Accidental spills at sea - Risk, impact, mitigation and the need for co-ordinated post-incident monitoring
The Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Cefas Lowestoft Laboratory, Pakefield Road, Lowestoft, Suffolk NR33 0HT, UK. <> Marine Pollution Bulletin
(Impact Factor: 2.99).
04/2010; 60(6):797-803. DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2010.03.015
A fully integrated and effective response to an oil or chemical spill at sea must include a well planned and executed post-incident assessment of environmental contamination and damage. While salvage, rescue and clean-up operations are generally well considered, including reviews and exercises, the expertise, resources, networks and logistical planning required to achieve prompt and effective post-spill impact assessment and monitoring are not generally well established. The arrangement and co-ordination of post-incident monitoring and impact assessment need to consider sampling design, biological effects, chemical analysis and collection/interpretation of expert local knowledge. This paper discusses the risks, impacts and mitigation options associated with accidental spills and considers the importance of pre-considered impact assessment and monitoring programmes in the wider response cycle. The PREMIAM (Pollution Response in Emergencies: Marine Impact Assessment and Monitoring; www.premiam.org) project is considered as an example of an improved approach to the planning, co-ordination and conduct of post-incident monitoring.
Available from: Edmo Rodrigues
- "The growing concern about environmental problems of great magnitude has led to increased demand for ways of preventing and mitigating the environmental impacts that may occur (Kirby and Law, 2010; Anderson, 2002). Hydrocarbons from oil accidentally released into the environment cause severe environmental disturbances, damaging the biota and economy of the hit site (De la Huz et al., 2005). "
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ABSTRACT: In the present study, acrylic coupons with a thin layer of oil on the surface were incubated in the coastal water of Trindade Island, Brazil, for 60 days. The microorganisms adhered to the coupons were isolated using enrichment medium with hexadecane and naphthalene as the sole carbon and energy source. A total of 15 bacterial isolates were obtained, and the ability of these isolates to use different hydrocarbons as the source of carbon and energy was investigated. None of the isolates produced biosurfactants under our experimental conditions. Subsequently, identification methods such as partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and analysis of fatty acids (MIDI) profile were employed. Among the 15 isolates, representatives of Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Alphaproteobacteria were detected. The isolates Rhodococcus rhodochrous TRN7 and Nocardia farcinica TRH1 were able to use all the hydrocarbons added to the culture medium (toluene, octane, xylene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene, hexadecane, anthracene, eicosane, tetracosane, triacontane, and pentacontane). Polymerase chain reaction amplification of the DNA isolated by employing primers for catechol 2,3-dioxygenase, alkane dehydrogenase and the alpha subunit of hydroxylating dioxygenases polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon rings genes demonstrated that various isolates capable of utilizing hydrocarbons do not exhibit genes of known routes of catabolism, suggesting the existence of unknown catabolic pathways in these microorganisms. Our findings suggest that the microbiota associated to the coast of tropical oceanic islands has the ability to assist in environmental regeneration in cases of accidents involving oil spills in its shore. Thus, it motivates studies to map bioremediation strategies using the autochthonous microbiota from these environments.
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Available from: Xiaoke Hu
- "In 1999, the Erika oil spill caused USD 549.1 million of ecological damage and USD 234.3 million of material damage in France [14– 16]. The Prestige oil spill occurred off the Galician coast of Spain in 2002, and resulted in a loss of 66% of species richness in some areas, with detectable effects on sediment quality and on offshore fish and crustacean fisheries    . Based on Liu and Wirtz , the overall cost for the Prestige was nearly EUR2250 million including the commercial and environmental losses, cleanup costs, research costs and other expenditures. "
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ABSTRACT: An oil particle trajectory model was developed and was applied to the 2011 Penglai 19-3 subsurface oil spill in the Chinese Bohai Sea. The three dimensional model simulated ocean currents fields and utilised meteorology data from the local measurement station to drift spilled oil. In such a model, the movement of the particles as the sum of deterministic advection and random diffusion were determined by using the Lagrangian algorithm. The simulation fitted well with observations of actual oil sightings, which showed that oil particles spread southeast/eastward to the Bohai Strait, China. This estimation agreed with actual official combat activities near the spill site during the month of the June-July, 2011.
Available from: Jun Ren
- "However, relative scarcity of the literature on the effectiveness evaluation of ERS is emphasized, and the area of ERS for oil spill is particularly underdeveloped. Some literatures only focus on the part of the ERS, which includes coordination between the military and civilian organizations during emergency (Salmon et al. 2011), the importance of updating information during the emergence response (Vivacqua and Borges 2012) , the improvement of the response time to increase the effectiveness of ERS (Mustaffa and Kazunori 2012) , effectiveness of response team features (Leach and Mayo 2013 ), the effectiveness of training in organizations ( Winfred et al. 2003), the stakeholders' perspective of prioritizing oil spill objectives (Tuler and Webler 2009), and post-incident assessment of environmental contamination and damage (Kirby and Law 2010). However, the emergency response comprises a series of interrelated and interdependent components and activities. "
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ABSTRACT: The increase of oil spill accidents has made significant impacts on life, property and the environment. Facing ever-increasing risk of disaster losses, how to cope with and response to large scale oil spill disaster effectively is becoming more and more important. And it is extremely onerous and arduous to develop a highly capable assessment technique to evaluate the effectiveness of emergency response system (ERS) for oil spill. An ERS for oil spill is a complex and dynamic system comprising a number of elements, one of which fails to accomplish its function would result in potential adverse impacts on the whole system. Evaluating the effectiveness of the system requires the consideration of all failures identified in the system simultaneously. Aims to propose a decision-making framework, this paper uses failure mode effect and criticality analysis (FMECA) to evaluate the effectiveness of ERS to make improvements in oil spill emergency management. It is achieved by analysing the components and bounds of the system, identification of generic failure modes which are considered as key factors of ERS for oil spill. And lastly a case study is demonstrated to validate the methodology framework.
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