximal intensities in six different groups of endurance athletes (N = 134) and in seven endurance-trained men. The relationship between body mass (M) and oxygen uptake (VO2) was evaluated by deriving the exponent b in the equation VO2 = a.Mb. Thus, if b = 1, the oxygen uptake increases in proportion to body mass and oxygen uptake per kg is independent of body mass; if b less than 1, than the oxygen uptake per kg is inversely related to body mass. The exponent b was found to be less than unity for all groups for both submaximal (b = 0.76, s = 0.06) and maximal oxygen uptake (b = 0.71, s = 0.05). These results indicate that neither submaximal nor maximal oxygen uptake increases in proportion to body mass during running. The relationship between submaximal oxygen uptake and body mass observed in this study may explain why the oxygen uptake per kg of body mass has been found to be higher for children than for adults.
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In order to assess the relative contribution of aerobic processes to running velocity (v), 27 male athletes were selected on the basis of their middle-distance performances over 800, 1500, 3000 or 5000 m, during the 1987 track season. To be selected for study, the average running velocity\((\bar \upsilon )\) corresponding to their performances had to be superior to 90% of the best French\(\bar \upsilon \) of the season. Maximum O2 consumption\((\dot V_{O_{2{\text{ max}}} } )\) and energy cost of running (C) had been measured within the 2 months preceding the track season, which, together with oxygen consumption at rest\((\dot V_{O_{2{\text{ rest}}} } )\) allowed us to calculate the maximalv that could be sustained under aerobic conditions:\(\upsilon _{a max} {\text{ = }}(\dot V_{O_{2{\text{ max}}} } - \dot V_{O_{2{\text{ rest}}} } ) \times {\text{ C}}^{{\text{ - 1}}} \). The treadmill runningv corresponding to a blood lactate of 4 mmol·−1 (v la4), was also calculated. In the whole group, C was significantly related to height (r=−0.43;P<0.03). Neither C nor\(\dot V_{o_{2{\text{ }}max} } \) (with, in this case, the exception of the 3000 m athletes) were correlated to\(\bar \upsilon \). On the other hand,v a max was significantly correlated to\(\bar \upsilon \) over distances longer than 800 m. These\(\bar \upsilon \) were also correlated tov la4. Howeverv la4 occurred at 87.5% SD 3.3% ofv a max, this relationship was interpreted as being an expression of the correlation betweenv a max and\(\bar \upsilon \). Calculation ofv a max provided a useful means of analysing the performances. At the level of achievement studied,\(\bar \upsilon \) sustained over 3000 m corresponded tov a max. The shape of the relationship ofv/v a max as a function of the duration of the event raised the question of a possible change in C as a function of v during middle-distance running competitions.
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