This study shows the rapid and differential production of the 40-43 kDa and the 70-90 kDa alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) fucosylated glycoforms after treatment of the dorsal air pouch with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), HgCl(2) or Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA). The 40-43 kDa and the 70-90 kDa AGP production is peaked 1-3 h post-LPS treatment. We observed that the responses to LPS and FCA are similar in that both AGP isoforms are induced whereas they differ in that the FCA exhibits a 6 h lag period. The response to HgCl(2,) however, exhibits the specific biphasic induction only of the 40-43 kDa AGP. The serum 40-43 kDa AGP glycoform gradually increases in response to all of the above stimulants and peaks by 24 h post- treatment. The increase of the 70-90 kDa AGP levels in the air pouch occurs in association with the accumulation of polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells while dexamethasone (DEX) increases only the 40-43 kDa AGP production in the absence of PMN accumulation. Macrophage-monocyte lineage cells forming the air pouch lining tissue may potentially be the cells that secrete the 40-43 kDa AGP while polymorphonuclear cells that infiltrate the air pouch secrete the 70-90 kDa AGP. The 40-43 kDa and 70-90 kDa AGP production induced by LPS in the air pouch precedes that of interleukin-1 (IL-1) or interleukin-6 (IL-6) while the 40-43 kDa AGP glycoform potentially increases IL-6 production by air pouch PMN exudate cells. These significant differences suggest a local pro-inflammatory role of AGP. Honeybee venom suppressed arthritis development and exhibited differential local or systemic regulation of AGP in serum vs. air pouch exudate or synovial fluid. This study with the air pouch model of facsimile synovium tissue suggests that local alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) production may contribute to pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory activities during the local acute phase response or during chronic inflammatory stress as in arthritis.
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[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) is an acute-phase protein produced by hepatocytes and secreted into plasma in response to infection/injury. We recently assessed the transcriptional program of terminal granulocytic differentiation by microarray analysis of bone marrow (BM) populations highly enriched in promyelocytes, myelocytes/metamyelocytes (MYs), and BM neutrophils. These analyses demonstrated a transient, high mRNA expression of genuine secondary/tertiary granule proteins and AGP in MYs. In agreement with this, immunocytochemistry revealed the presence of AGP protein and the secondary granule protein lactoferrin in cells from the MY stage and throughout granulocytic differentiation. Immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated the colocalization of AGP and lactoferrin in secondary granules of neutrophils. This finding was substantiated by the failure to detect AGP and lactoferrin in blood cells from a patient with secondary/tertiary (specific) granule deficiency. In addition, Western blot analysis of subcellular fractions isolated from neutrophils revealed that neutrophil-derived AGP, localized in secondary granules, was abundant and highly glycosylated compared with endocytosed, plasma-derived AGP localized in secretory vesicles. Exocytosis studies further demonstrated a marked release of AGP and lactoferrin by activated neutrophils. Finally, induction of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP)-epsilon in a myeloid cell line was shown to increase AGP transcript levels, indicating that AGP expression in myeloid cells, like in hepatocytes, is partially regulated by members of the C/EBP family. Overall, these findings define AGP as a genuine secondary granule protein of neutrophils. Hence, neutrophils, which constitute the first line of defense, are likely to serve as the primary local source of AGP at sites of infection or injury.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: We recently demonstrated that bee venom (BV) injection into the Zusanli acupoint produced a significantly more potent anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effect than injection into a non-acupoint in a Freund's adjuvant induced rheumatoid arthritis (RA) model. However, the precise BV constituents responsible for these antinociceptive and/or anti-inflammatory effects are not fully understood. In order to investigate the possible role of the soluble fraction of BV in producing the anti-arthritic actions of BV acupuncture, whole BV was extracted into two fractions according to solubility (a water soluble fraction, BVA and an ethylacetate soluble fraction, BVE) and the BVA fraction was further tested. Subcutaneous BVA injection (0.9 mg/kg/day) into the Zusanli acupoint was found to dramatically inhibit paw edema and radiological change (i.e. new bone proliferation and soft tissue swelling) caused by Freund's adjuvant injection. BVA treatment also reduced the increase in serum interleukin-6 caused by RA induction to levels observed in non-arthritic animals. In addition, BVA therapy significantly reduced arthritis-induced nociceptive behaviors (i.e. nociceptive scores for mechanical hyperalgesia and thermal hyperalgesia). Finally, BVA treatment significantly suppressed adjuvant-induced Fos expression in the lumbar spinal cord at 3 weeks post-adjuvant injection. In contrast, BVE treatment (0.05 mg/kg/day) failed to show any anti-inflammatory or antinociceptive effects on RA. The results of the present study demonstrate that BVA is the effective fraction of whole BV responsible for the antinociception and anti-inflammatory effects of BV acupuncture treatment. Thus it is recommended that this fraction of BV be used for long-term treatment of RA-induced pain and inflammation. However, further study is necessary to clarify which constituents of the BVA fraction are directly responsible for these anti-arthritis effects.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: alpha 1-Acid glycoprotein (AGP) exists as an heterogeneous population of glycosylated variants (glycoforms) in plasma. The concentration of AGP increases some 2-5 fold in certain pathophysiological states exemplified by the chronic inflammatory disease, rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Moreover, the expressed glycosylation pattern alters in such conditions, indicating functional significance that is likely to be related to the oligosaccharide heterogeneity. We have investigated the heterogeneity of AGP glycosylation using the technique of high pH anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC). AGP was isolated from the blood of RA sufferers, partially separated by Concanavalin A (Con A) affinity chromatography into bound and non-bound fractions and was enzymatically deglycosylated. Chromatography on the pellicular HPAE resin at pH 13 separated the released oligosaccharides and allowed a comparison of profiles in terms of branching and fucosylation. Results demonstrate an abnormal RA AGP glycosylation, with a tendency towards tri- and tetra-antennary oligosaccharides and enhanced fucosylation, in addition to the possible existence of penta-sialylated RA AGP glycoforms.
No preview · Article · Feb 1997 · Journal of chromatography. B, Biomedical sciences and applications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: After exposure to a concanavalin A (Con A)-unreactive variant of α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), macrophages released an inhibitor of interleukin-1 (IL-1) proliferative activity in the thymocyte comitogenic assay. This effect was observed with AGP concentrations above 100 μg/ml in the macrophage supernatant and would appear to be mediated by the macrophages, since native AGP had no activity on thymocyte proliferation. Preliminary physicochemical characterization showed that the factor was partially resistant to heating, undialyzable, and eluted with an apparent molecular mass of 50–100 kDa when subjected to Sephacryl S-200 chromatography. Murine IL-1 and human (h) recombinant (r) IL-1 were affected by this factor to the same extent. IL-1 and IL-2 co-induced thymocyte proliferation, which is mitogen-independent, was also inhibited, whereas hrIL-2 activity was not suppressed when assayed in thymocytes with PHA at a submitogenic concentration or in CTLL cells. The factor did not interfere with TNFα or hrIL-6 activity when tested against their specific cell line. These data indicate that the inhibitor may act specifically against IL-1 activity and further elucidate the possible role of AGP in the modulation of IL-1 activity via the secretion of an inhibitor.
No preview · Article · Oct 1990 · Immunology Letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Isoforms of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) are expressed in rodent intestine as well as in the rat intestinal epithelial cell line IEC-6, However, no specific roles have been attributed to these isoforms in intestinal epithelial cells, To determine whether C/EBP family members could be implicated in the regulation of acute-phase response gene expression in intestinal epithelial cells, we have studied the effect of glucocorticoids on expression of the alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein gene and C/EBP isoforms in IEC-6 cells. Glucocorticoids induced alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein gene expression in these cells. This induction coincided with an increase of DNA-binding capacity of both C/EBP beta and C/EBP delta to the B1 and B2 C/EBP-interacting sites localized in the rat AGP promoter. Transforming growth factor beta, (TGF beta), a cytokine involved in the transcriptional regulation of several acute-phase plasma proteins, antagonized the glucocorticoid-dependent induction of alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein gene expression. In parallel, TGF beta downregulated the DNA-binding capacities of both the C/EBP beta and C/EBP delta isoforms, Mutations of the B1 or the B2 C/EBP-interacting site strongly reduced the responsiveness of the alpha 1-acid glycoprotein promoter to glucocorticoids and TGF beta, These results demonstrate a functional role for C/EBP beta and C/EBP beta in rat intestinal epithelial cells and suggest that these isoforms represent important modulators of the acute-phase response and of glucocorticoid, as well as TGF beta, responsiveness.
No preview · Article · Aug 1998 · DNA and Cell Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) or orosomucoid (ORM) is a 41-4.3-kDa glycoprotein with a pI of 2.8-3.8. The peptide moiety is a single chain of 183 amino acids (human) or 187 amino acids (rat) with two and one disulfide bridges in humans and rats,respectively. The carbohydrate content represents 45% of the molecular weight attached in the form of five to six highly sialylated complex-type-N-linked glycans. AGP is one of the major acute phase proteins in humans, rats, mice and other species. As most acute phase proteins, its serum concentration increases in response to systemic tissue injury, inflammation or infection, and these changes in serum protein concentrations have been correlated with increases in hepatic synthesis. Expression of the AGP gene is controlled by a combination of the major regulatory mediators, i.e. glucocorticoids and a cytokine network involving mainly interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha), interleukin-6 and IL-6 related cytokines. It is now well established that the acute phase: response may take place in extra-hepatic cell types, and may be regulated by inflammatory mediators as observed in hepatocytes. The biological function of AGP remains unknown; however,a number of activities of possible physiological significance, such as various immunomodulating effects, have been described. AGP also has the ability to bind and to carry numerous basic and neutral lipophilic drugs from endogenous (steroid hormones) and exogenous origin; one to seven binding sites have been described. AGP can also bind acidic drugs such as phenobarbital. The immunomodulatory as well as the binding activities of AGP have been shown to be mostly dependent on carbohydrate composition. Finally, the use of AGP transgenic animals enabled to address in vivo, functionality of responsive elements and tissue specificity, as well as the effects of drugs that bind to AGP and will be an useful tool to determine the physiological role of AGP.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2000 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Protein Structure and Molecular Enzymology