Article

Effect of aromatherapy on patients with Alzheimer's disease

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Abstract

Recently, the importance of non-pharmacological therapies for dementia has come to the fore. In the present study, we examined the curative effects of aromatherapy in dementia in 28 elderly people, 17 of whom had Alzheimer's disease (AD). After a control period of 28 days, aromatherapy was performed over the following 28 days, with a wash out period of another 28 days. Aromatherapy consisted of the use of rosemary and lemon essential oils in the morning, and lavender and orange in the evening. To determine the effects of aromatherapy, patients were evaluated using the Japanese version of the Gottfries, Brane, Steen scale (GBSS-J), Functional Assessment Staging of Alzheimer's disease (FAST), a revised version of Hasegawa's Dementia Scale (HDS-R), and the Touch Panel-type Dementia Assessment Scale (TDAS) four times: before the control period, after the control period, after aromatherapy, and after the washout period. All patients showed significant improvement in personal orientation related to cognitive function on both the GBSS-J and TDAS after therapy. In particular, patients with AD showed significant improvement in total TDAS scores. Result of routine laboratory tests showed no significant changes, suggesting that there were no side-effects associated with the use of aromatherapy. Results from Zarit's score showed no significant changes, suggesting that caregivers had no effect on the improved patient scores seen in the other tests. In conclusion, we found aromatherapy an efficacious non-pharmacological therapy for dementia. Aromatherapy may have some potential for improving cognitive function, especially in AD patients.

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... Fourteen studies used a quasi-experimental design (El Haj et al., 2018;, 2020a, 2020bGray & Clair, 2002;Henry et al., 1994;Holmes et al., 2002;Jimbo et al., 2009;Lopis et al., 2021;Moorman Li et al., 2017;Snow et al., 2004;Sulmont-Rossé et al., 2018;Takeda et al., 2017), five studies used an experimental design (Fu et al., 2013;Lin et al., 2007;Sakamoto et al., 2012;Smallwood et al. 2001;Takahashi et al., 2020) and one was a case study (Brooker et al., 1997). No qualitative or mixed methods studies were identified from the search strategy used. ...
... Glachet et al. with severe symptoms (Brooker et al., 1997;Henry et al., 1994;Holmes et al., 2002;Snow et al., 2004;Smallwood et al., 2001;Takeda et al., 2017). Five other studies included those with different stages of dementia, including mild to moderate and moderate to severe (Fu et al., 2013;Jimbo et al., 2009;Lin et al., 2007;Sulmont-Rossé et al., 2018;Takahashi et al., 2020). Two studies did not report participants' stage of dementia (Gray & Clair, 2002;Moorman Li et al., 2017). ...
... All studies providing information about the subtype of dementia included people with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Among them, three studies (Fu et al., 2013;Jimbo et al., 2009;Lin et al., 2007) included people with vascular dementia (VaD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and 'other dementias'; Brooker et al.'s sample (1997) included AD and FTD; whereas Holmes et al. (2002) included participants with AD, VaD, FTD and dementia Lewy body (DLB). Subtypes of dementia were not provided in six studies (Gray & Clair, 2002;Henry et al., 1994;Moorman Li et al., 2017;Sakamoto et al., 2012;Smallwood et al., 2001;Takeda et al., 2017). ...
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There is a growing interest in using olfactory (smell) stimulation in dementia care. This study aims to extend current knowledge by synthesising the evidence on the efficacy of interventions using olfactory stimulation for people with dementia and to assess the effects of different types of odours and administration methods using a mixed methods approach. The rapid review was conducted based on searches in six electronic databases. A narrative approach was applied to assess 20 studies included in the review. Fourteen studies used a quasi-experimental design, five studies used an experimental design and one was a case study. High heterogeneity was found on odours and methods of application used, with the majority of studies administering lavender oil using a diffuser. Mixed results were reported on the benefits of olfactory stimulation on responsive behaviours and cognitive function. Although the evidence available is limited, encouraging results were found regarding olfactory stimulation and increased sleep duration, food intake and improved balance. It was not possible to draw any overall conclusion in relation to the effect of olfactory stimulation. However, this review shows promising results that support further investigation of olfactory stimulation as a nonpharmacological intervention for people with dementia. The review is limited due to the low to moderate quality of studies included. Furthermore, the broad range of approaches was employed, and comparison between the studies was difficult. Further high-quality mixed method studies using robust and detailed protocols are needed to clarify the effects of olfactory stimuli and any other factors that may influence the responses of people with dementia.
... memory. The unfamiliar flavors (i.e., lavender, rosemary, sweet orange, and lemon) previously recognized as having potential effects on cognitive function were used in later sessions (Jimbo et al., 2009). To enhance odor discrimination and identification ability, the participants were asked to smell the flavor from a composition cork and find the matching picture. ...
... Maseda et al. (2014) revealed that the activity group using a directive approach and the multisensory stimulation environment group using a non-directive method might have a similar positive effect on the neuropsychiatric symptoms but not on the cognition for moderate to severe dementia. Without the cognitive component in the intervention, Jimbo et al. (2009) adopted aromatherapy but found no significant effect on cognition and emotion for people with dementia. In our study, the olfactory-based sensory stimulation intervention involved sensory stimulation and game activities in small groups. ...
Article
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Olfactory dysfunction can indicate early cognitive decline and is associated with dementia symptoms. We developed an olfactory-based sensory stimulation program and investigated its effects on cognition and emotion, and board game training were used as a comparison. In this parallel design pilot study, 30 participants with mild to moderate dementia were equal randomly assigned to the control (CONT), olfactory stimulation with cognitive training (OS), and board game (BG) groups. Two participants were withdrawn from CONT and OS groups, respectively. The intervention was a 12-week program with one 30-min session twice a week. We employed a blood-based biomarker technique and several cognitive and psychological tests to measure basal and after-intervention values. No significant differences were observed between the groups after intervention, as measured using the Mini-Mental State Examination, Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment (LOTCA), Top International Biotech Smell Identification Test, and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). The results showed that the OS group had a lower plasma Tau level than the other groups following intervention, whereas the CONT group had a significantly increased plasma amyloid ß1-42 level. OS participants had a lower concentration ratio of plasma Tau and amyloid Aß1-42 and showed more stable or improved cognition, olfactory function, and mood state. Both the OS and BG groups had a higher percentage of participants with stable or improved cognition and emotion. Taken together, these results suggest that olfactory-based sensory stimulation can be a beneficial intervention for patients with dementia. Clinical trial registration [ Clinicaltrials.gov ], identifier [NCT05168098].
... Aromatherapy is an effective treatment in managing behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, which improves cognitive function, increases the quality of life, and enhances independence in daily life activities [20]. The study results by Jimbo et al. showed that aromatherapy was an effective non-drug therapy for people with dementia, which could have some potential for improving cognitive function, especially in patients with Alzheimer's disease [21]. ...
... In addition, the results of Wattanathorn's study showed a significant difference in the mean score of the working memory of healthy youths in the two groups, i.e., aromatherapy with lavender essential oil and aromatherapy with orange essential oil [26]. The study by Jimbo et al. examined the effects of aromatherapy using rosemary and lemon essential oils in the morning as well as lavender and orange essential oils at night in people with dementia; accordingly, they showed that aromatherapy was an effective non-drug therapy in people suffering from the disease [21]. ...
Article
Working memory, one of the cognitive components, may be impaired in patients with multiple sclerosis. Accordingly, this study aims to determine the effects of aromatherapy with lavender essential oil on the working memory of women with multiple sclerosis (MS). In this clinical trial, 60 women with multiple sclerosis were selected using the sampling method from patients referred to the MS Clinic of Rafsanjan. Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, the participants were randomly divided into intervention and placebo groups. In addition, the working memory test developed by Daneman and Carpenter was used to evaluate the participants' working memory before the intervention and the day after the last intervention. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS Statistics version 18.0. According to intragroup comparison results and based on the paired t-test, the mean score of the working memory before the intervention in the intervention group was 82.77±6.87, which increased to 87.64±5.57 after the intervention (P<0.001). The average working memory score of the placebo group was 80.30±11.09 and 82.09±11.31 before and after the intervention, respectively, which did not have a statistically significant difference (P=0.154). Based on findings from the independent t-test, the mean scores of working memory had a statistically significant difference between the intervention and placebo groups after the intervention (P=0.02). According to the results from this study, aromatherapy with lavender essential oil improved working memory in women with multiple sclerosis.
... New drugs that target the typical pathological characteristics of AD-senile plaques (SPs) formed by β-amyloid (Aβ) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) caused by hyperphosphorylation of the tau protein-have achieved favourable results in only animals and not in clinical experiments [6,7]. erefore, under the guidance of alternative and integrated medicine, it is particularly important to select known effective methods for the treatment of AD, such as acupuncture, electroacupuncture, music therapy, aromatherapy, pulsed electromagnetic fields, and traditional Chinese medicines, to improve the clinical symptoms to the greatest extent and explore the mechanisms of these treatment methods [8][9][10][11][12][13]. Among them, traditional Chinese medicine formulas with multitarget therapeutic effects have been widely reported to improve the cognitive function of AD patients and have gradually attracted the attention of researchers [14]. ...
... In addition, music therapy can alter the levels of neurotransmitters, autonomic nerve function, and neuronal connections to improve the memory and language ability of AD patients and reduce their mental symptoms [42,43]. Aromatherapy can enhance neurogenesis in the limbic system of the brain through the projection of odour stimulation to improve cognitive impairment [11]. Evidence also supports the biological effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields in the treatment of AD, and their ability to improve cognitive impairment may be achieved by the modulation of insulin growth factors (IGFs) [12]. ...
Article
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Jiedu-Yizhi formula (JDYZF) is prescribed for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and was created by Jixue Ren, a master of traditional Chinese medicine, based on the “marrow deficiency and toxin damage” theory. In our clinic, this formula has been used for the treatment of AD for many years and has achieved good results. However, the mechanism by which JDYZF improves cognitive impairment has not been determined. In this study, we confirmed that orally administered JDYZF reversed the cognitive deficits in an Aβ25–35-induced rat model, increased the number of neurons in the hippocampal CA1 area, improved their structure, decreased the deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ), reduced the expression of proteins related to the NLRP3/Caspase-1/GSDMD and LPS/Caspase-11/GSDMD pyroptosis pathways, and reduced the levels of interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and IL-18, thereby inhibiting the inflammatory response. In addition, JDYZF exerted no hepatotoxicity in rats. In short, these results provide scientific support for the clinical use of JDYZF to improve the cognitive function of patients with AD.
... The publications that comprised the sample of the present study were published between the years 2009 to 2019 as shown in Table 1. Jimbo et al. 32 examined the effects of aromatherapy on dementia in 28 elderly people, 17 of whom had Alzheimer's disease (AD). The therapy took place for 28 days, where the participants were exposed to the aroma of lemon essential oil (0.04 mL) and that of rosemary essential oil (0.08 mL) in the morning, from 9:00 am to 11:00 am, as well as lavender essential oil (0.08 mL) and orange essential oil (0.04 mL) at night, from 7:30 pm to 9:00 pm. ...
... The results of routine laboratory tests did not show significant changes, suggesting that there were no side effects associated with the use of aromatherapy. Thus, they concluded that aromatherapy, through the use of essential oils of lemon, rosemary, lavender and orange, is an effective non-pharmacological therapy for the treatment of dementia and can be a strong potential to improve cognitive function, especially in patients with AD. 32 In the study by Kashani et al. 8 the effects of Lavandula angustifolia aqueous extract on the spatial performance of 80 male Wistar rats with AD were observed. Animal model of AD was established by intracerebroventricular, 20 day prior to the administration of the lavender extract. ...
Article
Neurodegenerative diseases affect the grey matter of the brain and secondarily the functions related to the white matter, with aging being one of the main responsible for their development. Among neurodegenerative diseases, dementia stands out, which has been considered by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a public health priority since 2012 due to its high prevalence. It is believed that degeneration of the cholinergic system in the hippocampus and cortex is closely related to cognitive deficits in dementia. Among the forms of treatment for dementia, aromatherapy stands out, which is part of phytotherapy and uses extracts and essential oils extracted from different organs of aromatic plants, and frequently administered via inhalation or topical application. Lavender is one of these plants and has traditionally been used to treat memory dysfunction. Thus, the present study sought to verify in the literature research using Lavandula as a form of treatment for neurodegenerative diseases, especially Alzheimer's disease. The search for the studies took place in January 2020, in the electronic database Web of Science. 42 articles were found, of which 13 adequately met the inclusion criteria. It can be concluded with this review, that both the extract and the essential oil of different lavender species have positive influences on memory formation, as well as on the improvement of cognitive function, especially in patients with Alzheimer's disease.
... Its active ingredients are bornyl acetate, borneol with other esters and special camphor similar to that found in myrtle, cineole, pinene and camphene [16]. Its stimulating property on the nervous system is beneficial in hysteria and paralysis [17]. ...
Article
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Purpose This study aims to determine the effect of aromatherapy used in reducing the pain caused by fistula puncture in hemodialysis patients. Design/methodology/approach In this study, the effect of aromatherapy application on fistula puncture was analyzed and carried out by scanning the relevant literature. The literature review was conducted between August and October 2020. While reviewing the literature, the authors used “aromatherapy,” “pain,” “fistula,” “puncture,” “hemodialysis” keywords and various combinations of these; moreover, Google scientist, Pubmed, Cochrane, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, Medline and Ovid databases and studies, which were conducted in the last 10 years were reviewed. As a result of the literature review, 1183 studies were reached and seven of them were included in the study by taking the inclusion criteria into account. Findings The randomized controlled studies are six studies and nonrandomized controlled experimental 1 study were added to the scope of the study and seven studies were included in the sample. In these studies, personal information forms developed by the researchers as data collection tools and the VAS scale, Numerical pain rating, the numeric rating scale were used to evaluate pain. Practical implications It has been determined that aromatherapy application in hemodialysis patients has positive effects on reducing pain due to puncture fistula intervention. Originality/value This study provides reduction or elimination of fistula needle insertion pain in hemodialysis patients.
... Nevertheless, the mechanisms of action of aromatherapy are yet unknown [14], however lavender oil, melissa-based and lemon balm oil have been reported with antioxidant actions of vitamin E, which improves the state of blood vessels close to the skin. This is why there are the most common used oils [15,16]. ...
... Even if the mechanisms of actions of EOs are still not clear, their ability to bind to the olfactory nerve system is responsible for the transmission of the signal to specific areas of the central nervous systems (hippocampus, limbic system, amygdala, and hypothalamus). The potential application of different EOs in AD treatment was also reported by Jimbo et al. [17], who developed a clinical trial on 28 elderly people affected by dementia, demonstrating the importance of aromatherapy in AD treatment. The success of the treatment, demonstrated by the resulting significant improvement in cognitive function, was based on the use of a combined therapy, with two administrations per day for 28 days, of four different EOs. ...
Article
Full-text available
Complementary and alternative medicines represent an interesting field of research on which worldwide academics are focusing many efforts. In particular, the possibility to exploit pharmaceutical technology strategies, such as the nanoencapsulation, for the delivery of essential oils is emerging as a promising strategy not only in Italy but also all over the world. The aim of this work was the development of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) for the delivery of essential oils (Lavandula, Mentha, and Rosmarinus) by intranasal administration, an interesting topic in which Italian contributions have recently increased. Essential oil-loaded NLC, projected as a possible add-on strategy in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, were characterized in comparison to control formulations prepared with Tegosoft CT and Neem oil. Homogeneous (polydispersity index, PDI < 0.2) nanoparticles with a small size (<200 nm) and good stability were obtained. Morphological and physical-chemical studies showed the formation of different structures depending on the nature of the liquid oil component. In particular, NLC prepared with Lavandula or Rosmarinus showed the formation of a more ordered structure with higher cytocompatibility on two cell lines, murine and human fibroblasts. Taken together, our preliminary results show that optimized positively charged NLC containing Lavandula or Rosmarinus can be proposed as a potential add-on strategy in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases through intranasal administration, due to the well-known beneficial effects of essential oils and the mucoadhesive properties of NLC.
... Besides relieving the stress, rejuvenating and regenerating the individuals, EOs also has antimicrobial and antioxidant characteristics (Guleria et al. 2013). For centuries, EOs are used by folklore professionals as powerful treatment materials for diseases like Alzheimer's, cardiovascular, cancer and labor pain in pregnancy in different parts of the world (Perry and Perry 2006;Shiina et al. 2008;Jimbo et al. 2009;Smith et al. 2011). Even recent medical science has found that EOs can have a good effect on cancer treatment (Blowman et al. 2018). ...
Preprint
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Ectopic olfactory receptors (EORs) are expressed in non-nasal tissues of human body. They belong to the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily. EORs may not be capable of differentiating odorants as nasal olfactory receptors (ORs), but still can be triggered by odorants and are involved in different biological processes such as anti-inflammation, energy metabolism, apoptosis etc. Consumption of strong flavored foods like celery, oranges, onions, and spices, is a good aid to attenuate inflammation and boost our immune system. During the digestion of these foods in human digestive system and the metabolization by gut microbiota, the odorants closely interacting with EORs, may play important roles in various bio-functions like serotonin release, appetite regulation etc., and ultimately impact health and diseases. Thus, EORs could be a potential target linking the ligands from food and their bioactivities. There have been related studies in different research fields of medicine and physiology, but still no systematic food oriented review. Our review portrays that EORs could be a potential target for functional food development. In this review, we summarized the EORs found in human tissues, their impacts on health and disease, ligands interacting with EORs exerting specific biological effects, and the mechanisms involved.
... Besides relieving the stress, rejuvenating and regenerating the individuals, EOs also has antimicrobial and antioxidant characteristics (Guleria et al. 2013). For centuries, EOs are used by folklore professionals as powerful treatment materials for diseases like Alzheimer's, cardiovascular, cancer and labor pain in pregnancy in different parts of the world (Perry and Perry 2006;Shiina et al. 2008;Jimbo et al. 2009;Smith et al. 2011). Even recent medical science has found that EOs can have a good effect on cancer treatment (Blowman et al. 2018). ...
Article
Ectopic olfactory receptors (EORs) are expressed in non-nasal tissues of human body. They belong to the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily. EORs may not be capable of differentiating odorants as nasal olfactory receptors (ORs), but still can be triggered by odorants and are involved in different biological processes such as anti-inflammation, energy metabolism, apoptosis etc. Consumption of strong flavored foods like celery, oranges, onions, and spices, is a good aid to attenuate inflammation and boost our immune system. During the digestion of these foods in human digestive system and the metabolization by gut microbiota, the odorants closely interacting with EORs, may play important roles in various bio-functions like serotonin release, appetite regulation etc., and ultimately impact health and diseases. Thus, EORs could be a potential target linking the ligands from food and their bioactivities. There have been related studies in different research fields of medicine and physiology, but still no systematic food oriented review. Our review portrays that EORs could be a potential target for functional food development. In this review, we summarized the EORs found in human tissues, their impacts on health and disease, ligands interacting with EORs exerting specific biological effects, and the mechanisms involved.
... Bu kapsamda, bazı sağlık sorunları için özel esansiyel yağlar seçilmektedir (Ali et al., 2015). Uyku bozuklukları (Karadag et al., 2017), gastrointestinal sistem sorunları (Lai et al., 2011), yara iyileşmesi (Chin & Cordell, 2013), ağrının giderilmesi (Cino, 2014), bilişsel işlevlerin geliştirilmesi (Jimbo et al., 2009) ve depresyon (Conrad & Adams, 2012) bu sorunlar arasında yer almaktadır. Aromaterapinin önde gelen bir diğer kullanım alanı ise stres ve anksiyetenin giderilmesidir. ...
... A study done in 2018 concluded that acupuncture could in fact help to treat VaD and it generally worked by boosting the metabolism of glucose and oxygen, contributing to anti-oxidative stress reactions, and acted as an anti-apoptotic agent (Zhu et al., 2018). In another study, aromatherapy essential oils (rotated lemon, rosemary, lavender, and orange oils) were given to dementia patients topically throughout the day for a period of 28 days (Jimbo et al., 2009). After 28 days the aromatherapy was shown to have improved the patient's personal orientation and cognition. ...
Article
Full-text available
Vascular dementia (VaD) is the second most common form of dementia after Alzheimer’s disease (AD); where Alzheimer’s accounts for 60–70% of cases of dementia and VaD accounts for 20% of all dementia cases. VaD is defined as a reduced or lack of blood flow to the brain that causes dementia. VaD is also known occasionally as vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) or multi-infarct dementia (MID). VCID is the condition arising from stroke and other vascular brain injuries that cause significant changes to memory, thinking, and behavior, and VaD is the most severe stage while MID is produced by the synergistic effects caused by multiple mini strokes in the brain irrespective of specific location or volume. There are also subtle differences in the presentation of VaD in males and females, but they are often overlooked. Since 1672 when the first case of VaD was reported until now, sex and gender differences have had little to no research done when it comes to the umbrella term of dementia in general. This review summarizes the fundamentals of VaD followed by a focus on the differences between sex and gender when an individual is diagnosed. In addition, we provide critical evidence concerning sex and gender differences with a few of the main risk factors of VaD including pre-existing health conditions and family history, gene variants, aging, hormone fluctuations, and environmental risk factors. Additionally, the pharmaceutical treatments and possible mitigation of risk factors is explored.
... Besides relieving the stress, rejuvenating and regenerating the individuals, EOs also has antimicrobial and antioxidant characteristics (Guleria et al. 2013). For centuries, EOs are used by folklore professionals as powerful treatment materials for diseases like Alzheimer's, cardiovascular, cancer and labor pain in pregnancy in different parts of the world (Perry and Perry 2006;Shiina et al. 2008;Jimbo et al. 2009;Smith et al. 2011). Even recent medical science has found that EOs can have a good effect on cancer treatment (Blowman et al. 2018). ...
Article
Ectopic olfactory receptors (EORs) are expressed in non-nasal tissues of human body. They belong to the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily. EORs may not be capable of differentiating odorants as nasal olfactory receptors (ORs), but still can be triggered by odorants and are involved in different biological processes such as anti-inflammation, energy metabolism, apoptosis etc. Consumption of strong flavored foods like celery, oranges, onions, and spices, is a good aid to attenuate inflammation and boost our immune system. During the digestion of these foods in human digestive system and the metabolization by gut microbiota, the odorants closely interacting with EORs, may play important roles in various bio-functions like serotonin release, appetite regulation etc., and ultimately impact health and diseases. Thus, EORs could be a potential target linking the ligands from food and their bioactivities. There have been related studies in different research fields of medicine and physiology, but still no systematic food oriented review. Our review portrays that EORs could be a potential target for functional food development. In this review, we summarized the EORs found in human tissues, their impacts on health and disease, ligands interacting with EORs exerting specific biological effects, and the mechanisms involved.
... The results also showed that the use of aromatherapy had no particular side effects. 23 No study was found to investigate the effect of Orange essential oil on memory. In addition, no study was found to compare the effect of Lavender, Rosemary and Orange essential oils on memory and medication adherence. ...
Article
Background: hemodialysis patients’ daily use of medications is essential for the disease management. One of the causes of medication non-adherence is that they forget to take medications, and non-adherence to treatment following memory loss is a common problem in patients on hemodialysis. Objective: the current study aimed to compare the effects of Lavender, Rosemary, and Orange essential oils on memory problems (both retrospective and prospective aspects of memory) and medication adherence in hemodialysis patients. Design: this study was a parallel randomized controlled trial. Setting: the two main hemodialysis centers in Kerman, southeastern Iran. Participants: eighty-six patients under chronic hemodialysis were randomly allocated into four groups (Lavender, Rosemary, Orange, and control) by simple randomization method. Interventions: The samples of the intervention group, in addition to routine care, received Lavender or Rosemary or Orange essential oils three times a week for a month. A gauze containing with five drops of the essential oil was placed at a distance of 10 cm from the patient's nose one hour after hemodialysis, and the patient was asked to inhale it for 30 minutes. Main outcome measures: retrospective and prospective memory, and medication adherence were assessed before, immediately and one month after the intervention. Results: prospective memory problems in Lavender, Rosemary and Orange groups did not change significantly over time (P> 0.05). Prospective memory problems in the control group had a significant increase (P = 0.002). No significant difference was found in prospective memory problems between the four groups (P> 0.05). Retrospective memory problems in the Lavender and Rosemary groups decreased significantly over time (P <0.05). The decreasing retrospective memory problems in the Orange and control groups were not statistically significant over time (P> 0.05). There was no significant difference in retrospective memory problems between the four groups (P> 0.05). No significant difference was observed between the four groups in medication adherence score during the study (P> 0.05). Conclusion: aromatherapy with Lavender or Rosemary can reduce some memory problems in hemodialysis patients. However, the results of this study could not justify the effect of aromatherapy on the rate of medication adherence in patients on hemodialysis, so further studies are required. Trial registration: IRCT20190428043410N1
... Indeed, a better improvement after treatment has been found for behavioral symptoms (stress level, sleep quality, delirium) as well as for clinical symptoms (motor and language). Despite this, it must be considered only as preliminary evidence, however, part of these findings agrees with previous findings reported for other neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, where aromatherapy consistently has been applied to reduce agitation, aggression, and psychotic symptoms (Jimbo et al., 2009;Iranshahi and Javadi, 2019;Banerjee et al., 2021). ...
Article
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Stroke is the second largest cause of death worldwide, causing disease with long-term consequences and considerable healthcare costs. The application of new nursing interventions aimed at reducing distressing behaviors and at increasing patient comfort is an important part of the care and, until now, there are no defined guidelines. Aromatherapy has been demonstrated to be efficient in several other neurological disorders for the treatment of somatic and emotional diseases and to promote patient health. In the management of stroke patients, aromatherapy is still in its infancy. The first evidence coming from animal models demonstrated a consistent and reliable neuroprotective effect in reducing cerebral ischemia–reperfusion injury. In the last few years, some preliminary data being to be collected in humans revealed significant influence in reducing patients’ pain and emotional distress. In this perspective study, we sought to summarize, for the first time, the main findings emerging from this new field of study, discussing the future opportunities to be translated into primary care practice.
... The defensive effect has also been tried to explore in patients suffering from cancer, anxiety, and stress that eventually resulted in positive outcomes. Moreover, the traditional practitioners also suggested its hidden potential in treating several other diseases like Alzheimer's disease, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, labor pain in pregnancy, etc. [22][23][24][25][26], but this requires further confirmation from scientific data. The chemical constituents present in essential oil are mainly responsible for essential oil potency, which can be isolated and screened for their pharmacological actions. ...
Background Aromatherapy is a traditional practice of employing essential oils for the therapeutic purposes, currently headed under the category of complementary and adjuvant medicine. Objective The aim of this review article is to summarize the potential health benefits of aromatic essential oil from traditional times till the present. It also proposed some mechanisms which can be utilized as basis for using aromatherapy in cancer and cancer linked complications. Methods To find out the relevant and authentic data, several search engines like Science direct, Pubmed, research gate, etc. were thoroughly checked by inserting key words like aromatherapy, complementary, adjuvant therapy etc. to collect the relevant material in context of article. Also, the chemical components of essential oil were classified based on the presence of functional groups, which are further explored for their cytotoxic potential. Results The result depicted the anti-cancer potential of chemical constituents of essential oil against different types of cancer. Moreover, the essential oils show promising anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-oxidant and anti-mutagenic potential in several studies, which collectively can form the basis for initiation of its anti-cancer utility. Conclusion Aromatherapy can serve as adjuvant economic therapy in cancer after the standardization of protocol.
... AD mice exposed to a mixture of rosemary and lemon oil at night-time, and a mixture of lavender and orange oil in the day-time showed improved cognitive function, and reduced Aβ and phosphorylated tau levels in the brain [50]. Similarly, aromatherapy diffused by rosemary and lemon essential oils in the morning or lavender and orange essential oils in the evening was found to improve symptoms and cognition in people with dementia and AD [51]. Hand massage aromatherapy using a mixture of lemongrass essential oil and eucalyptus oil, or aromatherapy inhalation with lavender essential oil was able to improve agitation and neuropsychiatric symptoms significantly in patients with dementia [52]. ...
Article
Alzheimer's disease (AD) affects the elderly and is characterized by progressive neurodegeneration caused by different pathologies. The most significant challenges in treating AD include the inability of medications to reach the brain because of its poor solubility, low bioavailability, and the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Additionally, current evidence suggests the disruption of BBB plays an important role in the pathogenesis of AD. One of the critical challenges in treating AD is the ineffective treatments and its severe adverse effects. Nanotechnology offers an alternative approach to facilitate the treatment of AD by overcoming the challenges in drug transport across the BBB. Various nanoparticles (NP) loaded with natural products were reported to aid in drug delivery for the treatment of AD. The nano- sized entities of NP are great platforms for incorporating active materials from natural products into formulations that can be delivered effectively to the intended action site without compromising the material’s bioactivity. The review highlights the applications of medicinal plants, their derived components, and various nanomedicine-based approaches for the treatment of AD. The combination of medicinal plants and nanotechnology may lead to new theragnostic solutions for the treatment of AD in the future.
... In case 2, the staff provided a personalized aromatherapy massage while talking to the participant, giving her the opportunity to express her emotions and to relax. In addition, the relaxed state may have helped her to talk about pleasurable memories rather than her war experi- [18][19][20] and can improve the cognitive function of people with dementia [21]. The above-described intervention was thought to have been linked to the increase in the participant's scores for questions 3, 8, 10, 12, and 17 and for the "Expression of emotions" and "Personhood" categories. ...
Article
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Introduction: We have developed the Dementia Elderly Odayaka Scale (DEOS) to evaluate psychosocial aspects in older people. The DEOS can be used to assess well-being, such as personhood and social interaction. Objective: The aim of this study was to apply the 18-item DEOS in participants with dementia and to examine the characteristics and usefulness of this scale. Methods: Facility staff provided care for the participants while taking into consideration each participant's individuality and strong points. The DEOS was applied at the beginning of the interventions and at 1 and 2 months after the start of the interventions. The changes in the participants' behaviors and their DEOS scores were then evaluated over time. Results: We examined 13 participants (2 men, 11 women) between the ages of 68 and 91 years. In 60% of the participants the DEOS score increased over time. When care interventions were tailored toward communication and leadership for the 2 men, according to each of their individualities, we observed increases in their scores for "social interaction" at 1 and 2 months thereafter. We also observed increases in the scores for "Expression of emotions" category in 2 of the 5 cases who received an aromatherapy massage. Discussion/conclusion: The changes in the scores over time and the contents of the field notes were consistent with each other, suggesting that the DEOS can be used both to evaluate the effects of interventions and to plan care that takes advantage of each participant's positive aspects.
... As it is clear, anosmia is a common symptom shared between neurodegenerative diseases and COVID-19 infection as well as epilepsy, migraine, meningitis, and CNS disorders. There is evidence to suggest the presence of positive effects of aroma in controlling the central nervous system (Koo et al., 2003;Koo et al., 2004), as well as the fact that stimulating the sense of smell can improve patients' cognitive function and allow nerve regrowth through odour-producing molecules (Jimbo et al., 2009). Therefore, the importance of aromatherapy can be highlighted here whereby aroma-producing/volatile small compounds can be used as therapeutic molecules to prevent protein aggregation or fibril formation and potentially restore symptoms such as anosmia. ...
Article
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Background: The aggregation of tau and α-synuclein into fibrillary assemblies in nerve cells is the molecular hallmark of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, respectively. In our previous studies, we investigated the anti-amyloidogenic effects of three different aroma-producing (volatile) compounds including cinnamaldehyde, phenyl ethyl alcohol, and TEMED on the fibrillation process of HEWL, as a model protein. Our previous results showed that while TEMED was able to completely stop the process of fibril formation, cinnamaldehyde and phenyl ethyl alcohol gave rise to oligomeric/protofibrillar forms and were involved in the entrapment of intermediate species of HEWL. In this study, we investigated the anti-amyloidogenic effect of the same three volatile compounds on recombinantly produced tau and α-synuclein proteins. Methods: The thioflavin T fluorescence assay, circular dichroism, SDS-PAGE/native-PAGE, dynamic light scattering, and atomic force microscopy were used, where necessary, to further our understanding of the inhibitory effects of the three volatile compounds on the fibril formation of tau and α-synuclein proteins and allow for a comparison with previous data obtained for HEWL. Results: Our results revealed that contrary to the results obtained for HEWL (a globular protein), the volatile compound TEMED was no longer able to prevent fibril formation in either of the natively unstructured tau or α-synuclein proteins, and instead, cinnamaldehye and phenyl ethyl alcohol, in particular, had the role of preventing fibril formation of tau or α-synuclein. Conclusion: The results of this study further emphasized the exclusion of HEWL as a model protein for fibrillation studies and highlighted the importance of studying brain-related proteins such as tau or α-synuclein and the need to assess the effects of volatile compounds such as cinnamaldehye and phenyl ethyl alcohol as potential substances in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.
... The last decade revealed increased medical interest in aromatherapy and nowadays conventional medicine does not regard this method as pseudoscientific anymore [3,17,52]. This is due to the fact that it becomes more and more obvious that aromatherapy can have a great influence upon major organ systems like the central nervous system and there are several studies that reach such conclusions [1,17,30]. Through inhalation or massages, EOs penetrate the skin and mucosa. Once they enter the systemic circulation, they are also able to reach the brain and even cross the blood brain barrier. ...
Article
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Essential oils or volatile oils are natural products that have a large series of uses in the food and cosmetic sectors. According to their intended use, essential oils are subjected to various European guidelines that aim to protect the health and safety of consumers. Volatile oils present important biological activities, some of the most known being their antimicrobial properties, but other potential therapeutic indications for such products have been more recently suggested, as well. However, they are not necessarily harmless and can present an important sensitizing potential. Essential oils have been administered through different routes, including inhalations and skin applications, in the treatment of stress and anxiety. Regardless of the route of administration, aromatherapy deeply relies on the sense of smell and its connection with the limbic system. Nevertheless, outside of the principles of aromatherapy, numerous scientific studies have revealed their potential beneficial implications in Alzheimer’s and other neurological disorders. © 2020, Romanian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences. All rights reserved.
... Nevertheless, the mechanisms of action of aromatherapy are yet unknown [14], however lavender oil, melissa-based and lemon balm oil have been reported with antioxidant actions of vitamin E, which improves the state of blood vessels close to the skin. This is why there are the most common used oils [15,16]. ...
Article
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Introduction: Dementia is a very common disorder that affects people over 65 years old all over the world. Apart from the cognitive decline, Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD) are a crucial matter in dementia, because they affect up to 90% of the patients during the course of their illness. Irritability has been found to be a common BPSD and one of the most distressing behaviors for the caregivers. The aim of the current study was to explore the efficacy of a combination of non-pharmacological interventions to treat irritability. Methods: Sixty patients with different types and stages of dementia with irritability were participated in a cross-over RCT. Three non-pharmacological interventions were used; (a) Validation Therapy (VT)/Psycho-educational program, (b) Aromatherapy/massage and (c) Music Therapy (MT). The study assessed the three non-pharmacological interventions in order to find the most effective combination of the interventions. This study did not compare pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments. The interventions lasted for five days. There was no drop-out rate. All patients were assessed at baseline using Mini Mental State of Examination (MMSE), Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised (ACE-R), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), Functional Rating Scale for symptoms in dementia (FRSSD), and Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) (sub questions for irritability). Only NPI used for the assessment after each intervention. The analyses used categorical variables, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, Chi-square test and z value score. Results: The most effective combination of non-pharmacological interventions was Aromatherapy/massage (p = 0.003)-VT plus Psycho-educational program (p = 0.014) plus MT (p = 0.018). The same combination was the most effective for the caregivers' burden, too (p = 0.026). Conclusions: The above combination of non-pharmacological interventions can reduce irritability in patients with dementia and caregivers' burden.
... Strategies such as music therapy, aromatherapy, pet therapy and massage are also reported to be beneficial in improving cognitive health. [22,23,24,25,26] ...
Article
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WHO defines dementia as a progressive chronic syndrome characterized by deterioration of cognitive function much beyond what is observed in the normal aging process. The impairment in various levels of cognitive functions such as short and long-term memory, abstract thinking, learning capability, orientation, comprehend various tasks, language, and judgment are commonly observed in patients with dementia. Further, the situation can get worsen by loss of emotional control, social behavior, motivation, etc., and this disability makes the dependency. A detailed literature review was performed through MEDLINE, Google, PubMed, Medline, Eric, Frontiers, and other online journals using the terms “Dementia”, “Risk factors of dementia”, “its types”, “prevalence”, and “available treatments of dementia”. The present article was based on these relevant terminologies. Progressive deterioration in cognition and motor functions is an undesired consequence of dementia, which has very limited diagnostic and therapeutic options. So, its quite mandatory to discover new diagnostic techniques as well as therapeutic strategies to conquer the challenge. Since pharmacological intervention only provides symptomatic relief, more and more non-pharmacological therapies should be invented in order to delay or prevent unhealthy aging.
... The Ph. Lo treated group of transgenic animals showed BChE activity 14.00 ± 2.82% with p > 0.05. Several clinical trials with aromatherapy are reported to improve cognitive performance, reduce agitation, aggression, and psychotic symptoms in AD and Parkinsonism patients (Jimbo et al., 2009;Ali et al., 2015;Scuteri et al., 2017). However, the exact underlying mechanisms of these beneficial effects are not fully discovered yet. ...
Article
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Polygonum hydropiper L. and related species are reported to possess neuroprotective potentials. In an attempt to validate its anti-Alzheimer’s potentials, leaf oils (Ph. Lo) were extensively evaluated in this study against several in vitro and in vivo models of Alzheimer’s disease. The Ph. Lo were tested against pathological targets of Alzheimer’s diseases (ADs). The in vitro and in vivo assays were done for cholinesterase inhibition, anti-radical properties and cognitive assessments using transgenic animal models. In preliminary cholinesterase inhibition assays, Ph. Lo were more active against acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) radicals. Subsequently, Ph. Lo was evaluated for its effects on special memory, exploratory behavior, and coordination using shallow water maze (SWM), Y-maze, open filed, and balance beam tests. Animal pre-genotyping was done via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to confirm amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgene, and after completion of drug therapy, brain homogenates from the cortex and hippocampus were evaluated for cholinesterase and free radical studies. In SWM task, disease control animals treated with 10 mg/kg of Ph. Lo for 5 days exhibited significant improvement in cognitive performance indicated by low escape times on 5th day compared with normal animals. In the Y-maze test, transgenic animals showed higher spontaneous alternation behavior than disease control animals and standard control group animals. Ph. Lo therapy has improved the exploratory behavior and declined anxiety behavior in diseased animals as accessed via open field test. Ph. Lo administration significantly augmented the motor and coordination abilities of transgenic animals when compared to other groups of animals and declined AChE, BChE activities as well as free radicals load in the cortex and hippocampus tissues. Based on our finding, it is concluded that Ph. Lo exhibit significant neuroprotective potentials preliminary due to their anti-radicals and cholinesterase inhibitory activities. Ph. Lo need further detailed studies as potential aromatherapy against neurodegenerative disorders.
... The laboratory tests revealed that there was no significant side effect for aromatherapy. Zarit's score indicated that caregivers did not affect the improvement in patients' scores (Jimbo et al., 2009). Furthermore, Okuda et al. investigated the effect of aromatherapy on improving cognitive abilities. ...
Article
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Hundreds of millions of people around the world suffer from neurological disorders or have experienced them intermittently, which has significantly reduced their quality of life. The common treatments for neurological disorders are relatively expensive and may lead to a wide variety of side effects including sleep attacks, gastrointestinal side effects, blood pressure changes, etc. On the other hand, several herbal medications have attracted colossal popularity worldwide in the recent years due to their availability, affordable prices, and few side effects. Aromatic plants, sage (Salvia officinalis), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), and rosemary (Salvia Rosmarinus) have already shown anxiolytics, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and neuroprotective effects. They have also shown potential in treating common neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, migraine, and cognitive disorders. This review summarizes the data on the neuroprotective potential of aromatic herbs, sage, lavender, and rosemary.
... Jimbo et al. reported cognitive improvements in patients with moderate Alzheimer's disease as a result of a 28-day aromatherapy with rosemary and lemon essential oils in the mornings and lavender and orange essential oils in the evenings. They found the rosemary-lemon blend to improve concentration and memory by activating the sympathetic nervous system and lavender and orange essential oils to calm patients by activating the parasympathetic nervous system [47]; nevertheless, contradictory effects on human behavior were reported for essential oils, as inhaling peppermint improved and ylang-ylang deteriorated memory [46,48]. ...
Article
Introduction Memory impairment is a common concern after electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of clove essential oil on memory improvement after electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Methods For this randomized controlled trial, 100 patients undergoing ECT were assigned to either the experimental group, which was to receive clove essential oil 2.5% for 5 minutes three times a week, or the control group, which was to receive routine care. The Wechsler Memory Scale-III (WMS-III) was used to evaluate memory in the patients before and after the first and second weeks of ECT. A blood cortisol test was also performed to measure their cortisol levels one and two weeks after the intervention. Results The patients’ baseline memory score did not differ between the two groups (P=0.67). Although the memory score increased in the first week after ECT, it decreased in the second week. After adjusting for time, no significant differences were observed in the total memory score between the two groups (P=0.67). The pairwise comparison of the memory score between the first and second weeks also suggested insignificant differences in the experimental group and significant differences in the controls (P=0.01). Although cortisol levels decreased significantly in both groups after ECT (P=0.005), the difference between the two groups was insignificant both before (P=0.40) and after (P=0.26) ECT. Conclusion According to the present findings, clove essential oil neither improved memory in the patients nor affected their cortisol levels after ECT.
... The most effective essential oil combinations were rosemary camphor and lemon for daytime use, and genuine lavender and sweet orange for night time use. 37 As for usage, the authors recommend using an aroma pendant for daytime use so that the scent of the essential oil can reach the user even if they move, and ordinary diffuser for nighttime use in the bedroom. ...
Article
Until recently, it was thought that dementia prevention was not possible. However, a recent paper reported that 40% of the risk factors for developing dementia are modifiable. Large-scale clinical studies on dementia prevention and various initiatives to reduce the risk of developing dementia have been made worldwide. In addition to the introduction of a global initiative in dementia prevention, I also introduce the results of our research on the development of the Tottori method dementia prevention program and aromatherapy to approach olfactory impairment in Alzheimer's disease.
... The anticonvulsant effects of M. pyrifolia may have resulted from antagonistic action on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors or reversion antioxidant-oxidant imbalance (Pahuja et al. 2012). Essential oils from different plant species reduced symptoms in patients of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases (Jimbo et al. 2009;Dobetsberger and Buchbauer 2011). In vivo tests using Winstar rats showed that L. camara was not toxic at 2000 mg/kg dose (OECD 2002). ...
Chapter
According to the World Health Organization, the global burden of neurological disorders (NDs) is projected to increase from 92 at present to 103 million Disability Life Adjusted Years (DALYs) by 2030. However, NDs are not prioritized in modern healthcare systems considering the funds allocated and the limited availability of specialized modern health practitioners. The traditional health practitioners are more accessible and culturally acceptable yet not fully recognized in the formal health sector. It stems from fears related to integration arising from mutual suspicion between the two sectors. In this chapter, we present complementary and alternative therapies that could potentially narrow the treatment gap in the management of ND in Uganda. Specifically, plant species from the Ugandan context are presented from ethnobotanical studies. Twenty-three plant species from 14 families were collated from studies conducted between 1995 and 2020 to treat ND majorly epilepsy. Medicinal plants have bioactive compounds such as polyphenols and alkaloids, which potentially delay neurodegeneration, improve memory and cognitive function, and thus potential sources of new drugs in the management of ND.
... 3 Moreover, they are well known for their antimicrobial properties and are also effective in treating diseases such as carcinoma, Alzheimer's disease, cardiovascular disease, discomfort, pregnancy, and insomnia. 4,5 The secondary metabolites in essential oils play a critical role in plant protection, as they regularly have antimicrobial characteristics. ...
Article
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Melaleuca cajuputi Powell is a tree species belonging to the family Myrtaceae and is widely used in traditional medicine. This study was conducted to investigate the antibacterial activities of essential oils of M. cajuputi Powell. Antibacterial activity was tested against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria using the agar disc diffusion method. The essential oils of M. cajuputi were found to exert antibacterial activity against all of the tested bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Escherichia coli. The zones of inhibition for S. aureus, S. pyogenes, MRSA, E. coli, and K. pneumoniae were 12.7 mm, 10.7 mm, 10.0 mm, 8.7 mm and 9.3 mm respectively, against 0.714% (w/w) of the essential oils. These results highlighted that Gram negative bacteria are less susceptible to the essential oils of M. cajuputi. A large zone of inhibition might be a sign of a leaching antimicrobial agent. These findings suggest that M. cajuputi is a potential natural antibacterial agent.
... Odor recognition defects often occur in AD and MCI can be used to predict the transition from MCI to AD [84,85]. Jimbo et al. [86] treated twenty-eight elderly patients (including seventeen AD patients) with aromatic drugs and observed the curative effect. In the morning, lemon and rose were mixed to activate the sympathetic nervous system to strengthen attention and memory. ...
Article
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a serious neurodegenerative disease, which seriously affects behavior, cognition, and memory of patients. Studies have shown that sensory stimulation can effectively improve the cognition and memory of AD patients, and its role in brain plasticity and neural regulation is initially revealed. This paper aims to review the effect of various sensory stimulation and multisensory stimulation for AD, and to explain the possible mechanism, so as to provide some new ideas for further research in this field. We searched the Web of Science and PubMed databases (from 2000 to October 27, 2020) for literature on the treatment of AD with sensory stimulation, including music therapy, aromatherapy, rhythmic (e.g., visual or acoustic) stimulation, light therapy, multisensory stimulation, and virtual reality assisted therapy, then conducted a systematic analysis. Results show these sensory stimulations can effectively ameliorate the pathology of AD, arouse memory, and improve cognition and behaviors. Also, it can cause brain nerve oscillation, enhance brain plasticity, and regulate regional cerebral blood flow. Sensory stimulation is a very promising technology, and it plays an important role in the improvement and treatment of AD, but its potential mechanism and stimulation parameters need to be explored and improved.
Article
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Complementary medical therapy has received great interest within the field of dementia treatment and also the use of aromatherapy and essential oils is increasing. Essential oils from plants are used therapeutically for hundreds of years to enhance physical and psychological state, there's very little confirmed scientific proof of their efficacy. Therapeutic uses of essential oils is anticipated to drive the expansion, this is often expected to come up with vast demand for aromatherapy products. This review includes proof from mechanistic, neuropharmacological studies of the results of essential oils in relevant in vitro and in vivo models. It's over that aromatherapy provides a probably effective treatment for Alzheimer's. Clinical trials concluded provide a potentially effective and safe treatment for psychiatrical disorders, including Alzheimer's. Aromatherapy has an efficacious non-pharmacological therapy for dementia. Aromatherapy may have some potential for improving cognitive function, especially in AD patients.
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of simplified reminiscence practice using olfactory stimuli on depression and cognitive function in community-dwelling older adults in Japan. Accordingly, 61 individuals were randomly divided into two groups. In the intervention group, 12 sessions of reminiscence were performed using olfactory cards. In the control group, reminiscence sessions were similarly performed, but with language cards. The Geriatric Depression Scale-15 (GDS-15) was used to measure mental health status and the Five Cognitive Test was used to measure cognitive function at baseline and after completion of the intervention. The final sample included 27 participants in the intervention group and 23 participants in the control group. Basic characteristics of the participants at baseline were compared and a significant difference was observed between the two groups in age ( p = 0.029). Repeated-measures analysis of covariance with age as the covariate revealed a significant interaction between time and group on the GDS-15 ( p = 0.04). Furthermore, a before and after comparison using a paired t -test showed a significant difference only in the intervention group ( p = 0.01). The results of this study suggest that simplified reminiscence practice using olfactory cards could serve as an intervention to help maintain the mental health of community-dwelling older adults.
Article
Background: The conifer species Pinus halepensis (Pinaceae) and Tetraclinis articulata (Cupressaceae) are widely used in traditional medicine due to their health beneficial properties. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the mechanisms by which P. halepensis and T. articulata essential oils (1% and 3%) could exhibit neuroprotective effects in an Alzheimer's disease (AD) rat model, induced by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of amyloid beta1-42 (Aβ1-42). Method: The essential oils were administered by inhalation to the AD rat model, once daily, for 21 days. DNA fragmentation was assessed through Cell Death Detection ELISA kit. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (ARC) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) gene expressions were determined by RT-qPCR analysis, while BDNF and ARC protein expressions were assessed using immunohistochemistry technique. Results: Our data showed that both essential oils substantially attenuated memory impairments, with P. halepensis mainly stimulating ARC expression and T. articulata mostly enhancing BDNF expression. Also, the inhalation of essential oils reduced IL-1β expression and induced positive effects against DNA fragmentation associated with Aβ1-42-induced toxicity, further contributing to the cognitive improvement in the rats with AD-like model. Conclusion: Our findings provide further evidence that these essential oils and their chemical constituents could be natural agents of therapeutic interest against Aβ1-42-induced neurotoxicity.
Article
Geriatric syndromes are symptoms and signs, such as falls, incontinence, delirium, pressure ulcers, dysphagia and so on, that often threaten the independence of older adults, rather than the disease itself. Although the syndromes are very common in older people, it is difficult to treat those by modern medicine due to their complexity. To mitigate the intractable geriatric symptoms, we review the efficacy of aromatherapy, especially for dysphagia, dyspnea, cognitive dysfunction and falls in geriatric syndrome. Olfactory stimulation using a volatile black pepper oil on institutional residents improved the swallowing reflex, which is a crucial risk factor of aspiration pneumonia. Brain imaging study showed that olfactory stimulation using volatile black pepper oil activated cerebral regions of the anterior cingulate and the insular cortex, which play a role in controlling appetite and swallowing. Also, aromatherapy with volatile l‐menthol decreased the sense of dyspnea and improved the efficacy of exercise therapy. The fragrance of the combination of rosemary and lemon oils in the morning, and the combination of lavender and orange oils in the night‐time were reported to improve cognition and behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia, respectively. Also, the combination of lavender and lemon balm oils was reported to be effective for irritability‐related agitation in older adults. Furthermore, aromatherapy with lavender fragrance could improve both static and dynamic balance, resulting in a reduction in the number of fallers and the incidence rate in older people. Thus, aromatherapy is a promising remedy for geriatric syndrome. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2021; ••: ••–••.
Article
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The Covid-19 pandemic has raised global awareness for boosting the body’s immune system through organic product utilization and complementary therapies. This condition encourages re-disclosure of local wisdom in herbal medicine applications which involves essential oils in disease prevention and treatment. This paper describes the local wisdom of various forest essential oils utilization, to identify the phytopharmaceutical content and potential for herbal medicine. The research was carried out through exploration and in-depth interviews with 30 local community respondents who applied essential oils in traditional medicine in Humbang Hasundutan, North Sumatra; and Singkil, Aceh in 2019. This review also explored various literature regarding phytopharmaceutical content and safety issues of various plants used in traditional medicine. The study results identified at least 17 essential oils as the main therapeutic agent, including Sumatran camphor (Dryobalanops aromatica), benzoin (Styrax sumatrana), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans), andaliman (Zanthoxylum acanthopodium), and lemo (Litsea cubeba). The essential oils are extracted from leaves, fruit, flowers, bark, stems, roots, and resin in various ways. Some of the main compounds identified include a-pinene, camphene, limonene, 1,8-cineole, and p-cymene. In aromatherapy applications, essential oils aroma has a relaxing effect and offers relief to a congested respiratory system. The essential oils can also relieve inflammation, irritation, insect bites, itching, rashes, sprains, and muscle aches in topical application. Local wisdom reveals essential oils utilization to treat indigestion, headaches, and insomnia. The compound 1,8 cineole is potential as anti-viral, anti-bacterial, and antifungal, expectorant boosts the immune system and prospective for respiratory and blood vessels treatment.
Article
The medicinal composition of rosemary essential oil has led to its widespread use in the food, cosmetic, health and herbal industries. In the present work, seasonal variations of essential constituents of essential oil, essential oil yield were evaluated. The predominant components of rosemary were: camphene, limonene, α-pinene, camphor, borneol, linalool, 1,8-cineole, (E)- caryophyllene and bornyl acetate. The highest rate of linalool was seen in summer, while camphor, limonene and borneol showed the highest percentage in cold season. Some of the compounds such as α-pinene, camphene, bornyl acetate and (E)- caryophyllene in the spring with the activation of some important plant enzymes such as peroxidase showed the highest amount. It is hoped that this research will provide very useful information about the best time to harvest the valuable rosemary plant and can be useful for the health, food and herbal industries that use this plant.
Article
Poria cocos polysaccharide (PCP) is a compound from Poria cocos, and which is used as a classical tonic agent. This article aims to investigate the effects of PCP on neuronal damage of hippocampus and cognitive function in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease induced by D-galactose and aluminum trichloride. Oxiracetam (ORC) was used as a positive drug in this experiment. The rats were treated with PCP at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg/day for 30 days and ORC at dose of 346 mg/kg/day after modeling. The results of behavioral test showed that PCP could prevent cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease rats as assessed by Y-maze test and Morris water maze test. Results of hippocampus slices showed that neurons were integrated and regularly arranged in the groups, which were administered along with PCP. Moreover, PCP could reduce neuronal apoptosis in hippocampus of Alzheimer's disease rats. Furthermore, the activities of superoxide dismutase in the hippocampus were elevated by PCP administration, while acetyl cholinesterase, reactive oxygen, malondialdehyde and inflammatory factors levels were reduced. In addition, we found PCP could attenuate MAPK/NF-κB signal pathway in the hippocampus. All results illustrated that PCP could exert neuroprotective effects at least partly through alleviating oxidative stress, apoptosis, inflammation and inhibiting the MAPK/NF-κB pathway in Alzheimer's disease rats induced by D-galactose and aluminum trichloride.
Conference Paper
RESUMEN En la primera parte de la ponencia haremos una exposición general de la enfermedad del Alzheimer. Es una demencia degenerativa primaria del cerebro que afecta las estructuras neurológicas, las capacidades cognitivas, los rasgos de personalidad, así como los aspectos funcionales y comportamentales de la persona. Es una enfermedad cuya incidencia aumenta a medida que las personas se van haciendo mayores. Pasa por una primera fase que dura entre 2 y 4 años, una segunda fase que dura entre 3 y 10 años y una tercera de duración variable. Se han encontrado factores neurológicos evidentes en el origen del Alzheimer: se da una acumulación de la proteina ß-amiloide que induce una desorganización de la estructura de las neuronas y una degeneración neurofibrilar que conduce a la muerte de las mismas. En la segunda parte comenzaremos exponiendo los criterios del DSM-5 para el diagnóstico de la enfermedad del Alzheimer. A continuación, nos centraremos en la prevención y en el tratamiento psicológico de la enfermedad. Sesiones individuales y grupales de estimulación cognitiva. Ejercicios de reminiscencia de sucesos vitales. Reforzamiento del sentimiento de control y de autoeficacia. Reforzamiento del recuerdo de los acontecimientos autobiográficos más significativos. Reforzamiento de los lazos del círculo familiar y del círculo de amistades. Afrontamiento de la depresión. Experimentación de sensaciones positivas por medio de la terapia artística. En la tercera parte desarrollaremos diversos aspectos de la terapia artística, basándonos en experiencias de activación cognitiva, psicomotora y afectivo-emocional por medio de la música, la pintura, escultura, la danza, la estimulación olfativa y gustativa.
Chapter
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a huge impact on the mental health of the public. In such a severe situation, aromatherapy can be applied to the daily life and injected into public Spaces such as parks and street green space, which can help the healthy development of the society. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the aromatherapy and its functions so far and explore the application of aromatherapy in landscape architecture. Based on healing garden case analysis of different groups, such as the elderly, rehabilitation trainers, people with disabilities and people with mental disorders, the following points should be paid attention to when aromatherapy is applied in public space: (1) the main purpose of aromatherapy is to relieve people’s pessimism, anxiety, depression and other psychological problems; (2) Aromatherapy should be placed where people are exposed to it on a daily basis.
Article
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent dementia in the elderly, causing disability, physical, psychological, social, and economic damage to the individual, their families, and care- givers. Studies have shown some spices, such as saffron, rosemary, cinnamon, turmeric, and ginger, have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that act in inhibiting the aggregation of acetylcholinesterase and amyloid in AD. For this reason, spices have been studied as beneficial sources against neurodegenerative diseases, including AD. In this sense, this study aims to present a review of some spices (Saffron, Rosemary, Cinnamon, Turmeric and Ginger) and their bioactive compounds, most consumed and investigated in the world regarding AD. In this article, scientific evidence is compiled in clinical trials in adults, the elderly, animals, and in vitro, on properties considered neuroprotective, having no or negative effects on neuroprotection of these spices and their bioactive compounds. The importance of this issue is based on the pharmacological treatment for AD that is still not very effective. In addition, the recommendations and prescriptions of these spices are still permeated by questioning and lack of robust evidence of their effects on neurodegeneration. The literature search suggests all spices included in this article have bioactive compounds with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions associated with neuroprotection. To date, the amounts of spice ingestion in humans are not uniform, and there is no consensus on its indication and chronic consumption guarantees safety and efficacy in neuroprotection. Therefore, clinical evidence on this topic is necessary to become a formal adjuvant treatment for AD.
Chapter
In recent years, the interest of consumers around the world is increasing toward the use of herbal products for personal and beauty care. Essential oils (EOs) play a major role in cosmetic and personal health care industries. EOs are natural fragrance liquid that contains a natural chemical, which imparts the plants its essence. They have been isolated from different forest-based and elsewhere available plant species. Usually, they are obtained from different plant parts such as leaves (Cymbopogon jwarancusa and Cymbopogon citratus), flower (Lavandula angustifolia and Salvia rosmarinus), bark (Canella winterana and Cassia cinnamon), wood (Santalum album), roots (Valeriana officinalis, and Sassafras albidum), seeds (Myristica fragrans and Anethum graveolens), and fruits (Juniperus communis, Citrus limon, Citrus sinensis, and Citrus bergamia). The chemical composition of EOs may differ depending on the geographical location, climatic conditions, plant species, and so on. These oils find their application in cosmetic products, shampoo, soap, perfume, detergents, etc. Currently, approximately 3000 EOs are known; among this 17,500 aromatic flora or plants possess EOs. Some of the main plant families that contain EOs are Lamiaceae, Rutaceae, Myrtaceae, Zingiberaceae, and Asteraceae. This chapter provides an overview of the role of forest-based and elsewhere available plant species in terms of EOs production and their cosmetic and personal health care applications.
Article
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of olfactory stimulation on both cognitive and behavioral symptoms in neurodegenerative diseases. The criteria for selection of participants in the study included neurodegenerative disease, interventions using olfactory stimulation, and measured cognitive or psychological symptoms. 5301 articles were identified, excluding duplicate papers. Seven original articles were selected according to the full article review and eligibility criteria. The final selected studies were all quasi-experimental studies and were published between 2002 and 2015. To assess the risk of bias, we used Cochrane Collaboration's tool, Non-randomized Studies-of Interventions (ROBINS-I). Although olfactory stimulation reported various effects on behavioral and psychological symptoms, it is still in its infancy. We propose standardization of olfactory stimulation and olfactory training. In patients with neurodegenerative diseases, it is necessary to consider the symptoms and severity of olfactory stimulation.
Article
The rich bioactive compounds of medicinal rosemary, as well as their antioxidant activity has led to its wider application in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries. In the present work, seasonal variations of phenolic, flavonoid content and antioxidant activity were evaluated. This experiment was performed based on a complete randomised design with three replications. The total content of flavonoids and some phenolic compounds (caffeic acid and quercetin) increased when plants received sunlight for a longer period of time than the colder seasons. On the other hand, the highest antioxidant activity was observed in rosemary, which was accompanied by an increase in the important phenolic composition of rosmarinic acid in the cold season. Overall, this study can provide useful information about the best harvest period for rosemary to produce the desired compounds for use in the food, pharmaceutical and plant industries.
Article
Background: Makeup greatly impacts normal social lives but can also be a non-pharmacological form of therapy for dementia. Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic effect of makeup therapy. Methods: We carried out a prospective interventional study on female nursing home residents with dementia, focusing on the chronic therapeutic effect of makeup therapy. Thirty-four patients who received either only skin care (control group, n = 16) or skin care plus makeup therapy (makeup therapy group, n = 18) once every 2 weeks for 3 months were assessed. Results: Three months of makeup therapy significantly improved the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score compared with control patients ( *p < 0.05). Artificial intelligence (AI) software revealed that the appearance of age decreased significantly in the makeup group compared with the control, especially among patients without depression ( *p < 0.05). Furthermore, a larger AI happiness score was significantly correlated with a greater improvement of ADL in the makeup therapy group (r = 0.43, *p < 0.05). Conclusion: Makeup therapy had a chronic beneficial effect on the cognitive function of female dementia patients, while the chronic effect of makeup therapy on facial appearance was successfully detected by the present AI software.
Article
Objective Epilepsy is a chronic condition characterized by recurrent seizures. Despite miscellaneous antiseizure medications, resistance to treatment is still approximately 30%. This resistance brings forward the multidisciplinary approach and complementary treatments. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of olfactory training on epileptic seizures with special aromas having antiseizure effects in patients diagnosed with drug-resistant epilepsy.MethodsA total of 24 patients (14 pediatric and 10 adults) with drug-resistant epilepsy were recruited for the study. Participants were asked to inhale the standardized bottle filled with lavender aroma (Lavandula Angustifolia) twice a day (morning and evening) for 30–45 s (2 cm in front of nose; 10–15 s to right and left nostril and 10–15 s to both nostrils) for 3 months. The type, frequency, duration of seizures, the quality of life (SF-36 and PedsQL 4.0), and olfactory functions (Sniffin’ Sticks Test and Pediatric Smell Wheel) were re-assessed.ResultsStatistical analysis showed that olfactory training decreased the seizure frequency (p < 0.001) and the seizure duration (p = 0.02). A global 50% seizure reduction was seen among patients. Moreover, olfactory training increased the quality of life (p = 0.003) and improved the olfactory function in both the pediatric and adult groups (p = 0.017, p = 0.05, respectively). There was no adverse reaction and no increase in seizure frequency.SignificanceThe observations of the present investigation suggest that olfactory training is a successful complementary therapy with no adverse reaction in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. Large cohort studies and longer follow-up periods are needed for providing olfactory training as a therapy modality in patients with epilepsy.
Article
Purpose This study examines the effectiveness of lemon essential oil in reducing test anxiety in first-year nursing students. Method A randomized, pre-test-post-test design was used in this study. The study included 46 first-year students from the Faculty of Medical Sciences of a private university in Istanbul, Turkey. Students were divided into two groups through randomisation (Intervention, N = 22; Control, N = 24). In the pre-test, a personal information form, State Test Anxiety Scale (STAS) and Test Anxiety Schedule (TAS) were administered to students in both groups. The students in the intervention group smelled lemon essential oil for 15 minutes. The study was completed by applying STAS and TAS as post-test. Results After smelling lemon essential oil, a significant difference was found between the mean pre-test and post-test scores for STAS, its sub-dimensions and TAS (p < 0.01) in the intervention group. It was observed that the nursing students’ mean scores for STAS, its sub-dimensions and TAS decreased after smelling lemon essential oil (p<0.05). It was found that the intervention group's mean post-test scores for STAS, cognitive sub-dimension and TAS were lower than those of the control group. Mean post-test scores of physiological sub-dimension in the intervention group were also significantly lower than the control group. It was concluded that lemon essential oil reduced test anxiety by 43.3%. Conclusion Lemon essential oil was found to be effective in reducing test anxiety in nursing students.
Article
This scoping review focused on the existing scholarly literature exploring sensory interventions and immersive environments developed for, and used by, older adults living with dementia. The purpose of the scoping review is 1) to understand the various sensory interventions that have been developed, used, and have provided data to show how such interventions are expected to impact the lives of individuals living with dementia; and 2) to understand how the field is moving forward. We chose to map the literature to understand the types of interventions, the types of outcomes measured, and the contexts of their implementation. Our search was constrained to references from 1990 to 1 June 2019 in the following databases: Academic Search Complete, CINAHL Complete, MEDLINE, PsycINFO databases, and Summon Search discovery layer. We screened 2305 articles based on their titles and abstracts, and 465 were sent to full text review, of which 170 were included in our full text extraction. Once the data were extracted, we created emic categories, which emerged from the data, for data that were amenable to categorization (e.g., study setting, intervention type, and outcome type). We developed ten different categories of interventions: art, aromatics, light, multi-component interventions, multisensory rooms, multisensory, music, nature, touch, and taste. Sensory interventions are a standard psychosocial approach to managing the personal expressions commonly experienced by people living with dementia. Our findings can help providers, caregivers, and researchers better design interventions for those living with dementia, to help them selectively choose interventions for particular outcomes and settings. Two areas emerging in the field are nature interventions (replacing traditional "multisensory rooms" with natural environments that are inherently multisensory and engaging) and multi-component interventions (where cognitive training programs are enhanced by adding sensory components).
Article
Objective This study aimed to investigate the causes of olfactory dysfunction (OD) and to discuss the benefits of understanding the characteristics of OD in elderly patients. Methods A total of 4300 patients with OD who were treated at our hospital between January 1996 and December 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. There were 1833 men and 2467 women, with ages ranging from 4 to 95 years. The patients were divided into two groups: younger (less than 65 years old, n = 2947) and elderly (65 years old or more, n = 1353) groups. Causative diseases were chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), post-viral (PV), post-traumatic (PT), central nervous system dysfunction (CNS), peripheral nervous system dysfunction (PNS), congenital, psychogenic, and unknown. Visual analogue scale (VAS) and olfactory detection and recognition thresholds using the T&T olfaction test were used to evaluate olfaction. The mean detection and recognition thresholds, as well as the deviation difference (the difference between the mean detection and recognition thresholds) were compared by causative disease. Results The causative diseases in elderly group were CRS (32%), PV (28%), PT (3%), CNS (2%), and PNS (4%). OD of unknown cause was significantly more in elderly (30%) than in younger patients (12%). Olfactory detection and recognition thresholds in elderly group were significantly worse than in younger group (p < 0.05). The olfactory detection and recognition thresholds were not any significant differences between patients with OD of unknown cause and those with CNS. Conclusion OD of unknown cause was predominantly observed in elderly group. The olfactory acuity of OD of unknown cause was similar to CNS OD. These findings suggest the importance of continuous follow-up due to the potential of neurodegenerative diseases in elderly OD patients.
Article
Purpose: This study was an experimental research study to examine the effects of aroma essential oil inhalation on autonomic nerve system response, electroencephalogram and concentration.Methods: The participants were 92 healthy adults: 32 in the experimental group, 30 in the placebo group, and 30 in the control group. In the experimental group, lemon and rosemary oil were mixed in a ratio of 4: 1, and 0.1 ml was dropped on gauze and then naturally inhaled for a total of 30 minutes. The application for the placebo group was 0.9% saline solution, and for the control group, no treatment. To determine the effects, the autonomic nervous system response was measured by applying Canopy 9 Plus 4.0 before the experiment and at 10, 20, and 30 minutes after the experimental application, and an electroencephalogram was taken using QEEG-8. The computerized neurocognitive function test for measuring concentration was given before the experiment and at 30 minutes after the treatment.Results: There were no significant differences in the homogeneity tests for general characteristics and for the dependent variables prior to the experiment. There was a significant difference in sympathetic nervous activity between the experimental group, placebo group, and control group (F=3.78, p=.027), and the experimental group had higher sympathetic nervous activity than the control group. There was no statistically significant difference on the electroencephalogram between the ⍺ and beta waves of the three groups. The Stroop Color-Word interference test (color) of the three groups for concentration measurement was significantly different between pre test and at 30 minutes after the treatment (F=7.40, p=.001), and the score for the experimental group increased compared to the control group.Conclusion: The findings showed that the inhalation of aroma essential oil activated the sympathetic nervous system and partially increased the level of concentration.
Article
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A new rating instrument, the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale, was designed specifically to evaluate the severity of cognitive and noncognitive behavioral dysfunctions characteristic of persons with Alzheimer's disease. Item descriptions, administration procedures, and scoring are outlined. Twenty-seven subjects with Alzheimer's disease and 28 normal elderly subjects were rated on 40 items. Twenty-one items with significant intraclass correlation coefficients for interrater reliability (range, .650-.989) and significant Spearman rank-order correlation coefficients for test-retest reliability (range, .514-1) constitute the final scale. Subjects with Alzheimer's disease had significantly more cognitive and noncognitive dysfunction than the normal elderly subjects.
Article
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The genesis of new cells, including neurons, in the adult human brain has not yet been demonstrated. This study was undertaken to investigate whether neurogenesis occurs in the adult human brain, in regions previously identified as neurogenic in adult rodents and monkeys. Human brain tissue was obtained postmortem from patients who had been treated with the thymidine analog, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), that labels DNA during the S phase. Using immunofluorescent labeling for BrdU and for one of the neuronal markers, NeuN, calbindin or neuron specific enolase (NSE), we demonstrate that new neurons, as defined by these markers, are generated from dividing progenitor cells in the dentate gyrus of adult humans. Our results further indicate that the human hippocampus retains its ability to generate neurons throughout life.
Article
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This study was designed to assess the olfactory impact of the essential oils of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and rosemary (Rosmarlnus officinalis) on cognitive performance and mood in healthy volunteers. One hundred and forty-four participants were randomly assigned to one of three independent groups, and subsequently performed the Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) computerized cognitive assessment battery in a cubicle containing either one of the two odors or no odor (control). Visual analogue mood questionnaires were completed prior to exposure to the odor, and subsequently after completion of the test battery. The participants were deceived as to the genuine aim of the study until the completion of testing to prevent expectancy effects from possibly influencing the data. The outcome variables from the nine tasks that constitute the CDR core battery feed into six factors that represent different aspects of cognitive functioning. Analysis of performance revealed that lavender produced a significant decrement in performance of working memory, and impaired reaction times for both memory and attention based tasks compared to controls. In contrast, rosemary produced a significant enhancement of performance for overall quality of memory and secondary memory factors, but also produced an impairment of speed of memory compared to controls. With regard to mood, comparisons of the change in ratings from baseline to post-test revealed that following the completion of the cognitive assessment battery, both the control and lavender groups were significantly less alert than the rosemary condition; however, the control group was significantly less content than both rosemary and lavender conditions. These findings indicate that the olfactory properties of these essential oils can produce objective effects on cognitive performance, as well as subjective effects on mood.
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To clarify the olfactory deficit hypothesis regarding Alzheimer's disease, the authors compared olfactory function in patients with Alzheimer's disease, subjects with mild cognitive impairment, and healthy comparison subjects. Olfactory function of 14 patients with mild Alzheimer's disease, eight subjects with mild cognitive impairment, and eight healthy age-matched comparison subjects was assessed with both psychophysical tests and olfactory event-related potentials. Group comparison of the psychophysical test results showed a significant main effect of diagnosis for odor detection threshold, odor discrimination, and odor identification. These results correlated only partially with those obtained from olfactory event-related potentials. Seven Alzheimer's disease patients and four with mild cognitive impairment showed no olfactory event-related potentials, suggesting hyposmia, while all comparison subjects had clearly discernible responses. Patients with Alzheimer's disease were significantly more likely to be nonresponders. In the four Alzheimer's disease patients and four subjects with mild cognitive impairment who had clear electrophysiological responses, amplitudes and latencies of the various event-related potential components were normal, i.e., similar to those of the comparison subjects, although 12 of the 14 Alzheimer's disease patients and seven of the eight mildly impaired subjects were classified as functionally anosmic with psychophysical methods. The electrophysiological results confirm prior findings of olfactory dysfunction in patients with Alzheimer's disease and preclinical Alzheimer's disease. Investigations of larger study groups with detailed cognitive examination and postmortem diagnosis may resolve the intriguing possibility of early diagnosis and discrimination of Alzheimer's disease subtypes through chemosensory event-related potentials in addition to existing biomarkers.
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The use of aromatherapy in nursing care continues to be popular in many settings. Most of the nursing literature relates to the use of essential oils in low doses for massage or use of the oils as environmental fragrances. Information from the wider literature may add to the evidence base for use of this therapy in nursing. This paper reports a literature relating to the use of aromatherapy by nurses and critically evaluates the evidence to support this practice. Medline, CINAHL, MANTIS and EBSCO Host databases were searched for papers related to use of essential oils and/or aromatherapy. Papers were also obtained through cross-checking of reference lists. A total of 165 articles have been included in this review. Nursing papers were published since 1990 were included, but some references from 1971 onwards relating to scientific research conducted on essential oils were also included. These remain valuable as they are probably the only reference available for a specific oil or property, or show the development of knowledge in this area. Papers were excluded if they consisted only of brief case studies presented in abstract form. The review covers key professional issues and the principal areas of clinical practice where aromatherapy is used. Despite calls for more research in the 1980s and 1990s, there is still little empirical evidence to support the use of aromatherapy in nursing practice beyond enhancing relaxation. Its popularity needs to be balanced against the potential risks related to allergies, safety and inappropriate use by inexperienced users. There is great potential for more collaborative research by nurses to explore the clinical applications in greater detail and to move beyond the low dose paradigm of application of essential oils.
Article
Eighty-three brains obtained at autopsy from nondemented and demented individuals were examined for extracellular amyloid deposits and intraneuronal neurofibrillary changes. The distribution pattern and packing density of amyloid deposits turned out to be of limited significance for differentiation of neuropathological stages. Neurofibrillary changes occurred in the form of neuritic plaques, neurofibrillary tangles and neuropil threads. The distribution of neuritic plaques varied widely not only within architectonic units but also from one individual to another. Neurofibrillary tangles and neuropil threads, in contrast, exhibited a characteristic distribution pattern permitting the differentiation of six stages. The first two stages were characterized by an either mild or severe alteration of the transentorhinal layer Pre-alpha (transentorhinal stages I-II). The two forms of limbic stages (stages III-IV) were marked by a conspicuous affection of layer Pre-alpha in both transentorhinal region and proper entorhinal cortex. In addition, there was mild involvement of the first Ammon's horn sector. The hallmark of the two isocortical stages (stages V-VI) was the destruction of virtually all isocortical association areas. The investigation showed that recognition of the six stages required qualitative evaluation of only a few key preparations.
Article
Criteria for the diagnosis of vascular dementia (VaD) that are reliable, valid, and readily applicable in a variety of settings are urgently needed for both clinical and research purposes. To address this need, the Neuroepidemiology Branch of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) convened an International Workshop with support from the Association Internationale pour la Recherche et l'Enseignement en Neurosciences (AIREN), resulting in research criteria for the diagnosis of VaD. Compared with other current criteria, these guidelines emphasize (1) the heterogeneity of vascular dementia syndromes and pathologic subtypes including ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes, cerebral hypoxic-ischemic events, and senile leukoencephalopathic lesions; (2) the variability in clinical course, which may be static, remitting, or progressive; (3) specific clinical findings early in the course (eg, gait disorder, incontinence, or mood and personality changes) that support a vascular rather than a degenerative cause; (4) the need to establish a temporal relationship between stroke and dementia onset for a secure diagnosis; (5) the importance of brain imaging to support clinical findings; (6) the value of neuropsychological testing to document impairments in multiple cognitive domains; and (7) a protocol for neuropathologic evaluations and correlative studies of clinical, radiologic, and neuropsychological features. These criteria are intended as a guide for case definition in neuroepidemiologic studies, stratified by levels of certainty (definite, probable, and possible). They await testing and validation and will be revised as more information becomes available.
Article
Background: Many researchers theorize that animal-assisted therapy (AAT) will have an effect on people suffering from the symptoms of dementia by evaluating short-term-effects. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the psychological and behavioral effects of AAT on elderly residents of a nursing home on a long-term basis. Methods: The subjects consisted of 10 residents of a residential nursing home. Researchers first created each participant’s goal in an agreement with the nursing home staff. Visits were made twice a month, and on each occasion three or four dogs were taken. The residents were able to freely feed, hold and play with the dogs, with each dog placed on a separate table. Data collection methods included GBS Scale Japanese Version (GBSS-J) and Mental Function Impairment Scale (MENFIS). Data was collected four times during the period 2003–05. The scores were analyzed using SPSS11.5J. Results: According to GBSS-J, the scores for intellectual function, spontaneity, emotional function and other mental functions decreased during the first 6 months of the study and then increased until the twelfth month. The score for Motor function increased over the 12 months. When comparisons were made item by item, there were significant decreases in impaired orientation in space, and emotional liability during the first 6 months. According to MENFIS, the overall score tended to decrease during the first 6-month period but increased from 6 months to 12 months. There was a tendency for scores to decrease in impaired emotional function, especially impaired suitability of emotional expression and impaired stability of emotional expression over the 12-month period. Conclusions: After 6 months of participation in AAT, there were improvements in mental functions, though physical functions decreased. It is suggested that after a 6 month period each subject’s needs and goals should be re-examined.
Article
Background:  Preventing the progression of dementia is a widespread challenge. However, currently there is limited evidence supporting the effectiveness of dementia rehabilitation.Methods:  We practiced activity reminiscence therapy (ART) as brain-activating rehabilitation for both lucid and demented persons (n = 18) in a day-service setting as well as in a group home. The ART sessions were conducted 1 hour every week for 12 weeks (intervention period). We compared the results of three cognitive tests (the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Kana Pick-out test and the ‘logical memory’ component of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised) and four behavior and caregiver's burden scales (the Clinical Dementia Rating, the Multidimensional Observation Scale for Elderly Subjects, the Dementia Behavior Disturbance scale and the Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview) conducted during the control period with those taken during the intervention period. At the end of the intervention period, we interviewed the staff and families individually to assess whether the participants seemed to have changed after intervention and, if so, how.Results:  In cognitive tests, only immediate and delayed recall of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised showed significant improvement. None of the four behavior and caregiver's burden scales showed any significant changes after intervention. However, the interviews showed improvements in subjective aspects of communication, interaction and behavior.Conclusion:  ART uses old-style tools. The nostalgia brought about by using these familiar tools led to effective recall of experiences, in which the participants taught the staff how to use the tools, which were unfamiliar to the staff. Through this role-reversal, they gained a sense of self-worth and a desire to live. Due to the reconstructed relationship between participants and caregivers, we consider ART to be effective in maintaining and improving emotional functions, activities of daily living and memory. ART should be useful for both lucid and mildly demented persons as brain-activating rehabilitation therapy.
Article
Abstract  Despite a rapid increase in disabled elderly in Japan, the burden of the caregiver has not been properly assessed due to a lack of objective measurements. Our study was aimed at adapting and validating the Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview (ZBI) in Japan, which is one of the most widely used measurements for caregivers' burden in the United States. Sixty-six caregivers answered the self-administered questionnaire, involving the Japanese version of the ZBI and questions regarding their caregiving situation. Our study demonstrated that the Japanese version of the ZBI had equally as high reliability and validity as the original version. The Japanese ZBI had a high test—retest reliability (r = 0.76) and internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.93). The total score of the ZBI was highly correlated with the caregivers' score of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) score (r = 0.50), as well as a single global rating of burden (r = 0.71). It was also shown that demographic distribution of the score of the Japanese version had a similar trend to that of the original version. Caregivers who looked after patients with behavioral disturbances were found to have a significantly higher ZBI score than those who looked alter patients without behavioral disturbances, which is consistent with previous findings. It is concluded that the Japanese version of the ZBI can be used to measure feelings of burden of caregivers in the Japanese population and can be used for cross-cultural comparison.
Article
Background: While there is a growing interest in cognitive rehabilitation for older adults, not enough data is available regarding its feasibility and effectiveness in an older population. The present study implemented a home-based cognitive rehabilitation program for older adults in order to explore the program’s feasibility and effectiveness.Methods: The 8-month rehabilitation program consisted of multiple workbooks targeted at improving attention, memory and executive function. Study participants worked on the workbooks at home with family members, while professional cognitive rehabilitation staff periodically evaluated their progress. Attention, memory and executive function were evaluated at outset, at month 4 and at the end of month 8.Results: The nine initial participants had histories of subarachnoid hemorrhage or traumatic brain injury, or were outpatients of a memory clinic who had memory impairment. Six participants (66.7%) completed the 8-month program; one subject intentionally withdrew from the program while two others withdrew due to hospitalization. Among the six remaining participants, attention improved significantly between the month 4 and month 8 evaluations, and between the initial and month 8 evaluations. Within subsets of the attention test, significant improvement was seen in the visual selective attention domain. There was no change in memory or executive function, as well as the subjective difficulties in daily lives.Conclusions: This study suggests that a home-based cognitive rehabilitation program for older adults is feasible and may improve attention, especially visual selective attention. An 8-month rehabilitation program may have been of insufficient duration to generate significant improvements in memory or executive function.
Article
Evaluation of changes in functional performance and activities of daily living skills is an essential aspect of the assessment of elderly individuals with chronic illness. Although functional decrement is a central aspect of Alzheimer's disease (AD), many measures currently utilized to assess these changes have limitations. Empirical and systematic examination of the functional changes occurring in patients with AD has resulted in the development of an assessment measure termed Functional Assessment Staging (FAST) that allows for the specific evaluation of these changes throughout the entire course of AD. In this paper the results of three separate investigations regarding the reliability, validity, and progressive ordinality of FAST are described. The results indicate that FAST is a reliable and valid assessment technique for evaluating functional deterioration in AD patients throughout the entire course of the illness. Moreover, the results suggest that the FAST elucidates a characteristic pattern of progressive, ordinal, and functional decline in AD. Because the elements of functional capacity incorporated in FAST are relatively universal and readily ascertainable, as well as characteristic of the course of AD, FAST can serve as a strong diagnostic and differential diagnostic aid for clinicians. The sensitivity of FAST to the entire course of AD, even in its most severe stages, may be indicative of the potential value of this instrument for further investigation of the temporal longitudinal course of AD, and of the relationships between clinical pathology and neuropathology throughout the entire longitudinal course of AD.
Article
Eighty-three brains obtained at autopsy from nondemented and demented individuals were examined for extracellular amyloid deposits and intraneuronal neurofibrillary changes. The distribution pattern and packing density of amyloid deposits turned out to be of limited significance for differentiation of neuropathological stages. Neurofibrillary changes occurred in the form of neuritic plaques, neurofibrillary tangles and neuropil threads. The distribution of neuritic plaques varied widely not only within architectonic units but also from one individual to another. Neurofibrillary tangles and neuropil threads, in contrast, exhibited a characteristic distribution pattern permitting the differentiation of six stages. The first two stages were characterized by an either mild or severe alteration of the transentorhinal layer Pre-alpha (transentorhinal stages I-II). The two forms of limbic stages (stages III-IV) were marked by a conspicuous affection of layer Pre-alpha in both transentorhinal region and proper entorhinal cortex. In addition, there was mild involvement of the first Ammon's horn sector. The hallmark of the two isocortical stages (stages V-VI) was the destruction of virtually all isocortical association areas. The investigation showed that recognition of the six stages required qualitative evaluation of only a few key preparations.
Article
GBS scale with four subscales and 26 total items is a behavior rating scale for dementia syndromes, and is now being used as one of the measures to assess the effects of drug therapy in dementia in Japan. In this article, the reliability and validity of the Japanese version of GBS Scale (GBSS-J) in 246 patients with dementia are examined. Two pairs of raters independently rated 20 patients to test inter-rater reliability of the 26 items. Pearson's correlation coefficients indicated good agreement between the raters except for nine items. The validity of the 26 items was examined by comparing them with the Functional Assessment Staging. Physical disability was evaluated by the Rapid Disability Rating Scale. Twenty items of GBSS-J measured the severity of dementia with sufficient validity. In addition, the items of eating, impaired physical activity, impaired wakefulness, and irritability were related to severity of physical disability rather than to dementia by the results from an analysis of variance and covariance. Although internal reliabilities by Cronbach's alpha of the three subscales were relatively high except for the subscale of different symptoms common in dementia, a factor analysis of the 26 items raised questions concerning the construct validity of the original four subscales.
Article
Clinical criteria for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease include insidious onset and progressive impairment of memory and other cognitive functions. There are no motor, sensory, or coordination deficits early in the disease. The diagnosis cannot be determined by laboratory tests. These tests are important primarily in identifying other possible causes of dementia that must be excluded before the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease may be made with confidence. Neuropsychological tests provide confirmatory evidence of the diagnosis of dementia and help to assess the course and response to therapy. The criteria proposed are intended to serve as a guide for the diagnosis of probable, possible, and definite Alzheimer's disease; these criteria will be revised as more definitive information become available.
Article
In 190 patients, we studied changes in intellectual status during perioperative period using Hasegawa's Dementia Scale (HDS-R), and analyzed preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative risk factors. HDS-R is one of the most popular scoring tests for evaluating dementia or delirium. Risk factors impairing preoperative score were aging, and preoperative complications including cerebral vascular disease, old myocardial infarction, arrythmia, and diabetes mellitus. Risk factors impairing postoperative score were, in addition to above-mentioned factors, hypoproteinemia and postoperative stressful conditions such as prolonged fever, pain, bed rest, and naso-gastric tube. In the patients who showed postoperative score deterioration, the incidence of old myocardial infarction, hypertension, and postoperative stressful conditions was significantly greater. In the patients who showed postoperative score improvement, local anesthesia including epidural and spinal anesthesia was used more often. In conclusion, aging or preoperative complications such as cerebral vascular disease, old myocardial infarction, arrythmia, and diabetes mellitus are high risks for the development of postoperative dementia and delirium under general surgical procedures and general anesthesia. Intraoperative management with patients awake using local anesthesia and postoperative stress-less conditions are important to avoid postoperative dementia.
Article
We carried out two separate epidemiological studies on long-term changes, 10 years apart, on the prevalence rate of dementia in the elderly by the same method for the same area in Japan. We also performed a genetic study of patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT) based on the epidemiological studies. The number of patients with dementia was much larger in 1990 than in 1980. Especially, the number of mildly demented patients was significantly larger in 1990 than in 1980. The 35 patients with DAT did not show any mutations of amyloid-beta protein precursor, presenilin 1 and presenilin 2 genes. The frequency of apolipoprotein E (apo E) sigma4 allele in DAT was significantly higher than that in control subjects (p < 0.005). This study suggests that the frequency of DAT may increase by aging of the population in the future and we confirm the close association between apoE sigma4 allele and DAT in a community-based study in Japan.
Article
Several studies have demonstrated a good correlation between clinical severity and Braak's neuropathological staging in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, nonagenarians and centenarians display a different pattern of cortical vulnerability to the neurodegenerative process compared to younger elderly, and it is not known whether correlations between clinical severity and neuropathological stages remain valid in this age group. To address this issue we compared Clinical Dementia Rating scale (CDR) scores and Braak stages in 116 patients over 90 years of age with either no cognitive impairment or very mild to severe AD. There is a strong positive correlation between CDR scores and Braak staging (Spearman coefficient = 0.66; P < 0.01). However, neuropathological staging does not distinguish cases with normal cognition (CDR 0) from those with mild cognitive changes (CDR 0.5). Unlike younger cohorts, Braak stages I and II are frequently associated with questionable dementia in this age group. Braak stage III overlaps with all CDR levels and correlates poorly with cognitive function. Braak stages IV or greater are consistently associated with at least mild dementia. Consistent with our previous neuropathological analyses of nonagenarians and centenarians, the present data suggest that the substantial involvement of the hippocampus which characterizes Braak stage IV is a key step in the development of overt clinical signs of dementia in the oldest-old. Moreover, they indicate that Braak staging represents a broad concept of the evolution of neurofibrillary tangles rather than a precise hierarchical model associated with a stepwise deterioration of cognitive abilities near the upper limit of life.
Article
We studied the prevalence of dementing disorders in a rural town of Japan (Amino-cho), using a door-to-door two-phase design. Of the 170 persons screened as having cognitive impairment, 142 cases were diagnosed as having dementia. The prevalence (cases/100 aged 65 years older) was 3.8 for all types of dementia, 2.1 for Alzheimer's disease (AD), 1.0 for vascular dementia (VD) and 0.7 for other types of dementia. Among other types of dementia, there were four male patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (prevalence: 0.1), but no patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration. The overall prevalence was higher in women for AD, while that of VD was the same in both sexes. With results similar to many previous studies in Western countries and some recent surveys in Japan, the present sudy clearly showed that AD is more prevalent than VD.
Article
A random controlled trial of the relaxing effects of an aromatherapy massage on disordered behaviour in dementia was conducted. Twenty-one patients were randomly allocated into one of three conditions, aromatherapy and massage (AM), conversation and aromatherapy (CA) and massage only (M). AM showed the greatest reduction in the frequency of excessive motor behaviour of all three conditions. This reached statistical significance between the hours of three and four pm (p < 0.05). Post hoc analysis suggested that at this time of day the AM consistently reduced motor behaviour when compared with CA (p = 0.05). This provides preliminary evidence of a measurable sedative effect of aromatherapy massage on dementia within a robust scientific paradigm. Further research is recommended with an expanded sample size.
Article
Antioxidative Wirkung von Zitronenöl und seinen Komponeneten auf die Kup-fer-induzierte Oxidation von Low Density Lipoprotein Die Oxidation von Low Density Lipo-protein (LDL) wird seit einigen Jahren mit der Atherogenese in Verbindung ge-bracht. Daher wird von vielen Arbeits-gruppen nach wirkungsvollen Antioxidantien gesucht, die in der Lage sind, die LDL-Oxidation zu verhindern und so das Atherosklerose-Risiko zu verringern. Be-sonderes Augenmerk gilt dabei verschiedenen Flavonoiden, deren antioxidative Kapazität von unterschiedlichen Fakto-ren abhängt, unter anderem von der Li-pophilic des jeweiligen Flavonoids. Etherische Öle, welche hochlipophil sind, besitzen antioxidative Eigenschaften und wurden daher hinsichtlich ihres Einflusses auf die kupferinduzierte LDL-Oxida-tion untersucht. Dazu wurde Plasma mit verschiedenen Terpenen inkubiert und anschließend LDL isoliert Diese Vorinkubation führt zur Anreicherung der Ter-pene im LDL. Während der kupferinduzierten LDL-Oxidation wurden die Bildung konjugierter Diene und die Ab-nahme der Tryptophanfluoreszenz bestimmt sowie die Antioxidation α-Tocopherol, β-Carotin und Lycopin im LDL quantifiziert. Die stärkste Verzögerung der LDL-Oxidation konnte mit Zitro-nenöl und einer seiner Komponenten,γ -Terpinen, erreicht werden. Dieser Effekt ist unabhängig vom α-Tocopherol-Ver-brauch, die Oxidation der Carotinoide wird hingegen in Anwesenheit von γ-Ter-pinen stark verzögert.
Article
Behavioral and psychological symptoms in dementia are frequent and are a major management problem, especially for patients with severe cognitive impairment. Preliminary reports have indicated positive effects of aromatherapy using select essential oils, but there are no adequately powered placebo-controlled trials. We conducted a placebo-controlled trial to determine the value of aromatherapy with essential oil of Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) for agitation in people with severe dementia. Seventy-two people residing in National Health Service (U.K.) care facilities who had clinically significant agitation in the context of severe dementia were randomly assigned to aromatherapy with Melissa essential oil (N = 36) or placebo (sunflower oil) (N = 36). The active treatment or placebo oil was combined with a base lotion and applied to patients' faces and arms twice a day by caregiving staff. Changes in clinically significant agitation (Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory [CMAI]) and quality of life indices (percentage of time spent socially withdrawn and percentage of time engaged in constructive activities, measured with Dementia Care Mapping) were compared between the 2 groups over a 4-week period of treatment. Seventy-one patients completed the trial. No significant side effects were observed. Sixty percent (21/35) of the active treatment group and 14% (5/36) of the placebo-treated group experienced a 30% reduction of CMAI score, with an overall improvement in agitation (mean reduction in CMAI score) of 35% in patients receiving Melissa balm essential oil and 11% in those treated with placebo (Mann-Whitney U test; Z = 4.1, p < .0001). Quality of life indices also improved significantly more in people receiving essential balm oil (Mann-Whitney U test; percentage of time spent socially withdrawn: Z = 2.6, p = .005; percentage of time engaged in constructive activities: Z = 3.5, p = .001). The finding that aromatherapy with essential balm oil is a safe and effective treatment for clinically significant agitation in people with severe dementia, with additional benefits for key quality of life parameters, indicates the need for further controlled trials.
Article
This study was designed to verify the effect of aromatherapy on a postpartum mother's perineal healing. The research design was a clinical trial. The methods of aromatherapy were applied sitz bath or soap application using essential oils with Lavender, Myrrh, Neroli, Rose, Grapefruit, Mandarin, Orange, and Roman Chamomile. The subjects of this experiment were postpartum mothers who delivered vaginally with an episiotomy. They were allocated to one of three groups; the aroma-sitz bath group, aroma-soap application group or control group. To evaluate the effect of aromatherapy, the perineal healing status was measured using the REEDA scale and smears of episiotomy wound were obtained. The data were analyzed by repeated measures of ANOVA, ANCOVA, chi2-test, and multiple response analysis via SPSS program. The REEDA scale was significantly low in the experimental group at postpartum 5th and 7th days (P=.009, P=.003), respectively. Most were observed 'few'(5-10 bacteria per field) bacteria in the smears of episiotomy wound. The one bacteria was identified in the 50.8% of subjects in pretest and two bacteria in the 60.3% in posttest. Most frequently identified bacteria were Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis. In conclusion, these findings indicate that postpartum aromatherapy for perineal care could be effective in healing the perineum perineal care could be effective in healing the perineum.
Article
Although thousands of new neurons are continuously produced in the dentate gyrus of rodents each day, the function of these newborn cells remains unclear. An increasing number of reports have provided correlational evidence that adult hippocampal neurogenesis is involved in learning and memory. Exposure of animals to an enriched environment leads to improvement of performance in several learning tasks and enhances neurogenesis specifically in the hippocampus. These data raise the question of whether new neurons participate in memory improvement induced by enrichment. To address this issue, we have examined whether the increase in the number of surviving adult-generated cells following environmental enrichment contributes to improved memory function. To this end, neurogenesis was substantially reduced throughout the environmental enrichment period using the antimitotic agent methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM). Recognition memory performance of MAM-treated enriched rats was evaluated in a novel object recognition task and compared with that of naive and nontreated enriched rats. Injections of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine were used to label dividing cells, together with double immunofluorescent labelling using glial or neuronal cell-specific markers. We found that enrichment led to improved long-term recognition memory and increased hippocampal neurogenesis, and that MAM treatment during environmental enrichment completely prevented both the increase in neurogenesis and enrichment-induced long-term memory improvement. These results establish that newborn cells in the dentate gyrus contribute to the expression of the promnesic effects of behavioural enrichment, and they provide further support for the idea that adult-generated neurons participate in modulating memory function.
Article
Cerebral deposition of beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptides is an invariant pathological hallmark in brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and transgenic mice coexpressing familial AD-linked APP and PS1 variants. We now report that exposure of transgenic mice to an "enriched environment" results in pronounced reductions in cerebral Abeta levels and amyloid deposits, compared to animals raised under "standard housing" conditions. The enzymatic activity of an Abeta-degrading endopeptidase, neprilysin, is elevated in the brains of "enriched" mice and inversely correlated with amyloid burden. Moreover, DNA microarray analysis revealed selective upregulation in levels of transcripts encoded by genes associated with learning and memory, vasculogenesis, neurogenesis, cell survival pathways, Abeta sequestration, and prostaglandin synthesis. These studies provide evidence that environmental enrichment leads to reductions in steady-state levels of cerebral Abeta peptides and amyloid deposition and selective upregulation in levels of specific transcripts in brains of transgenic mice.
Article
This study was to develop an aromatherapy hand massage program, and to evaluate the effects of lavender aromatherapy on cognitive function, emotion, and aggressive behavior of elderly with dementia of the Alzheimer's type. The Research design was a nonequivalent control group non-synchronized quasiexperimental study. Lavender aromatherapy was administrated to experimental group I for 2 weeks, jojoba oil massage was administrated to experimental group II for 2 weeks, and no treatment was administrated to the control group for 2 weeks. Data was analyzed using the chi(2)-test, ANOVA, repeated measures of ANCOVA and ANCOVA in the SPSS program package. 1. Experimental group I did not show significant differences in cognitive function in relation to the experimental group II and control group. 2. Experimental group I showed significant differences in emotion and aggressive behavior in relation to the experimental group II and control group. A Lavender aromatherapy hand massage program is effective on emotions and aggressive behavior of elderly with dementia of the Alzheimer's type.
Article
A number of medicinal plants are traditionally endowed with anxiolytic or sedative properties and, in the context of this revue, both indications are considered since the former may induce a mood conducive to the latter. For any sleep-inducing drug to be effective, a tranquil ambience needs to be established a priori. Thus, physical ailments (i.e. pain), factors interfering with sleep (i.e. noise), psychological conditions causing stress, psychiatric illnesses (i.e. depression) and other drugs that interfere with sleep (i.e. caffeine) need to be controlled, if possible. Kava-kava is a well-established hypnotic drug, with a rapid onset of effect, adequate duration of action and minimal morning after-effects. However, reports of serious hepatotoxicity with this preparation have led to it being banned in most countries worldwide. On the other hand, side-effects with valerian would appear to be bland indeed. However, it's slow onset of effect (2-3 weeks) renders it unsuitable for short-term use (i.e. 'jet-lag'), but it does have profound beneficial effects on sleep architecture (augments deep sleep) that may make it particularly suitable for long-term use and for the elderly. In a personal trial (not double-blind) in stress-induced insomnia, both kava and valerian improved sleep and the ill-effects of stress, and the combination of the two was even more effective for the control of insomnia. Aromatherapy (lavender, chamomile, Ylang-Ylang) would appear to improve sleep, but how practical a form of treatment this may be remains to be determined. The only other plant drug that may have some effect on sleep is melissa, but reports are too scanty to form any opinion about this. Based on animal experiments, passion flower (passiflora) may have a sedative action, but the sedative action of hops has not been investigated in any detail. In conclusion, there is a need for longer-term controlled studies with some of these compounds (particularly valerian). Aromatherapy constitutes a tantalising possibility. In the interpretation of this review, it should be borne in mind that the evidence on which it is based is often incomplete or missing, but that is all that is available. Consequently some conjecture on the part of the author is inevitable and should be appreciated as such.
Article
Insomnia is the most common of all sleep complaints and is under-researched. The current treatments of choice are conventional hypnotics agents, but these have potential for serious adverse reactions. Uncontrolled and anecdotal evidence suggests that lavender oil is an effective treatment for insomnia, but this has not been formally investigated. The aims of this study were to evaluate the proposed trial methodology and the efficacy of Lavandula augustifolia (lavender) on insomnia. Interventions: Interventions consisted of Lavandula augustifolia (treatment) and sweet almond oil as placebo/control. The aroma was supplied via an Aromastream device (Tisserand Aromatherapy, Sussex, UK). This was a pilot study with randomized, single-blind, cross-over design (baseline, two treatment periods, and a washout period, each of 1 week duration). Volunteers with defined insomnia treated on a domiciliary basis participated in the study. Outcomes were assessed with the following: Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) indicating insomnia (score > 5 at entry); Borkovec and Nau (B&N) Questionnaire evaluating treatment credibility; and Holistic Complementary and Alternative Medicine Questionnaire (HCAMQ) assessing attitudes to CAM and health beliefs. Ten (10) volunteers (5 male and 5 female) were entered and completed the 4 week study. Lavender created an improvement of -2.5 points in PSQI (p = 0.07, 95% CI - 4.95 to - 0.4). Each intervention was equally credible and belief in CAM did not predict outcome. Women and younger volunteers with a milder insomnia improved more than others. No period or carry-over effect was observed. The methodology for this pilot study appeared to be appropriate. Outcomes favor lavender, and a larger trial is required to draw definitive conclusions.
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