Schöchl H, Nienaber U, Hofer G, et al. Goal-directed coagulation management of major trauma patients using thromboelastometry (ROTEM)-guided administration of fibrinogen concentrate and prothrombin complex concentrate. Crit Care 14:R55

Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, AUVA Trauma Hospital, Dr Franz-Rehrl-Platz 5, Salzburg, Austria.
Critical care (London, England) (Impact Factor: 4.48). 04/2010; 14(2):R55. DOI: 10.1186/cc8948
Source: PubMed


The appropriate strategy for trauma-induced coagulopathy management is under debate. We report the treatment of major trauma using mainly coagulation factor concentrates.
This retrospective analysis included trauma patients who received >or= 5 units of red blood cell concentrate within 24 hours. Coagulation management was guided by thromboelastometry (ROTEM). Fibrinogen concentrate was given as first-line haemostatic therapy when maximum clot firmness (MCF) measured by FibTEM (fibrin-based test) was <10 mm. Prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) was given in case of recent coumarin intake or clotting time measured by extrinsic activation test (EXTEM) >1.5 times normal. Lack of improvement in EXTEM MCF after fibrinogen concentrate administration was an indication for platelet concentrate. The observed mortality was compared with the mortality predicted by the trauma injury severity score (TRISS) and by the revised injury severity classification (RISC) score.
Of 131 patients included, 128 received fibrinogen concentrate as first-line therapy, 98 additionally received PCC, while 3 patients with recent coumarin intake received only PCC. Twelve patients received FFP and 29 received platelet concentrate. The observed mortality was 24.4%, lower than the TRISS mortality of 33.7% (P = 0.032) and the RISC mortality of 28.7% (P > 0.05). After excluding 17 patients with traumatic brain injury, the difference in mortality was 14% observed versus 27.8% predicted by TRISS (P = 0.0018) and 24.3% predicted by RISC (P = 0.014).
ROTEM-guided haemostatic therapy, with fibrinogen concentrate as first-line haemostatic therapy and additional PCC, was goal-directed and fast. A favourable survival rate was observed. Prospective, randomized trials to investigate this therapeutic alternative further appear warranted.

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    • "However, it is a laborious technique and requires special expertise in the field, therefore it is not applicable in clinical practice. The global coagulation tests, i.e., thrombin generation (TG) and thromboelastography /rotational thromboelastometry (TEG/ROTEM) have been widely used for assessing bleeding risk in patients with congenital and acquired bleeding disorders[7,8]. TG and ROTEM tests were found to be useful tools for ensuring haemostasis in patients with FXI deficiency undergoing surgery when treated with a minimal dose of activated recombinant factor VII (rFVIIa) bypassing agent91011. Yet, the ability of global coagulation tests to predict the bleeding risk is a matter of debate due to conflicting results121314, with the reservation that the studies were conducted on a small group of patients with varying levels of FXI. "
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    ABSTRACT: The phenotype of bleeding in patients with severe FXI deficiency is unpredictable and unlike other bleeding disorders, it is not directly correlated with levels of FXI. In this study we analyzed whether the global coagulation assays can serve as a clinical tool in predicting bleeding tendency in patients with severe FXI deficiency undergoing surgery, taking into account the large inter-individual variability of FXI levels and genotypes. Thrombin generation (TG) was measured in 39 platelet-poor plasma with or without tissue factor (TF) and in the presence or absence of corn trypsin inhibitor (CTI). Rotation thromboelastometry (ROTEM) was performed with fresh whole blood of 26 patients applying NATEM and INTEM tests. TG induced by recalcification can distinguish between bleeding and non-bleeding patients with severe FXI deficiency particularly among those with FXI activity of 2-20IU/dl. The addition of TF or TF and CTI to the TG assay masked the ability to differentiate between XI activity, genotype as well as bleeding and non-bleeding patients. ROTEM assays failed to distinguish bleeding from non-bleeding patients but could do so between different FXI activity levels and genotypes. In conclusion, in the current study we found a sensitive tool to distinguish between bleeding and non-bleeding patients. In order to recommend TG as a predictive tool for treatment tailoring, a larger patient group is required. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Thrombosis Research
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    • "These studies show that during hypothermia (30°C– 35°C), the time of clot initiation and the speed of clot propagation are increased, but maximal clot strength and firmness are essentially unchanged compared with normothermia. EXTEM Ò , FIBTEM Ò , and APTEM Ò are the other ROTEM Ò assays (Table 1) with different activators that have emerged and are extensively used in trauma patients (Schochl et al., 2010). To the best of our knowledge, the effect of different temperatures on these assays in cardiac arrest patients has not been investigated. "
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    ABSTRACT: Mild induced hypothermia is used for neuroprotection in patients successfully resuscitated after cardiac arrest. Temperature-dependent effects on rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM(®)) assays with EXTEM(®), FIBTEM(®), or APTEM(®) in cardiac arrest patients have not previously been studied. Ten patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest who underwent induced hypothermia were studied during stable hypothermia at 33°C. ROTEM temperature effects on EXTEM, FIBTEM, and APTEM assays were studied at temperatures set between 30°C and 42°C. Citrated whole blood test tubes were incubated in temperature-adjusted heating blocks and then investigated at respective temperature in the temperature-adjusted ROTEM. The following variables were determined: clotting time (CT), clot formation time (CFT), α-angle, and maximum clot firmness (MCF). The results from hypo- and hyperthermia samples were compared with the samples incubated at 37°C using the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test. A p-value of <0.05 was considered significant. CT-EXTEM(®) and CT-APTEM(®) were prolonged by hypothermia at 30°C (p<0.01 for both) and 33°C (p<0.05 for both). Hyperthermia at 42°C shortened CT-EXTEM (p<0.05) and CT-APTEM (p<0.01). CFT-EXTEM(®) and CFT-APTEM(®) were markedly prolonged by hypothermia at 30°C, 33°C, and 35°C (p<0.01 for all except CFT-EXTEM, 35°C [p<0.05]). The α-angle-EXTEM was markedly decreased at 30°C, 33°C, and 35°C (p<0.01) but increased at 40°C (p<0.05) and 42°C (p<0.01); α-angle-APTEM showed similar results. MCF was unchanged at different temperatures for all tests. ROTEM (EXTEM, FIBTEM, and APTEM assays) revealed a hypocoagulative response to in vitro-applied hypothermia in the blood of cardiac arrest patients reflected in the prolonged clot initiation and decreased clot propagation. Hyperthermia showed the opposite effects. Clot firmness was not affected by temperature.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014
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    • "This may be attributed to the dual nature of severe injury, which promotes both platelet activation and coagulopathy that impedes platelet activation. Our data may partly explain why platelet transfusion has not seemed essential for correction of TIC in numerous clinical trials [26-29]. However, transfusion of normally functioning platelets may be associated with additional benefits such as restoration of the endothelium and modulation of infective and inflammatory sequelae [4]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Coagulopathy often develops in patients with serious trauma and is correlated with the clinical outcome. The contribution of platelet activity and endothelial dysfunction to trauma-induced coagulopathy remain to be defined. The purpose of this study was to investigate the time courses of soluble P-selectin (sPsel, an index of platelet activation) and von Willebrand factor (VWF, an index of endothelial dysfunction) in trauma patients and elucidate their relationship to coagulation parameter levels, the presence of coagulopathy, and patient outcome. This prospective observational study, which took place in a university hospital intensive care unit (ICU), included 82 severely injured trauma patients. The sPsel, VWF antigen, protein C, and factor VII levels were measured and routine coagulation tests were performed upon admission to ICU and daily within the first week. The 30-day mortality rate was also determined. Thirty-seven (45.1%) patients developed coagulopathy upon admission to the ICU, and the 30-day mortality rate was 20.7% (n = 17). Both the admission sPsel and VWF levels were lower in patients with coagulopathy than in those without (p < 0.05) and were significantly correlated with the protein C and factor VII levels, respectively (all p < 0.05). The VWF levels were lower during the first 3 days and higher on day 7 after admission in nonsurvivors than in survivors (all p < 0.05). No significant differences in sPsel levels were found between nonsurvivors and survivors on each day during the first week. In severely injured trauma patients in the ICU, lower levels of sPsel and VWF on admission were associated with the presence of coagulopathy and might not predict a better outcome. An increase in the VWF level at the end of the first week after admission to ICU was associated with increased 30-day mortality.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Scandinavian Journal of Trauma Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
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