Post transplant thrombotic microangiopathy causing acute renal failure
Department of Nephrology, NU Trust, Padmanabhanagar, Bangalore - 560 070, India. Indian Journal of Nephrology
04/2009; 19(2):74-6. DOI: 10.4103/0971-4065.53327
Acute Renal Failure (ARF) in the immediate post transplant period is most commonly due to acute tubular necrosis, acute cellular rejection and calcineurin inhibitor toxicity apart from usual prerenal and post renal causes. In this report, we discuss an interesting and unusual cause of ARF due to thrombotic micro angiopathy in the immediate post transplant setting.
Available from: Basant Pawar
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ABSTRACT: Renal dysfunction in allograft transplant is common and its assessment is done using Revised Banff '97 working classification, which is the accepted formulation for the evaluation of histological appearance of renal allograft biopsies. The nonrejection category under the Banff working classification of renal allograft pathology forms a large group resulting in allograft dysfunction.
To evaluate the spectrum of histopathological changes seen in renal allograft dysfunction.
A total of 119 renal biopsies were studied over 10 years presenting with renal allograft dysfunction from a tertiary center in North India.
Majority of the biopsies were in the nonrejection category (47.1%), which included few cases of acute tubular necrosis (25.2%), cyclosporine nephrotoxicity (16%), infections (10.9%), and thrombotic microangiopathy (3.4%). The second largest category in our study was acute/active cellular rejection group (31.9%), which displayed moderate to severe tubulitis, mononuclear cell infiltrate in the interstitium, and vasculitis. Antibody-mediated rejection cases were seen in 28.6% of the renal biopsies followed by chronic allograft nephropathy cases (12.6%) showing features of tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis. Borderline changes with features of mild tubulitis contributed to 7.6% of the biopsies. The smallest group comprised of only 4.2%, which were within normal histological limits.
Timely accurate diagnosis of renal allograft dysfunction is essential for prompt, effective management of renal transplant patients. Thus, nonrejection pathology forms a significant cause of renal dysfunction in patients with renal allograft transplantation.
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ABSTRACT: Calcineurin inhibitor induced thrombotic microangiopathy is a rare but well recognized complication of a renal transplantation that occurs in 1% of the patients who are on tacrolimus immunosuppression. Among the other aetiological factors of the "de-novo" Thrombotic Microangiopathy (TMA), the condition especially has to be differentiated from an antibody mediated rejection, as both have different pathogenesis, therapeutic connotations and outcomes.We report a case of a middle aged female renal transplant recipient treated with tacrolimus, who developed localised thrombotic microangiopathy in the early post transplantation period. Despite the normal trough levels of tacrolimus, a diagnosis of "Tacrolimus induced TMA" was rendered after excluding other causes of the "de-novo" TMA, which included an antibody mediated rejection, a meticulous clinico-pathological correlation and serological studies. The treatment included the substitution of tacrolimus by rapamycin, with the subsequent normalization of the renal function.
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