Obesity and its association with diets and sedentary life style among school children in Seoul, Korea: Compliance with Dietary Refereces Intakes for Koreans Food Guides

Department of Food and Nutrition, Soong Eui Women's College, Seoul 100-751, Korea.
Nutrition research and practice (Impact Factor: 1.44). 09/2007; 1(3):212-7. DOI: 10.4162/nrp.2007.1.3.212
Source: PubMed


In this study, the obesity rate of children was 13.5%, and the value is not yet as high as the obesity rate in American children (Ha et al., 2005). However, the problem is the rapidly increasing obesity rate in Korean school children, as was already reported in other studies (Kang & Hong, 1997; Lee et al., 1999; You et al., 1997). The factors that are associated with obesity in this study included snacking, vegetable consumption, daily hours of physical activity and computer games/computer usage. Eating improper servings of vegetables or eating too much of fatty or sugary snacks are significantly associated with the development of obesity (Lee et al., 2000; Lee et al., 2002). The snacking prevalence and the daily intakes from snack in children has increased over the decade, thus leading to poor nutrition status and increased adiposity in children (Jahns et al., 2001, Niclas et al., 2001).More hours of physical activity and less hours of computer usage was found to be decreased the likelihood of being obese in this study (Table 3 & Table 4). These results were consistent with other studies showing positive correlation between physical inactivity and obesity in children (Andersen, 1998; Crespo, 2001; Epstein, 2001; Lowry, 2002). Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III revealed that children who had physical inactivity 4 or more hours each day were most likely to be obese (Andersen, 1998). Lee et al. (2000) suggested that television viewing contributes to the development of overweight among children by reducing opportunities to engage in physical activity and increasing opportunities for snacking.In this study, girls had less likelihood of being obese than boys (odds ratio, 0.64, CI (0.43, 0.93), p

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    • "The data indicated that Korean adolescents spent about 33% more time compared to their American counterparts, represented by American adolescents aged 12 to 19 years in the 99-04 NHANES (3.1 h/d in males and 2.3 h/d in females) [37]. A recent study of elementary school children in Seoul found that 58.7% spent more than 2 hours per day watching TV [38]. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that children and adolescents be limited to less than 2 hours per day of screen-based sedentary behaviors [39], but Korean adolescents spent an average of 4 or more hours per day on sedentary activity. "
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity during childhood is a dominant risk factor for noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), and is itself considered a disease that needs to be treated. Recently, the growth in childhood obesity in Korea has become stagnant; however, two in every ten children are still overweight. In addition, 60% or more of overweight children have at least one metabolic syndrome risk factor. Thus, childhood obesity should be controlled through lifestyle modification. This paper reviews studies of the modifiable risk factors of obesity in Korean children. According to the life-course approach, preschool-aged children (<5 years) are influenced by their parents rather than individual habits because they are under mostly parental care. Elementary school-aged children (6 to 11 years) are affected by overlapping individual and parental effects. This may mean that the establishment of individual behavior patterns begins during this period. The conditions of poor eating habits such as skipping meals, eating out, and high fat intake, along with low physical activity, facilitate increased obesity among adolescents (12 to 18 years). Notably, adolescent girls show high rates of both underweight and obesity, which may lead to the development of NCDs in their offspring. Therefore, the problem of NCDs is no longer limited to adults, but is also prevalent among children. In addition, early intervention offers cost-effective opportunities for preventing NCDs. Thus, children need primary consideration, adequate monitoring, diagnosis, and treatment to reduce the burden of NCDs later in adulthood.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013
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    • "A recent study with a sample of elementary school children residing in Seoul found that 58.7% and 36.2% of children spent more than 2 hr/day watching TV and playing PC/video games, respectively (10). Nevertheless, no studies have examined the association between screen-based sedentary behavior and CVD risk factors after controlling for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with a nationally representative sample of Korean adolescents. "
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    ABSTRACT: The purposes of this study were to: 1) describe the patterns of screen-based sedentary behaviors, and 2) examine the association between screen-based sedentary behavior and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in representative Korean children and adolescents, aged 12 to 18 yr, in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Screen-based sedentary behavior was measured using self-report questionnaires that included items for time spent watching TV and playing PC/video games. Physical activity was measured using items for frequency and duration of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). CVD risk factors such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure were measured. Boys spent more time playing PC/video games, and girls spent more time watching TV. After adjusting for age, gender, annual household income, and MVPA, an additional hour of watching TV was significantly associated with the risk of overweight (OR 1.17 [95% CI 1.03-1.33]), high abdominal adiposity (OR 1.27 [1.06-1.51]), and low HDL cholesterol (OR 1.27 [1.10-1.47]). An additional hour spent playing PC/video games also increased the risk of high abdominal adiposity (OR 1.20 [1.03-1.40]). Prospective observations and interventions are needed to determine causal relationships between screen-based sedentary behavior and CVD risk profiles in Korean youth.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Journal of Korean medical science
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    • "The eating practices in snacks were somewhat different between normal and obese children (Ha, 2007). Obese children reported eating high sugar-snacks or drinking sweetened beverages more frequently than did normal weight children (Ha, 2007). Functional drinks included some kinds of beverages like, sports drinks, diet drinks, and traditional drinks in the present study. "
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to compare the beverage consumption by gender and season in elementary school children and to investigate the role of beverage consumption patterns on their daily nutrient intakes and BMIs. Beverage consumption and dietary energy intake in 160 elementary school students in the Gyeongnam area were measured by a beverage frequency and quantity questionnaire and three 24-hour dietary recalls during winter and summer. The number of drinking moments per month, the amounts of beverage per day, and the energy from beverage consumption were not different between winter and summer. In summer, the contribution of energy from sweetened beverage to the daily energy intake in girls accounted for 13.5% which was significantly higher compared to 7.7% in boys. In girls, the consumption of health beverage showed a significant correlation with various nutrient intakes in winter. Meanwhile, the sweetened beverage intake was negatively correlated with energy, protein, vitamin A and niacin intake in summer. Consumption of most of the beverages, including sweetened beverages, were not related with BMI in both sexes and both seasons, except functional drinks which were related with BMI in boys in winter.
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