Advancing Alcohol Biomarkers Research
Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Maryland Hospital for Children, Baltimore, Maryland, USA. Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research
(Impact Factor: 3.21).
04/2010; 34(6):941-5. DOI: 10.1111/j.1530-0277.2010.01168.x
Biomarkers to detect past alcohol use and identify alcohol-related diseases have long been pursued as important tools for research into alcohol use disorders as well as for clinical and treatment applications and other settings. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) sponsored a workshop titled "Workshop on Biomarkers for Alcohol-Induced Disorders" in June 2008. The intent of this workshop was to review and discuss recent progress in the development and implementation of biomarkers for alcohol use and alcohol-related disorders with a goal to formulate a set of recommendations to use to stimulate and advance research progress in this critical area of alcoholism research. Presentations at this workshop reviewed the current status of alcohol biomarkers, providing a summary of the history of biomarkers and the major goals of alcohol biomarker research. Moreover, presentations provided a comprehensive overview of the current status of several well-recognized biomarkers of alcohol use, a summary of recent studies to characterize novel biomarkers and their validation, along with perspectives and experiences from other NIH institutes and from other federal agencies and industry, related to regulatory issues. Following these presentations, a panel discussion focused on a set of issues presented by the organizers of this workshop. These discussion points addressed: (i) issues related to strategies to be adopted to stimulate biomarker discovery and application, (ii) the relevance of animal studies in biomarker development and the status of biomarkers in basic science studies, and (iii) issues related to the opportunities for clinical and commercial applications. This article summarizes these perspectives and highlights topics that constituted the basis for recommendations to enhance alcohol biomarker research.
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ABSTRACT: Alcohol use entails high medical, social and economic costs for our society. Despite laws restricting the age of alcohol users, alcohol use in young Dutch adolescents is quite common. Alcohol consumption among adolescents is characterized by frequent drinking and drinking in high quantities. At the same time during adolescence, the brain undergoes many developmental changes, particularly in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and mesocorticolimbic dopamine system. Human and rodent studies revealed that adolescent alcohol use can cause brain damage and long-term detrimental neurocognitive effects, for example for executive functioning and memory and learning abilities. Moreover, evidence suggests that early onset and high-risk alcohol use among adolescents increases the risk for later alcohol abuse and addiction. Suggestions are given for future research to further elucidate the effect of alcohol use on adolescent brain development and to minimize the negative consequences of this alcohol use. Finally, recommendations for the prevention of underage drinking are discussed.
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ABSTRACT: The rapid emergence of translational developmental neuroscience as the key driver in understanding the onset of mental illness, the restructuring of academic health science centers on the NIH Roadmap, and dramatic shifts in drug, biological, device, and psychosocial intervention development all have important consequences for pediatric anxiety disorders as a field.
This article, which tracks the final presentation at a day-long symposium on pediatric anxiety disorders at the 2010 annual meeting of the Anxiety Disorders Association of America (ADAA), will try to outline where the field will head over the next decade as these forces combine to shape research and practice.
After 20 years of large comparative treatment trials that have defined the place of current generation treatments, the field is shifting toward interventions that will emerge from the revolution in translational developmental neuroscience and that herald the dawn of stratified and ultimately personalized medicine. With a much more efficient discovery to translational continuum, intervention development and dissemination will benefit from the concurrent transformation of the clinical and clinical research enterprise.
Dramatic advances in science and changes in the structure of medicine will condition the future of clinical research across every therapeutic area in medicine. For the field of pediatric anxiety disorders to thrive it will be important to embrace and actively participate in this revolution so that anxious youth are viewed as a key target population and, consequently, preemptive, preventive, and curative interventions will be developed for children by first intent.
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ABSTRACT: Psoriasis is a chronic immune-mediated skin disease of complex aetiology. Alcohol overuse has long been suspected to contribute to psoriasis pathology, and the knowledge of individual's drinking pattern may be of substantial importance for managing the disease. Unfortunately, a number of patients fail to admit to their true alcohol consumption and there is no single sign, symptom or laboratory parameter adequate for alcohol abuse diagnosis. However, there are some laboratory findings that, when present, should raise physician's suspicion that alcohol may be a problem. The aim of this article was to present simple, widely available and relatively reliable laboratory markers that might effectively assist physicians in establishing patient's drinking status. A possible screening approach is illustrated by two distinct reports of psoriatic patients who initially concealed having the problem with alcohol.
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