Developmental Exposure to a Commercial PBDE Mixture, DE-71: Neurobehavioral, Hormonal, and Reproductive Effects

Neurotoxicology Branch, Toxicity Assessment Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711, USA.
Toxicological Sciences (Impact Factor: 3.85). 04/2010; 116(1):297-312. DOI: 10.1093/toxsci/kfq105
Source: PubMed


Developmental effects of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been suspected due to their structural similarities to
polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This study evaluated neurobehavioral, hormonal, and reproductive effects in rat offspring
perinatally exposed to a widely used pentabrominated commercial mixture, DE-71. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were exposed to 0,
1.7, 10.2, or 30.6 mg/kg/day DE-71 in corn oil by oral gavage from gestational day 6 to weaning. DE-71 did not alter maternal
or male offspring body weights. However, female offspring were smaller compared with controls from postnatal days (PNDs) 35–60.
Although several neurobehavioral endpoints were assessed, the only statistically significant behavioral finding was a dose-by-age
interaction in the number of rears in an open-field test. Developmental exposure to DE-71 caused severe hypothyroxinemia in
the dams and early postnatal offspring. DE-71 also affected anogenital distance and preputial separation in male pups. Body
weight gain over time, reproductive tissue weights, and serum testosterone concentrations at PND 60 were not altered. Mammary
gland development of female offspring was significantly affected at PND 21. Congener-specific analysis of PBDEs indicated
accumulation in all tissues examined. Highest PBDE concentrations were found in fat including milk, whereas blood had the
lowest concentrations on a wet weight basis. PBDE concentrations were comparable among various brain regions. Thus, perinatal
exposure to DE-71 leads to accumulation of PBDE congeners in various tissues crossing blood-placenta and blood-brain barriers,
causing subtle changes in some parameters of neurobehavior and dramatic changes in circulating thyroid hormone levels, as
well as changes in both male and female reproductive endpoints. Some of these effects are similar to those seen with PCBs,
and the persistence of these changes requires further investigation.

Download full-text


Available from: Kurunthachalam Kannan, Jul 30, 2014
  • Source
    • "air and indoor dust, seawater, sewage sludge, sediment and soil (Gorga et al., 2013; Muenhor et al., 2010; Romano et al., 2013; Sun et al., 2013), as well as plants, wild animals (Wang et al., 2011; Yogui et al., 2011), and in tissues, maternal milk and blood of humans (Bi et al., 2006; Covaci et al., 2008). An increasing number of studies show that PBDEs disrupt physiological function, as reflected in immunotoxicity (Frouin et al., 2010), neurodevelopmental toxicity (He et al., 2011), reproductive toxicity (Chen et al., 2011a; Kodavanti et al., 2010) and potential carcinogenic risk (Song et al., 2009). Though relevant policies have been made for bans and limitations of some congeners in products, for example, manufacture of penta-BDE and octa-BDE has ceased for products from some areas in North America and Europe since 2004 but for the main deca-BDE constituent of BDE-209, the use of PBDEs has yet to be reduced in other parts of the world, particularly in developing countries such as China, resulting in persistent environmental contamination (Christiansson et al., 2009; Covaci et al., 2011; Shaw et al., 2008; UNEP-POPS-GUID-NIP, 2012). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Our aim of this study was to characterize the exposure pattern of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in human placenta and assess their potential effects on neonates. Placenta samples were obtained from a typical e-waste area in Guiyu and a reference area in Haojiang, China. The median ∑PBDE concentration was 32.25 ng/g lipid weight (lw) in placenta samples from Guiyu, and 5.13 ng/g lw from Haojiang. BDE-209 predominated in placenta samples, followed by BDE-28, -47, -99 -153, -183. Residence in Guiyu contributed the most to elevated PDBE levels. Neonatal physiological indices, including body-mass index (BMI), Apgar1 score and head circumference, were reduced in Guiyu group. No significant difference was found in neonatal weight between the two groups, but neonatal body length in Guiyu was increased. Our data suggest prenatal exposure to PBDEs is high at the e-waste recycling area, and may lead to adverse physiological development in the fetus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Environmental Pollution
  • Source
    • "Appreciable levels of PBDEs have been reported in various environmental media and biota, including water, air, soil, marine mammals and human blood [3]. Evidences show that PBDEs can affect neurodevelopment, neurobehavior and thyroid hormone regulation in exposed animals and individuals [5]. According to the environmental risk assessment, commercial pentaBDE and octaBDE technical mixtures are phsing out by restrictions and directives [6]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), especially pentaBDE and decaBDE have been extensively used as flame retardants in plastics of most electronic equipment. However, PBDE congeners have been found in the environment, in wildlife and in human body worldwide with evidences that they pose risks both to human health and to the entire ecosystem. China has become an important pentaBDE and decaBDE production country because of the increasing domestic demand due to rapid development of electronic industry in recent years. Although pentaBDE was phased out in 2004, decaBDE still remains in production and is used in electrical industry. Additionally, large amounts of plastics containing these pollutants from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) are generated in China each year and their disposal has been a vital environmental challenge. Machaniclal recycling, fedlock recycling and landfilling are three main means of disposal of WEEE plastics. This article reviews the production of PBDEs, the amounts of WEEE and the disposal of WEEE plastics worldwide, with a special focus on China. The state of the emission of PBDEs and highly toxic polybrominated dibenzo dioxins/furans in the process of disposal is summed up based on previous studies. This article recommends that mechanical recycling should be the main means of disposal of WEEE recycling with regards to the summaries, the current practices and the status in China.
    Full-text · Conference Paper · Oct 2014
  • Source
    • "These results suggest that BDE-209 might potentially pose adverse effects to aquatic organisms. Some of PBDE congeners have been found more toxic for animals, causing reproductive and developmental effects, neurobehavioral toxicity, endocrine disruption, and possibly cancer (Branchi et al., 2002; Muirhead et al., 2006; Kodavanti et al., 2010). Many studies have reported that hypothyroidism and neurotoxic effects were found in rodent after exposure to BDE-209 (Viberg et al., 2007; Tseng et al., 2008; Lee et al., 2010). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used as flame retardants, which are ubiquitous environmental contaminant found in both abiotic and biotic environmental samples. Deca-BDE (BDE-209) is the principal component, which is currently used worldwide. In this study, the effect of BDE-209 on the mRNA levels of thyroid hormone (TH) related genes and spermatogenesis associated genes were determined from larvae and adult rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) exposed to concentrations 0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 μg/L for 21 days. The results showed that the type II deiodinase (dio2) and sodium iodide symporter (nis) mRNA levels were significantly up-regulated in the larvae at 10 μg/L treatment. In adult, histopathological observations showed that liver of female fish were degenerated at 10 μg/L treatment, and inhibition of spermatogenesis were observed in testis of male fish. In addition, the thyroid hormone receptor α (trα), dio2, and nis mRNA levels in the liver of male and female fish were significantly up-regulated, whereas dio2 and nis mRNA levels were significantly down-regulated in the brain. These results indicate that exposure to BDE-209 could result in tissue-specific alternations of TH-related genes expression in adults. Moreover, the mRNA levels of the testis-specific apoptosis genes, the spermatogenesis-associated 4 (spata4) and spermatogenesis-associated 17 (spata17), were down-regulated at 10 μg/L treatment in testis of male fish. Our results suggest that BDE-209 may pose threat to normal thyroid and reproductive function in fish. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2011.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Environmental Toxicology
Show more