Conference Paper

Pan-European power quality survey

Authors:
  • European Copper Institute
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Abstract

This paper presents the results of a sun'ey conducted by the European Copper Institute (ECI) into the consequences for EU industry of poor power quality. These add up to >epsi150bn annually, are mainly experienced by industry and caused by power interruptions (dips, surges, transients and short interruptions). This paper also recommends a course of action to make use of the significant and disturbing conclusions drawn from the analysis that has been carried out.

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... Figure 1 shows examples of current waveforms, along with the harmonic spectrum for loads that are a source of higher harmonics. The distortion of the current and voltage waveforms in supply networks involves several unfavorable effects, the most important of which are [5][6][7]: ...
... The level of acoustic disturbance emission also increases. In the case of transformers, active power losses may even be twice as high for nonlinear loads compared to losses for linear loads [6,7]. Therefore, it is necessary to have specially designed transformers in an environment with distorted currents and voltages, which significantly increases their production costs. ...
... According to [8], the impact of harmonics on power quality costs is only 5.4% of the total PQ cost, but it is still a huge sum. The authors of the 2005-2006 report [7] estimate that losses in the European Union related to power quality amounted to approximately EUR 150 billion at that time. Currently, there are no new studies on this topic, but it can be concluded that the increased share of nonlinear loads means that these losses are now much greater. ...
Article
Full-text available
Distortions of current and voltage waveforms from a sinusoidal shape are, not only a source of technical problems, but also have serious economic effects. Their occurrence is related to the common use of loads with nonlinear current-voltage characteristics. These are both high-power loads (most often power electronic switching devices supplying high-power drives), but also widely used low-power loads (power supplies, chargers, energy-saving light sources). The best way to eliminate these distortions is to use active power filters. The cost of these devices is relatively high. Therefore, scientists all over the world are conducting research aimed at developing techniques for the proper placement of these devices, in order to minimize their investment costs. The best solution to this problem is to use optimization techniques. This paper compares the methods and criteria used by the authors of publications dealing with this topic. The summary also indicates a possible direction for further work.
... Table 1 lists the main harmonics-generated problems that can cause unexpected losses in industry [16]. According to [17], the economic impact of poor power quality in European industry is more than 150 billion. Harmonics also produce additional costs in domestic environments. ...
... Furthermore, voltages and currents are filtered to supply specific loads such as electric vehicle chargers, lighting and, uninterruptible power supplies. Illumination is a primary source of harmonics [17], so the figure depicts an APF compensating the harmonics of these loads. Finally, in level 3, there are the remaining loads connected to the grid. ...
... Finally, in level 3, there are the remaining loads connected to the grid. Within this level, there is a data processing center, another significant source of disturbances [17], and an APF is required to compensate its harmonics. ...
Article
Full-text available
The power quality of electrical grids is becoming an important issue worldwide. The electrical grid has to deliver sinusoidal voltages and currents without frequency or amplitude variations. However, the connection of non-linear loads generates harmonics that degrade the grid quality. The presence of harmonics in the load currents has many negative consequences and can distort the voltage waveform at the point of common coupling (PCC). Thus, it is essential to mitigate the harmonics in order to maintain a suitable grid quality. This is a shared responsibility between energy suppliers, manufacturers of electric and electronic equipment, and users. In this context, this work presents, for each stakeholder, a comprehensive analysis of their responsibilities and the standards that they should meet. Additionally, this paper reviews the most common types of filters used to comply with the applicable standards in industrial applications. Finally, in order to prove that active power filters allow maintaining good power quality in all types of grid, commercially available active power filters were installed in three different grids contexts: an office building, a factory, and a stadium with a large number of LEDs. The experimental results obtained were used to evaluate the impact of active filters on grid quality. This review would help users to overcome their grid distortion problems.
... On the other hand, monitoring stands as the best way of recording the characteristics of events and then calculating the corresponding Customer Voltage Sag Costs (CVSCs). However, as it is pointed out in [9], the level and the quality of measurement of poor quality events are not sufficient and reliable enough to estimate the economic losses due to these events. ...
... According to the study done by Leonardo Energy [9], the cost of power quality events in Europe exceeds 150 billion euros annually. The industry sector PQ loss figures correspond to almost 5% of the European Union (EU) industry sector GDP. ...
... Voltage sags might not be a big problem for residential consumers, however, it is evident that these events pose significant economic threats to industrial customers. Targosz and Manson [9] state that the PQ losses of the industry sector constitute around 90% of the total costs of all sectors included in the survey. Voltage sags and short interruptions alone are responsible for more than 50% of the total losses. ...
Article
Full-text available
The electric power sector has changed dramatically since the 1980s. Electricity customers are now demanding uninterrupted and high quality service from both utilities and authorities. By becoming more and more dependent on the voltage sensitive electronic equipment, the industry sector is the one which is affected the most by voltage disturbances. Voltage sags are one of the most crucial problems for these customers. The utilities, on the other hand, conduct cost-benefit analyses before going through new investment projects. At this point, understanding the costs of voltage sags become imperative for planning purposes. The characteristics of electric power consumption and hence the susceptibility against voltage sags differ considerably among different industry subsectors. Therefore, a model that will address the estimation of worth of electric power reliability for a large number of customer groups is necessary. This paper introduces a macroeconomic model to calculate Customer Voltage Sag Costs (CVSCs) for the industry sector customers. The proposed model makes use of analytical data such as value added, annual energy consumption, working hours, and average outage durations and provides a straightforward, credible, and easy to follow methodology for the estimation of CVSCs.
... According to European research institutions, as a result of the low quality of electrical energy in industry, there is a loss of more than 150 billion euros per year. Of these, harmonic effects account for 1.3 billion euros [4]. But if we take into account the impact of harmonics on the relay protection equipment and the possible outages of consumers, the losses can amount to more than 100 billion euros [4]. ...
... Of these, harmonic effects account for 1.3 billion euros [4]. But if we take into account the impact of harmonics on the relay protection equipment and the possible outages of consumers, the losses can amount to more than 100 billion euros [4]. ...
... In this mode, E2 operates over the entire sample interval, and E1 over only first period of the fundamental frequency (1/10 of the sample interval), i.e., the overvoltage caused by the harmonic source (Fig. 4c). 4. E1=6000V with phase 0° and E2=6000V with a phase of 180° (E1 and E2 are opposite). ...
... However, the same equipment often distorts the supply voltage of the installations due to their nonlinear characteristics, i.e., they lead to the occurrence of a non-sinusoidal current when applying a sinusoidal voltage. Thus, maintaining a satisfactory quality of electrical power is a shared responsibility of the electrical power supplier and user [9]. Current technology development, which results in increasing adoption of the local generation and storage capacities, is pushing towards the adoption of a smart grid paradigm. ...
... The relatively small proportion for the service sector is probably determined by the underestimation of PQ costs or the difficulty of delimiting losses caused by unsatisfactory electrical power and other causes. The study shows that, in the industrial sector, the estimation of the losses due to unsatisfactory electrical power represents 4% of the annual turnover, and in services, the estimate of the losses due to unsatisfactory electrical power represents 0.14% of yearly turnover [9]. ...
... Among the industrial companies studied, the most significant losses occur in manufacturing companies with a continuous process, and lower losses in the metallurgical, food, and beverage industries and in the general production processes. In the services sector, the highest losses occur in hospitals, according to the European Copper Institute [9]. ...
Article
Full-text available
In a context with an increased level of competitiveness, companies are more and more interested in aspects concerning sustainable development. The implications of inadequate power quality (PQ) can determine important financial losses and influence companies’ sustainable development through the generated effects. This article aims to facilitate the management of PQ by proposing a method for estimating the economic consequences of a poor PQ, with priority for the disturbances with significant economic effects. To determine the total cost for each type of PQ perturbation that may occur a classification of cost categories was made such as interruptions, process slowdowns, equipment failure, equipment downtime, reduced energy efficiency, lower product quality, lower labor productivity, and other indirect costs. Each PQ disturbance affects the final end-user differently. For calculating the total value for each type of PQ issues, different calculation formulas have been proposed so that each perturbation includes only those components associated with that perturbation. A case study was used to validate the proposed method. Also, the paper includes a technical and economic analysis of the possible compensation solutions for PQ disturbances that may affect the studied company. In conclusion, an understanding of PQ issues’ consequences and an appropriate approach to PQ compensation solutions can be beneficial to any electrical power end-user.
... Of the several types of power quality disturbance that entail financial losses to businesses, voltage sags and short interruptions have been considered as the most damaging [1]. As an example a 2007 power quality report [2] indicates an annual loss of €86 billion in the EU due to voltage sags and short interruptions. Without doubt, financial losses are the current driving force for power quality analysis. ...
... The sequence voltages at bus i can be calculated by For line to ground faults, (0) (1) (2) f f f I I I . Dividing (2) by (3) yields (2) (2) ...
... Defining (2) (0) ii G V V  and utilizing (5) and (6), we get ...
... On the other hand, monitoring stands as the best way of recording the characteristics of events and then calculating the corresponding Customer Voltage Sag Costs (CVSCs). However, as it is pointed out in [9], the level and the quality of measurement of poor quality events are not sufficient and reliable enough to estimate the economic losses due to these events. ...
... According to the study done by Leonardo Energy [9], the cost of power quality events in Europe exceeds 150 billion euros annually. The industry sector PQ loss figures correspond to almost 5% of the European Union (EU) industry sector GDP. ...
... Voltage sags might not be a big problem for residential consumers, however, it is evident that these events pose significant economic threats to industrial customers. Targosz and Manson [9] state that the PQ losses of the industry sector constitute around 90% of the total costs of all sectors included in the survey. Voltage sags and short interruptions alone are responsible for more than 50% of the total losses. ...
Article
The electric power sector has changed dramatically since the 1980s. Electricity customers are now demanding uninterrupted and high quality service from both utilities and authorities. By becoming more and more dependent on the voltage sensitive electronic equipment, the industry sector is the one which is affected the most by voltage disturbances. Voltage sags are one of the most crucial problems for these customers. The utilities, on the other hand, conduct cost-benefit analyses before going through new investment projects. At this point, understanding the costs of voltage sags become imperative for planning purposes. The characteristics of electric power consumption and hence the susceptibility against voltage sags differ considerably among different industry subsectors. Therefore, a model that will address the estimation of worth of electric power reliability for a large number of customer groups is necessary. This paper introduces a macroeconomic model to calculate Customer Voltage Sag Costs (CVSCs) for the industry sector customers. The proposed model makes use of analytical data such as value added, annual energy consumption, working hours, and average outage durations and provides a straightforward, credible, and easy to follow methodology for the estimation of CVSCs.
... In industry, an increasing number of technological processes are sensitive to changes in power supply parameters and even slight deviations can cause large economic losses. From the economical point of view, effects of low power quality can be divided into four categories [2,3]: ...
... According to [2], the impact of harmonics on the costs related to power quality is only 5.4% of the total PQ cost, but it is still a huge sum. The authors of the report for 2005-2006 [3] estimate that the losses in the European Union related to the quality of electricity amounted to approximately 150 billion EUR at that time. ...
Article
Full-text available
The paper presents a shunt hybrid active power filter for 1 kV mining applications in configuration with a single-tuned passive filter. The focus is on the method of controlling the filter, with particular emphasis on the influence of network voltage distortion and time delays in control on the effectiveness of harmonic reduction, which is one of the most important aspect of power quality. The low-power loss configuration of a hybrid filter with SiC transistors is shown, as well as the control algorithm which limits the influence of voltage distortion. Theoretical considerations are verified by results obtained from simulations and tests of the hybrid active power filter prototype.
... number of power quality (PQ) monitoring programs and surveys have been conducted across the globe [1] [2]. The information collected during these surveys reflect the quality levels expected in particular power systems [3] [4]. Literature indicates that power dips, swells and interruptions are the leading causes of PQ disturbances [6]. ...
... Throughout the world there has number of PQ monitoring programs that has been completed. Some of the PQ surveys carried out internationally are as follows: (a) EPRI DPQ [4]. Standard procedures and limitations in Iran were surveyed in a distribution system. ...
... In a general way, any disturbance in the voltage, current or frequency that results in fail or abnormal operation of an equipment can be classified as a power quality problem [1]. Studies in this subject indicate that the European Union spends around 150 billions of Euros annually due to the power quality problems, while only 297,5 millions of Euros annually are invested by companies to solve these problems [2]. ...
... In [1], a survey in the Portuguese industry concluded that costs associated with power quality problems represent, on average, 69% of annual electricity bills. In [2], it was concluded that the annual cost due to power quality problems in the industry and service sectors in Shanghai can be set in the range from USD 0.597 to 1.77 billion.According to [3], the cost associated with power quality problems in the European industry is around USD 150 billion . This fact encourages suppliers and the industry to locate disturbances' origins to assign the responsibilities and, consequently, the costs. ...
Article
Full-text available
The complexity in the power system topology, together with the new paradigm in generation and demand, make achieving an adequate level of supply quality a complicated goal for distribution companies. The electrical system power quality is subject to different regulations. On one hand, EN-50160 establishes the characteristics of the voltage supplied by public electricity networks, therefore affecting distribution companies. On the other hand, the EN-61000 series of standards regulates the electromagnetic compatibility of devices connected to the network, therefore affecting the loads. Power companies and device manufacturers are both responsible and affected in the issue of quality of supply. Despite the regulations, there are certain aspects of the supply quality that are not solved. One of the most important is the location of the disturbance’s origin. This paper presents a review of the main techniques to locate the disturbance’s origin in the electric network through two approaches: identification of the disturbance’s cause and the location of the origin.
... Also, PQ disturbances can lead to direct, indirect, and social-economic impacts including increased network losses, equipment damage, additional loading of components, etc. [12]. The results of the Pan-European PQ survey show that PQ costs in Europe are responsible for serious costs but that most of these costs and installation issues can be avoided with better design and greater investment in the equipment [13]. The authors in [14] analyze the impact of the integration of power electronics in residential distribution networks and find a correlation between PQ disturbances and economic losses. ...
Article
COVID-19 affected numerous sectors and changed traditional people's behavior. The restrictions led to a decrease in consumption in industrial and business sectors, while electricity consumption in households significantly increased. To determine the correlation between COVID-19 and power quality (PQ), consumption curves relevant for different pandemic periods are used in the analysis of multiple PQ indicators in a real-world low voltage distribution network. The hard lockdown consumption curve is used as the reference for future scenarios with a high share of low carbon (LC) units including PVs, heat pumps, and electric vehicles. Simulations show that COVID-19 negatively impacted technical conditions in distribution networks and different methods based on the utilization of physical devices are tested to mitigate disturbances. We additionally test the potential of implemented methods in the decrease of technical and financial losses. Almost all methods contribute to the decrease of network losses, which is significantly important to Distribution System Operators (DSOs) due to the recent increase in electricity prices. The final contribution of the paper is finding a correlation between the PQ disturbances and financial losses. Results show the impact of the value of voltage unbalance on network losses, while other indicators do not present a significant problem. The results of simulations and drawn conclusions could be used as a guide for DSOs facing the uncoordinated penetration of LC units. Also, setbacks of the implemented method are detected as a first step in the further improvement of technical conditions.
... The high interruption costs and the significant impact of these costs on customers and all stakeholders in the energy sector have led to a large number of studies around the world on estimating the interruption costs to countries. In a study carried out in Europe, the interruption cost for industrial customers and the public sector was 150 billion euros [18]. In another study, the interruption cost for residential, industrial and commercial customers in the USA was determined as 79 billion dollars [19]. Unfortunately, there is no detailed study examining the interruption costs in Turkey. ...
Article
Full-text available
Problems in the supply of electrical energy affect economic and social life and cause significant economic losses. In this study, the interruption costs of customers and distribution companies in 21 distribution regions in Turkey have been calculated and forecasts for the future have been realized. The aim here is to reveal the magnitude of the interruption costs with detailed analyses and methods that can be easily applied by decision makers and to support the decision-making processes. In this direction, the costs of interruption have been calculated by indirect analytical methods. Also, it is necessary to know how the interruption costs will change in the future to consider the interruption costs in investment plans. In this study, future forecasts have been performed using time series analyses and machine learning models. Additionally, solutions have been developed to facilitate the inclusion of interruption costs in the investment plans of the decision makers. With these solutions, the number and scope of investments can be increased. Thus, supply continuity performance will be increased in countries with high cost of interruptions and the losses incurred by the stakeholders in the energy sector will be reduced.
... If there are problems such as frequent replacement of capacitors in the power system, heating of the neutral line and incorrect measurement of the measuring instruments, the presence of harmonics in the power system can be mentioned (Targosz, 2007). According to the European power quality research report, the cost of power quality problems occurring in 25 European Union countries is approximately 150 billion euros annually (IEEE Std 519, 2014). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
To ensure the safe and desirable operation of electrical installations, certain factors must be taken into account in the design and operation of the installation. One of these factors is the harmonics generated by nonlinear characteristic elements that affect power quality. Today, parallel to the development of technology, the effects of harmonic generating devices in the networks are becoming more and more problematic. In addition to facilitating operation in electrical distribution and transmission systems, efforts to reduce harmonics are among the most effective methods in increasing efficiency, reducing failures that may occur from harmonics, eliminating problems in measuring and control systems and providing energy savings. Harmonic distortions are problems that affect operational safety, energy efficiency and energy continuity in networks. As a result of harmonic currents damaging components, users and power system operators are damaged structurally and economically. To reduce the effects of harmonics, each country has its harmonic standards and regulations. In this study, harmonic standards applied in our country and the world have been examined and, evaluation and suggestions have been made.
... As per [11], the impact of PQ issues on US economy was up to USD 164 billion due to power outage and up to USD 24 billion for PQ phenomena and it was greater than 150 billion Euros every year in EU-25 countries [12]. A study was carried out in 2004 by European Copper Institute (ECI) and Leonardo Power Quality Initiative (LPQI) on 24 utilities in the United States (US) about the occurrences of PQ disturbances and the share was-voltage dips (23.6%), short interruptions (18.8%), long interruptions (12.5%), harmonics (5.4%), transients and surges (29%) and other PQ related problems (10.7%) ...
Article
Full-text available
Recently, power quality (PQ) issues have drawn considerable attention of the researchers due to the increasing awareness of the customers towards power quality. The PQ issues maintain its pre-eminence because of the significant growth encountered in the smart grid technology, distributed generation, usage of sensitive and power electronic equipments with the integration of renewable energy resources. The IoT and 5G networks technologies have a number of advantages like smart sensor interfacing, remote sensing and monitoring, data transmission at high speed. Due to this, applications of these two are highly adopted in smart grid. The prime focus of the paper is to present an exhaustive survey of detection and classification of power quality disturbances by discussing signal processing techniques and artificial intelligence tools with their respective pros and cons. Further, critical analysis of automatic recognition techniques for the concerned field is posited with the viewpoint of the types of power input signal (synthetic/real/noisy), pre-processing tools, feature selection methods, artificial intelligence techniques and modes of operation (online/offline) as per the reported articles. The present work also elaborates the future scope of the said field for the reader. This paper provides valuable guidelines to the researchers those having interest in the field of PQ analysis and exploring the better methodologies for further improvement. Comprehensive comparisons have been presented with the help of tabular presentations. Although this critical survey cannot be collectively exhaustive, still this survey comprises the most significant works in the concerned paradigm by examining more than 300 research publications.
... Semiconductor production 3 800 000 € Additional and detailed studies on the degradation of the PQ and its consequences for the energy efficiency of the systems and the additional costs incurred in the industrial, service and residential sectors are offered in [31] and [32]. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
The change in the nature of energy production which mainly used fossil resources and which is becoming increasingly clean with various renewable sources such as wind turbines; photovoltaic panels is reflected in a paradigm shift where decentralized production takes precedence on centralized production. In addition, technological progress has considerably changed uses with the intensive diffusion of charges based on power electronics, which are certainly economical but very polluting, which directly affects the quality of energy. The work carried out in this thesis focused on improving the quality of electrical energy via compensators connected to the electrical network. It is devoted to the PBT method (Power Balance Theory) generic solution that we offer. We present its principle on networks on the three-phase 3-wire network using in one hand SAPF as simple 3 phase inverter with simple capacitor as DC link source, in the other hand, we use SAPF as a Z source inverter with photovoltaic cells based MPPT P&O algorithm. For this command, we present the different simulation results for the different regimes (transient and permanent), with the different states of the electrical network (unbalanced and / or distorted). Key words: Power Balance Theory; THD; SAPF; Anti-windup Regulation; Unbalanced grid. Resumé Le changement de nature de la production d'énergie qui utilise principalement des ressources fossiles et qui devient de plus en plus propre avec diverses sources renouvelables telles que les éoliennes, les panneaux photovoltaïques se traduit par un changement de paradigme où la production décentralisée prime sur la production centralisée. De plus, les progrès technologiques ont considérablement modifié les usages avec la diffusion intensive de charges basées sur l'électronique de puissance, certes économiques mais très polluantes, ce qui affecte directement la qualité de l'énergie. Les travaux menés dans cette thèse ont porté sur l'amélioration de la qualité de l'énergie électrique via des compensateurs connectés au réseau électrique. Il est consacré à la solution générique de la méthode PBT (Power Balance Theory) que nous proposons. Nous présentons son principe sur les réseaux triphasés utilisant d'une part SAPF comme simple onduleur triphasé avec un simple condensateur comme source de liaison CC, d'autre part, nous utilisons SAPF comme onduleur source Z avec cellules photovoltaïques basé sur l'algorithme MPPT P&O. Pour cette commande, nous présentons les différents résultats de simulation pour les différents régimes (transitoire et permanent), avec les différents états du réseau électrique (déséquilibré et / ou déformé). Mots clés : Théorie de l'équilibre de Puissance ; THD ; FAP ; Règlement anti-liquidation ; Grille déséquilibrée. ملــــــــخص ينعكس التغيير في طبيعة إنتاج الطاقة التي تستخدم بشكل أساسي الموارد الأحفورية والتي أصبحت أكثر نظافة مع العديد من المصادر المتجددة مثل توربينات الرياح والألواح الكهروضوئية في تحول نموذجي حيث يكون للإنتاج اللامركزي الأسبقية على الإنتاج المركزي. بالإضافة إلى ذلك، أدى التقدم التكنولوجي إلى تغيير الاستخدامات بشكل كبير مع الانتشار المكثف للشحنات القائمة على إلكترونيات الطاقة، والتي تعتبر بالتأكيد اقتصادية ولكنها ملوثة للغاية، مما يؤثر بشكل مباشر على جودة الطاقة. ركز العمل المنفذ في هذه الرسالة على تحسين جودة الطاقة الكهربائية عبر المعوضات المتصلة بالشبكة الكهربائية. إنه مكرس لطريقة PBT (نظرية توازن الطاقة) التي نقدمها. نقدم مبدأها على الشبكات ثلاثية الطور باستخدام SAPF في يد واحدة كعاكس بسيط ثلاثي الطور مع مكثف بسيط كمصدر رابط DC، ومن ناحية أخرى، نستخدم SAPF كمصدر Z مع الخلايا الكهروضوئية خوارزمية MPPT P&O القائمة. بالنسبة لهذا الأمر، نقدم نتائج المحاكاة المختلفة للأنظمة المختلفة (عابرة ودائمة)، مع حالات مختلفة للشبكة الكهربائية (غير متوازنة و / أو مشوهة). الكلمات المفتاحية: نظرية توازن القوى. مجموع التشويه التوافقي مرشح نشط متوازي لوائح مكافحة التصفية؛ شبكة غير متوازنة.
... It is noted that the power quality disturbances associated with power grid are due to the customers (70% in distribution system) and network (30% in transmission system). Among the various power quality disturbances, voltage sag (23.6%) occurs more predominately in the power network; it has been identified from the European power quality survey report [22]. Based on that, the Central Electricity Regulatory Commission (India) framed a voltage variation limit for a 400 kV transmission line of ±5% from its nominal voltage range. ...
Article
Reliable operation of multi-channel power electronic converters in large pumped storage plant is a main concern among policy makers and/or hydropower project developers. This paper aims to design a two-stage protection circuit operation strategy for large rated doubly fed induction machine (DFIM) employed for variable speed pumped storage power plants. The paper initially studies the dynamic behavior of DFIM under symmetrical short circuit faults in both 400-kV power system and stator terminal of the generating unit. Based on the fault analysis a two-stage protection circuit (dc-link braking chopper circuit, crowbar protection circuit) operation strategy is designed in consideration of practical limitations. The designed operation strategy ensures the continuous operation of large rated DFIM under marginal grid disturbances. To investigate the effective operation of two-stage protection circuit, a 250 MW DFIM with multi-channel power converters are implemented in MATLAB/Simulink tool. An experimental test is carried in a 2.2 kW DFIM laboratory prototype.
... Direct economic effects result from the loss of production, the costs to restart production, equipment costs, repair costs, increased wear and tear, rental equipment and additional use of materials. [162] reports mitigation efforts to compensate for insufficient power quality, for example by using generators or batteries. However, it has been shown in [101] that the extra cost of these actions may be higher than the return on investment. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Power grids are critical infrastructure assets that face non-technical losses (NTL), which include, but are not limited to, electricity theft, broken or malfunctioning meters and arranged false meter readings. In emerging markets, NTL are a prime concern and often range up to 40% of the total electricity distributed. The annual world-wide costs for utilities due to NTL are estimated to be around USD 100 billion. Reducing NTL in order to increase revenue, profit and reliability of the grid is therefore of vital interest to utilities and authorities. In the beginning of this thesis, we provide an in-depth discussion of the causes of NTL and the economic effects thereof. Industrial NTL detection systems are still largely based on expert knowledge when deciding whether to carry out costly on-site inspections of customers. Electric utilities are reluctant to move to large-scale deployments of automated systems that learn NTL profiles from data. This is due to the latter's propensity to suggest a large number of unnecessary inspections. In this thesis, we compare expert knowledge-based decision making systems to automated statistical decision making. We then branch out our research into different directions: First, in order to allow human experts to feed their knowledge in the decision process, we propose a method for visualizing prediction results at various granularity levels in a spatial hologram. Our approach allows domain experts to put the classification results into the context of the data and to incorporate their knowledge for making the final decisions of which customers to inspect. Second, we propose a machine learning framework that classifies customers into NTL or non-NTL using a variety of features derived from the customers' consumption data as well as a selection of master data. The methodology used is specifically tailored to the level of noise in the data. Last, we discuss the issue of biases in data sets. A bias occurs whenever training sets are not representative of the test data, which results in unreliable models. We show how quantifying and reducing these biases leads to an increased accuracy of the trained NTL detectors. This thesis has resulted in appreciable results on real-world big data sets of millions customers. Our systems are being deployed in a commercial NTL detection software. We also provide suggestions on how to further reduce NTL by not only carrying out inspections, but by implementing market reforms, increasing efficiency in the organization of utilities and improving communication between utilities, authorities and customers.
... repair costs and increased wear and tear or rental equipment and additional use of materials. Ref. 21 reports mitigation efforts to compensate for insufficient power quality, for example by using generators or batteries. However, it has been shown in Ref. 20 that the extra cost of these actions may be higher than the actual value of lost load. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Non-technical losses (NTL) include, but are not limited to, electricity theft, broken or malfunctioning meters and arranged false meter readings. In emerging markets, NTL are a prime concern and often range up to 40% of the total electricity distributed. The annual worldwide costs for utilities due to NTL are estimated to be around USD 100 billion. Reducing NTL in order to increase revenue, profit and reliability of the grid is therefore a vital interest to the utilities and authorities. In this work, we first provide an in-depth discussion of the causes of NTL and the economic effects thereof. The predominant direction to detect NTL in industry and academia is based on artificial intelligence, and in particular machine learning, in order to trigger inspections of suspicious customers. While these methods bring a real reduction, a significant part of NTL persists in practice. Therefore, we discuss the limitations of NTL reduction approaches that are only based on physical inspections. We then provide the groundwork for suggestions on how to further reduce NTL by not only carrying out inspections, but by implementing market reforms, increasing efficiency in the organization of utilities and improving communication between utilities, authorities and customers.
... The advantage of this method is that estimations are based on real events and not hypothetical situations. However these findings are limited to the characteristic of the events studied, and these experiences can usually not be generalised to other events (Targosz and Manson, 2007). ...
Article
Cost of unserved energy provides an economic measure of the cost of electricity interruptions to electricity customers. These values inform investment and refurbishment decisions related to the power system, with the aim of optimizing network reliability. This paper reports on the development of an economic model to estimate the value of electricity reliability in South Africa by Eskom to meet regulatory requirements. The model allows for the scalability of COUE from national level to more detailed resolutions. The impact is that decisions for power system investment can be made to meet the needs of planning and regulatory applications.
... Harmonic frequencies in the power grid are a frequent that cause power quality problems. One of the major effects of power system harmonics is the increasing the current in the system [11]. This is particularly the case for the third harmonic, which causes a sharp increase in the zero sequence current, and therefore, increases the current in the neutral conductor. ...
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... Also, poor power quality largely causes financial losses [1]. According to the European Power Quality survey report, PQ problems cause a financial loss of more than 150 billion Euros per year in the EU-25 countries [2]. Power quality (PQ) is generally defined as the combination of voltage quality and current quality which are used to identify the deviations from ideal waveforms of current and/or voltage. ...
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In the current high degree of popularity of power products, power abnormalities on the production of more and more. Therefore, the prediction of power quality is of great significance. The method of prediction is generally to find the fitting function, the least squares fitting is the commonly used method to find the fitting function. In this paper, the least square method is used to fit the data of power grid. The factors influencing power quality were analyzed from four aspects, and the conclusions were obtained by fitting with real data points. In order to further improve the power quality prediction.
... In the power industry the estimation must be accurate because of the need for the assessment of the power quality. When the quality is lower, the financial losses are greater [4] and the energy system operates with lower overall efficiency. Low quality might be caused by an external source (e.g. a photovoltaic system) connected to the grid that has no appropriate controls. ...
... De maneira geral, qualquer distúrbio manifestado na tensão, corrente ou frequência que resulte na falha de operação ou funcionamento incorreto de um equipamento pode ser classificado como um problema de qualidade de energia [3]. Para uma ideia da dimensão desses problemas, estudos nessa área indicam que a União Europeia gasta anualmente cerca de 150 bilhões de Euros devido a problemas relacionados à qualidade de energia, enquanto apenas 297,5 milhões de Euros são investidos pelas companhias anualmente para resolver esses problemas [4]. ...
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A inovação deste projeto está em propor topologia original para compensação de harmônicos de corrente e afundamentos de tensão, de menor custo, visando futura implementação de um condicionador de 200 kVA, com aplicação inicial em protótipo de 2 kVA para testes de desempenho do sistema. Neste projeto é proposta uma topologia original adequada a compensações baseadas em corrente e tensão para que possam funcionar em sistemas de grande porte, pois no Brasil existem apenas registros de condicionadores de menor potência. Vale salientar que a topologia escolhida depende muito dos níveis de potência e tensão em que o sistema será usado. Neste projeto, fez-se um estudo crítico da melhor topologia para níveis elevados de potência, aplicando-se uma estrutura que usa eletrônica de potência combinada com o uso de transformadores, em vez da tradicional estrutura de condicionadores feitos a partir de inversores.
... Avrupa Güç Kalitesi'nin yayımladığı rapora göre, güç kalitesi problemlerinden kaynaklı olarak EU-25 ülkelerindeki yıllık toplam mali kayıp 150 milyar Euro civarındadır. 2003-2004 yılları arasında yapılan iki yıllık araştırma sonucuna göre EU-25 ülkelerindeki çeşitli güç kalitesi problemlerinin neden oldukları mali kayıpların oranı Şekil 1'de gösterilmiştir [6]. Şekil 1. EU-25 ülkelerindeki çeşitli güç kalitesi problemlerinin neden oldukları mali kayıp oranları. ...
... PQ is a complex area that covers many different topics [32]. Related problems have shown a relevant economic impact in industry [33]. Furthermore, in networks and industrial processes equipment is more interconnected, and hence the impacts of a single problem can cause more severe problems. ...
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Power quality issues have taken a more prominent role in power systems over the last years. These issues are of major concern for energy customers, primarily for customers with a widespread use of electronic devices in their manufacturing processes. Even though the quality of service is increasing, customers are becoming more demanding of the energy provider. This research aims to provide some industrial managers the technical support in deciding of investments in the mitigation of power quality disturbances, such as the use of less sensitive devices or the use of interface devices (UPS, DVR...) In order to recommend an appropriate solution, the problem is characterized. The technical and economic influences of the PQ disturbances in the manufacturing processes are assessed resorting to power quality audits in the customer facilities. This research covered a significant number of facilities in several industrial activities. © IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2014.
Methods to consider customer interruption costs in power system analysis
  • R Billinton