Implementation of RFID Technology in Parking Lot Access Control System

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DOI: 10.1109/RFIDEURASIA.2007.4368095 · Source: IEEE Xplore
Conference: RFID Eurasia, 2007 1st Annual
Cite this publication
Abstract
Parking plays an important role in the traffic system since all vehicles require a storage location when they are not being used to transport passengers. Whether it is a parking lot or on-street parking there is a problem of parking revenue convenience. Implementation of the RFID technology could be a good solution for this problem.
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Implementation
of
RFID
Technology
in
Parking
Lot
Access
Control
System
G.
Ostojic,
S.
Stankovski,
M.
Lazarevic
Faculty
of
Technical
Sciences
Novi
Sad,
Trg
D.
Obradovica
6,
21000
Novi
Sad,
Republic
of
Serbia
Vukica
Jovanovic
College
of
Technology,
Digital
Enterprise
Center,
Purdue
University,
1419
Knoy
Hall,
N.Grant
St.,West
Lafayette
IN
47907,
USA
Abstract-Parking
plays
an
important
role
in
the
traffic
system
since
all
vehicles
require
a
storage
location
when
they
are
not
being
used
to
transport
passengers.
Whether
it
is
a
parking
lot
or
on-street
parking
there
is
a
problem
of
parking
revenue
convenience.
Implementation
of
the
RFID
technology
could
be
a
good
solution
for
this
problem.
I
INTRODUCTION
Radio
Frequency
Identification
(RFID)
is
becoming
an
important
identification
technology
in
applications
such
as
inventory
management,
security
access,
personnel
identification,
factory
automation,
automotive
toll
debiting,
and
vehicle
identification
to
name
just
a
few.
During
the
last
four
decades
numerous
parking
search
models
have
been
developed
[1,
2,
3,
4,
5, 6,
7,
8,
9,
and
10].
Since
parking
plays
an
important
role
in
the
traffic
system
one
of
the
problem
concerning
this
area
is
parking
revenue.
RFID
technology
was
chosen
for
the
implementation
in
parking
system
of
city
of
Novi
Sad,
Republic
of
Serbia.
Territory
of
the
city
of
Novi
Sad
encompasses
the
surface
of
702.7
km2
with
population
of
about
310,000.
We
anticipate
that
there
are
more
than
130,000
vehicles.
Having
this
in
mind
there
is
a
huge
traffic
and
parking
problem
in
city
of
Novi
Sad.
At
Faculty
of
Technical
Sciences
Novi
Sad,
Department
of
Traffic
Engineering,
the
stationary
traffic
study
was
done
with
the
analysis
of
the
status
of
stationary
traffic
and
definition
of
solutions
for
occupation
of
public
running
surfaces,
analysis
and
exploitation
of
public
garages
and
parking
lots.
According
with
the
stationary
traffic
study
new
parking
system
is
released
in
2005.
II
PARKING
SYSTEM
IN
CITY
OF
NovI
SAD
There
are
different
types
of
parking
system
in
city
of
Novi
Sad:
on-street
parking,
parking
lots
and
garages.
On
street
parking
is
organized
in
three
zones:
red,
blue
and
white.
Parking
revenue
is
done
by
a
Parkomat,
SMS
(Short
Message
Service)
message
over
mobile
phone
and
by
parking
ticket.
Instead
of
parking
revenue
collectors
there
are
parking
checkers
(checking
parking
price
payment).
Parking
revenue
for
parking
lots
and
garages
is
done
by
parking
collectors,
because
the
parking
price
varies
with
the
time
spent
on
a
parking
lot
or
in
a
garage.
Parking
operators
face
a
number
of
challenges
such
as:
1)
The
inability
to
accurately
and
intelligently
identify,
collect
and
record
the
data
of
the
vehicles
that
enter
and
leave
the
parking
lot
then
processing
this
data
to
better
analyze
traffic
patterns
and
facilitate
client
billings.
2)
Need
to
increase
the
security
(and
user
integrity)
of
the
parking
lot.
3)
Adding
human
resources,
especially
in
peak
traffic
times
that
burdens
operating
costs
and
reduces
profitability.
4)
Line-ups
created
for
parking
payments,
especially
during
peak
traffic
times
that
reduces
the
service
levels
to
customers.
Automated
parking
revenue
systems
enable
convenience
when
dealing
with
already
mentioned
challenges.
A.
On-streetparking
On-street
parking
places
are
located
in
over
90
streets
in
center
of
the
city
of
Novi
Sad.
Traffic
in
these
streets
is
unobstructed.
A
parking
place
user
sends
SMS
message
by
a
mobile
phone
to
an
adequate
number
(for
the
parking
zone).
Message
contains
license
plate
number
(e.g.
,,NS1
1
1
11
1").
Every
message
sent
by
a
parking
place
user
is
forwarded
from
mobile
operator
(Telenor
or
Telekom)
to
company
for
parking
revenue
server
over
the
Frame
Relay
(see
Fig.
1.).
Afterwards,
confirmation/failure
message
is
sent
to
a
user
about
parking
revenue.
If
a
user
has
correctly
entered
license
plate
number
and
has
enough
funds
on
his/hers
account
needed
amount
of
money
is
reserved
for
parking
revenue
and
confirmation
SMS
message
is
sent
to
a
user.
Money
reservation
is
accomplished
by
server
which
sends
query
to
mobile
operator
billing
system
over
Frame
Relay
(see
Fig.
1.).
SERVER
ROUTER
ROUTER
FRAME
_
RELAY
Fig.
1.
Communication
between
server
and
mobile
operator
server.
SERVER
ROUTER
ROUTER
ft
[MOBILE
OPERATOR
PDA
FRAME
RELAY
ControL
center
Automatic
barries
_....
Fig.
2.
Communication
between
PDA
and
server.
If
a
user
gets
confirmation
message
the
reserved
money
is
obligated,
and
if,
for
any
reason,
user
doesn't
gets
confirmation
message
in
5
minutes
transaction
is
stopped
and
reserved
money
is
released.
All
messages
are
sent
to
a
user
by
Frame
Relay
to
mobile
operator
and
then
from
SMS
mobile
operator
center
to
user
over
GSM
(Global
System
for
Mobile
Communications).
Checking
of
the
parking
revenue
payment
is
done
by
parking
checkers.
They
are
using
PDA
(Personal
Digital
Assistant).
They
print
penalty
ticket
and
enter
license
plate
number
and
send
query
to
database.
If
a
user
haven't
paid
parking
price
or
the
time
for
parking
is
overdue
a
parking
checker
enters
data
for
the
parked
vehicle
(license
plate
number,
vehicle
type,
time
and
place
etc.).
These
data
is
sent
over
GPRS
(General
Packet
Radio
Service)
to
mobile
operator
and
after
that
over
Frame
Relay
to
server
(Fig.
2.).
From
database
server,
license
plate
number
is
sending
to
the
police
(in
text
file),
and
the
police
sends
back
vehicle
owner
data
to
the
database.
Every
penalty
ticket
has
a
unique
number.
On
the
PC
(Personal
Computer)
there
is
an
application
for
selecting
recording
penalty
tickets
from
E-bank
database
(Microsoft
Access)
and
transfers
it
to
database
on
the
server
(PostgreSQL).
B.
Parking
lots
and
garages
There
are
several
parking
lots
and
garages
which
are
dislocated
all
over
city
of
Novi
Sad.
They
have
one
or
several
entry/exit.
Parking
entry/exit
on
these
parking
lots
is
being
controlled
by
arm
barriers.
Parking
revenue
is
done
by
parking
collectors,
because
the
parking
price
varies
with
the
time
spent
on
a
parking
lot
or
in
a
garage.
A
parking
place
user
stops
a
vehicle
on
inductive
loop
(in
front
of
arm
barrier)
and
with
a
hand
presses
pushbutton
placed
on
a
control
center
side.
Afterwards
arm
of
the
automatic
barrier
lifts
thus
enabling
entering
a
parking
lot.
Also
a
user
gets
printed
parking
ticket
with
encoded
entering
parking
lot
(or
garage)
time
(see
Fig.
3.).
On
entry
barrier
there
is
display
with
indicating
light
(red/green)
with
display.
On
a
display
number
of
free
parking
places
is
shown.
If
there
is
no
free
parking
places
arm
of
a
barrier
will
not
lift.
There
is
a
GPRS
communication
between
barriers
controlling
systems,
when
the
entry
and
exit
barriers
are
dislocated.
Exit
barrier,
sends
a
signal
to
an
entry
barrier
with
every
arm
lift.
According
to
received
signals
control
system
calculates
number
of
free
parking
places
on
parking
lot
or
garage
and
sends
number
to
the
display.
Exit
Parking
lot
Indicating
Lights
(red
I
green)
Induot
ive
Loop
Pu
button
rFI
reader
Enter
Fig.
3.
Entry/exit
parking
lot
(garage)
system.
When
a
user
of
a
parking
place
wants
to
leave
a
parking
lot
or
garage
he/she
stops
a
vehicle
on
exit
inductive
loop
(in
front
of
arm
barrier)
and
gives
a
parking
ticket
to
a
parking
collector.
A
parking
collector
then
reads
a
barcode
printed
on
a
parking
ticket
(with
a
barcode
reader).
Afterwards,
times
spend
on
parking
place
and
a
price
for
the
parking
service
is
displayed
on
the
PC
monitor.
Those
data
could
be
seen
by
both
a
parking
collector
and
a
parking
place
user.
After
paying
for
the
parking
service,
parking
collector
prints
a
receipt
and
exit
barrier
arm
lifts,
so
the
user
can
leave
a
parking
lot
or
garage.
III
CONTROL
CENTER
OF
A
PARKING
LOT
OR
GARAGE
Regulation
of
vehicle
entry/exit
parking
lot
or
garage
is
accomplished
by
the
control
center.
In
control
center
basic
component
liked
to
all
the
others
is
programmable
logic
controller
(PLC)
FESTO,
type
FEC
FC440.
This
PLC
has
16
digital
inputs
and
8
digital
outputs,
2
serial
ports
and
one
Ethernet
interface.
Other
components
connected
on
PLC
at
entry
side
of
parking
lot
are:
inductive
loops,
capacitive
sensor,
barcode
printer,
display
and
GSM
modem
(see
Fig.
4.).
GPRS
communication
between
entry
and
exit
barriers
is
accomplished
by
Siemens
MC
39i
modem
connected
with
TTL
RS232
cable
to
EXT
port
(serial
port-extension
interface)
of
PLC.
The
exit
control
center
of
the
parking
lot
or
a
garage
also
has
PLC,
but
there
is
a
difference
with
the
components
connected
to
it.
Besides
inductive
loop
and
GSM
modem
which
are
also
present
in
the
entry
control
center,
there
is
a
PC,
a
receipt
printer
and
barcode
reader
(see
Fig.
4.).
According
to
the
momentary
status
of
inputs
(sensors)
like
inductive
loops
and
demand
for
printing
ticket
at
the
entry
part
of
a
parking
lot
PLC
sends
output
signals
to
arm
barriers
and
semaphore
(indicating
lights).
Inductive
loops
are
used
to
detect
metal
objects
(vehicles
in
front,
beneath
and
behind
barriers).
Exit
n
4
GPRS
G~P1RS
Display
Fig.
4.
The
entry/exit
control
center
of
a
parking
lot
or
garage.
A
ticket
printer
is
connected
by
RS232
cable
to
first
serial
port
while
display
for
indicating
number
of
free
parking
places
at
the
parking
lot
is
connected
to
the
second.
Communication
between
the
PC
and
PLC
is
over
Ethernet
interface
(twisted
pair
interface-
I
OBaseT)
on
a
switch.
On
a
PC
there
is
application
for
trifling
parking
service
(according
to
the
time
spent
on
a
parking
lot
or
garage)
which
uses
PostgreSQL
database.
Also,
there
is
an
application
that
gives
the
command
to
the
exit
barrier
to
raise
the
arm.
The
PLC
is
programmed
according
to
IEC
61131-3
standard.
IV
IMPLEMENTATION
OF
RFID
TECHNOLOGY
IN
CONTROL
CENTER
OF
A
PARKING
LOT
OR
GARAGE
Since
RFID
technology
is
contactless
identification
technology
a
suggestion
was
given
to
use
this
technology
in
parking
systems.
Advantages
of
RFID
technology
in
comparison
to
other
technologies
are:
*
No
need
for
physical
contact
between
data
carrier
and
the
communication
device
*
Tags
can
be
used
repeatedly
*
Robust
tags
can
withstand
extreme
conditions
and
temperature
*
Low
maintenance
costs
*
Tags
available
in
a
range
of
types,
sizes
and
materials
*
Non-line-of-sight
communication
makes
it
possible
to
read
and
write
Tags
in
dirty
conditions.
*
RFID
tags
may
be
read
by
the
RFID
system
at
one
time.
*
Extremely
low
error
rate.
We
have
implemented
RFID
technology
in
entire
parking
system
of
city
of
Novi
Sad,
meaning
both
on-street
parking
and
parking
lots
and
garages,
thus
creating
intelligent
parking
control
management
system
which
integrates
RFID
technology,
automatic
control
technology
and
applications
software.
We
have
chosen
RFID
system
that
is
working
on
frequency
of
13.56
MHz
because:
*
13.56
tags
are
less
expensive
due
to
their
limited
coil
requirement
and
*
Some
13.56
MHz
tags
are
anti-collision.
In
designed
parking
system
verification
of
parking
service
revenue
is
done
by
using
passive
RFID
tags
(ISO
15693).
There
are
several
types
of
RFID
tags-tickets:
*
for
invalids
(free
of
charge),
*
for
people
living
in
parking
zone
(monthly
or
yearly
payment
but
only
for
limited
parking
area),
*
for
all
others
(golden
card,
only
for
one
month
but
for
all
garages,
parking
lots
and
on-street
parking,
see
Fig.
5)
Fig.
5.
Golden
card
-
RFID
tag.
Reading
distance
for
these
passive
RFID
tags
is
7
cm.
Their
weight
is
3.4
g,
so
they
are
light,
easy
to
use
and
to
carry
with
the
user
(they
look
like
a
credit
card).
Also
these
tags
are
read/writable
(64's
block
memory
space
for
user
define,
each
block
can
be
written
4
bytes
data).
A.
Entry
control
center
of
a
parking
lot
or
garage
A
parking
place
user
stops
a
vehicle
on
inductive
loop
(in
front
of
arm
barrier)
and
puts
RFID
tag
in
front
of
a
RFID
reader
(mounted
on
a
control
center,
see
Fig.
3.).
Afterwards
arm
of
the
automatic
barrier
lifts
thus
enabling
entering
a
parking
lot.
In
this
case
he
or
she
doesn't
get
printed
parking
ticket
with
encoded
entering
parking
lot
(or
garage)
time.
There
are
defined
terms
which
must
be
achieved
in
order
to
lift
the
arm
of
an
entry
barrier
like:
*
Vehicle
must
stop
on
inductive
loop.
*
Data
written
on
RFID
tag
must
be
correct
like:
*
Validity
period
(day,
month,
year),
*
Integrity,
*
Is
the
user
vehicle
out
of
the
parking
lot
(or
not).
RFID
reader
is
connected
by
RS232
cable
to
EXT
port
of
PLC.
PLC
is
programmed
to
communicate
with
RFID
reader
and
to
send
read
and
write
commands
to
RFID
reader.
Principle
is
next:
after
a
parking
place
user
stops
a
vehicle
on
inductive
loop
and
puts
RFID
tag
in
front
of
a
RFID
reader,
reader
query's
a
RFID
tag.
The
RFID
tag
detects
the
interrogating
signal
and
transmits
a
response
signal
containing
encoded
data
back
to
the
receiver.
This
data
is:
UID
-
Unique
Identification-encode
check,
validity
period
-
locked
data
for
date,
time,
and
year,
so
that
the
tag
can
be
used
only
in
defined
period
(after
locking
this
data
no
one
can
unlock
these
blocks
for
reuse),
check
bit
(one
block
memory)
to
determine
is
the
user's
vehicle
already
is
in
the
parking
lot
or
not.
This
check
is
practiced
for
prevention
of
malversation.
One
user
of
a
parking
place
could
borrow
RFID
card
to
another
user.
Mi
GPRS
PLC
software
analyses
gathered
data
and
if
the
UID
is
correct,
if
validity
period
is
correct
and
the
user's
vehicle
is
not
already
in
the
parking
lot
sends
a
signal
to
barrier
to
lift
an
arm
and
sends
a
command
to
RFID
reader
to
write
on
RFID
tag
information
that
the
vehicle
is
entering
parking
lot.
While
PLC
is
processing
information,
green
led
diode
is
blinking,
thus
informing
a
user
of
activity
of
checking
and
writing
information
on
tag
process.
After
writing
data
to
RFID
tag
green
led
diode
stops
blinking
and
user
can
drive
in
to
parking
lot
(or
garage).
If
one
or
all
of
the
named
data
are
not
correct,
system
will
inform
a
user
by
lighting
red
led
diode.
An
arm
of
a
barrier
will
not
lift
a
user
can't
enter
in
a
parking
lot.
If
a
user
still
wants
to
enter
in
a
parking
lot
(or
a
garage)
he
or
she
must
press
the
pushbutton,
placed
on
a
control
center
side
and
follow
the
procedure
already
mentioned
above.
B.
Exit
control
center
of
a
parking
lot
or
garage
Working
procedure
at
the
exit
barrier
is
next:
after
a
parking
place
user
stops
a
vehicle
on
inductive
loop
and
puts
RFID
tag
in
front
of
a
RFID
reader,
reader
query's
a
RFID
tag.
The
RFID
tag
detects
the
interrogating
signal
and
transmits
a
response
signal
containing
encoded
data
back
to
the
receiver.
This
data
is:
validity
period
and
check
bit
to
determine
if
the
user's
vehicle
is
in
the
parking
lot
or
not.
PLC
software
(see
Fig.
7.)
analyses
gathered
data
and
if
a
validity
period
is
correct
and
the
user's
vehicle
is
at
the
parking
lot
sends
a
signal
to
barrier
to
lift
an
arm
and
sends
a
command
to
RFID
reader
to
write
on
RFID
tag
information
that
the
vehicle
exit's
the
parking
lot.
While
PLC
is
processing
information,
green
led
diode
is
blinking,
thus
informing
a
user
of
activity
of
checking
and
writing
information
on
tag
process.
After
writing
data
to
RFID
tag
green
led
diode
stops
blinking
and
user
can
drive
in
to
parking
lot
(or
garage).
In
this
case
a
parking
place
user
doesn't
pay
for
the
parking
service
and
doesn't
get
a
receipt.
RFID
RI
IL)
RFID
retod&r
Fig.
6.
New
control
center
of
a
parking
lot
or
garage.
V
CONCLUSION
Fig.7.
PLC
software
for
control
center
of
a
parking
lot
or
garage.
If
named
data
are
not
correct,
system
will
inform
a
user
by
lighting
red
led
diode.
An
arm
of
a
barrier
will
not
lift
a
user
can't
exit
a
parking
lot.
In
this
case
a
parking
collector
checks
an
RFID
tag
to
determine
the
problem.
If
a
problem
is
related
with
the
validity
period
parking
collector calculates
revenue
for
the
time
spent
from
the
end
of
the
validity
period
till
now.
Calculated
time
and
a
price
for
the
parking
service
are
displayed
on
the
PC
monitor.
Those
data
could
be
seen
by
both
a
parking
collector
and
a
parking
place
user.
After
paying
for
the
parking
service,
parking
collector
prints
a
receipt
and
exit
barrier
arm
lifts,
so
the
user
can
leave
a
parking
lot
or
garage.
If
the
problem
relates
to
the
value
of
the
check
bit
then
a
user
of
a
RFID
tag
an
authorized
institution
deals
with
this
problem.
Parking
collectors
at
parking
lots
and
garages
are
authorized
to
visually
check,
every
now
and
then,
validity
period
and
quality
of
graphics
printed
on
a
RFID
tag
(in
case
of
a
forgery).
In
this
way,
parking
collectors
are
checking
parking
revenue
for
the
on-street
parking
(for
the
users
who
has
RFID
tags).
C.
Summary
New
control
centers
of
a
parking
lot
or
garage
in
city
of
Novi
Sad,
where
we
implemented
RFID
technology
has
been
in
use
since
January
2007.
Till
now
collection
of
the
parking
service
tariff
has
been
increased
for
17%.
For
the
on-street
parking,
one
of
the
reasons
for
the
increase
is
simple
procedure
for
getting
RFID
tag
(approximately
twice
as
much
time
needed
for
buying
a
ticket
for
on-street
parking).
People
realize
that
the
time
they
have
to
spend
waiting
in
line
to
buy
the
tickets
(sometimes
several
tickets
for
different
parking
zones)
they
can
spend
doing
something
else.
For
the
parking
lot
or
garage
users,
one
of
the
reasons
for
the
increase
in
parking
service
tariff
collection
is
much
less
time
spend
waiting
at
the
entry
and
exit
barriers.
Also
they
don't
have
to
worry
about
amount
of
time
spend
at
parking
lot
or
do
they
have
enough
cash
to
pay
for
the
parking
service.
Implementation
of
the
RFID
technology,
in
an
existing
parking
lot
access
control
system,
has
given
benefits
to
all
interest
parts
(the
Parking
Operator,
parking
place
users
and
parking
collectors).
Parking
Operator
has
gain
robust
system,
easy
to
operate,
easy
for
maintenance,
with
the
reliable
RFID
tag-ticket
check
for
the
prevention
of
malversation.
Also,
RFID
reader
is
placed
in
a
way
that
it
doesn't
violate
exterior.
Till
now
collection
of
the
parking
service
tariff
has
been
increased
for
1700.
People
using
parking
place
are
spending
much
less
time
in
waiting
in
line
to
buy
the
tickets
for
the
on-street
parking
and
much
less
time
waiting
at
the
entry
and
exit
barriers
of
a
parking
lot
or
garage.
Parking
collectors
that
are
working
at
parking
lots
and
garages
are
much
less
involved
in
collecting
tariff.
They
are
only
active
when
dealing
with
parking
place
users
who
don't
have
correct
RFID
tag-ticket
and,
of
course,
when
they
have
to
charge
for
the
parking
place
users
who
don't
have
RFID
tag-ticket.
Future
research
will
be
directed
towards
the
designing
a
parking
system
so
that
a
parking
place
user
will
be
able
just
to
drive
thru
and
enter/exit
parking
lot
or
garage.
Also
we
will
try
to
automate
the
in
and
out
privileges
of
the
subscriber
and
then
transfer
this
data
to
the
enterprise
software
for
the
traffic
analysis
that
will
allow
optimization
of
the
human
resources
needed
for
traffic
flow
in
and
out.
For
customer
payment,
the
RFID
tag
could
be
read
to
debit
a
pre-pay
system
or
charge
the
parking
services
against
a
credit
card.
All
of
this
will
facilitate
customers
entering
and
leaving
and
this
improves
service
levels
and
increases
capacity
in
the
parking
lot.
These
benefits
will
drive
higher
revenues.
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  • ... Every message sent by the user is then forwarded through the mobile operator to the parking control system. After validation of the received data, the amount of money for the parking fee is reserved on the user's phone account, and the user has notified with a confirmation message for successful parking payment [7] [8]. No pre-registration is required to use the SMS parking payment. ...
  • ... Personal and vehicle control in particular area, security of items which shouldn't leave the area, equipment tracking in engineering firms, hospital filing system. In [3], considering enormous scale on which RFID will be operating and considering the fact that it will be present everywhere on our lives it is absolutely necessary for it to be a secure system. Even though RFID is still not operational on large scale, some experimental shops, literature written about it is relatively extensive. ...
  • ... In [2], the paper proposes a Smart Parking Management System based solely on wireless sensor network technology. In [3][4][5], RFID technology was utilized, however, and for the most part, the main purpose is to provide handsfree access control to ensure only authorized or specific vehicles have entry to private parking lots. This is achieved by placing an RFID reader on the gate and controlling (opening/closing) a barrier automatically in order to let cars in. ...
    Conference Paper
    The advantages of RFID include a no line of sight requirement, long read range, ability of tags to withstand harsh environment, multiple tag read/write, and if utilized efficiently it can contribute significantly to improved efficiency and cost reduction in relevant engineering applications. Similarly, Bluetooth technology in addition to its low cost, offers the advantage of using a standard protocol to achieve wireless transmission with low interference and low energy consumption. This paper focuses on the integration of these two technologies and proposes a novel approach to the automation of parking spaces identification. A prototype of the proposed design is implemented and tested with favorable results.
  • ... Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) provides an ideal technology for assets tracking and object identification, and its applications have become widespread within many areas of industry such as healthcare, supply chains, and retail. [1][2][3][4][5] Tag, reader, and back-end database server are the main components of an RFID system. Since RFID technology with embedded secure protocols does not need a contact or a direct sight between the reader and the tagged object, it can be fast and reliable. ...
    Article
    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)-based parking management systems provide facilities to control parking lot systems within easy access and secure inspection. Chen and Chong have presented a scheme to prevent car thefts for parking lot management systems, which is based on EPC C1-G2 RFID standard. They claimed that their protocol is resistant against well-known RFID attacks. In this paper, we prove that Chen and Chong's scheme is not resistant against secret disclosure and impersonation attacks. Therefore, in Chen and Chong parking lot system, a car may be stolen without having a valid tag. In this paper, we also show that the proposed impersonation attack works for any length of cyclic redundancy check and the secret disclosure attack costs at most 216 evaluations of the used pseudo random number generator. The success probability of both attacks is 1 while their complexity is only 2 runs of the protocol. Finally, we present an improved protocol and formally and informally prove that the improved protocol provides the desired level of security and privacy.
  • ... • Have extra-costs. In some places prepaid RFID cards (wallet cards) can be used to pay for the service but they are usually not re-usable and drivers pay the extra-cost of the card every time they buy a new one (Ostojic et al., 2007). ...
    Article
    Cities are steadily growing and the process of urbanisation is prevalent worldwide. With the aim to provide citizens with a better place to live, a new concept of city was born: the Smart City. This concept has gained much attention and many "regular" cities are taking action so as to become "smart". To do so, cities are deploying and using information and communication technologies, with the aim of tackling many local problems from local economy and transportation to quality of life and e-governance. In this article we recall the concept of smart city and its main areas of interest. We discuss that the ubiquitous use of information and communication technologies within the context of a smart city might lead to the transparent gathering of private data from citizens. We focus on the transportation area and, more specifically, on the parking problems that might arise in big cities. We propose a set of procedures, based on privacy enhancing technologies, that allow the private, secure and efficient management of parking in smart cities. The main goal of this article is to foster discussion about the privacy issues that might arise in a smart city and to provide an example scenario (i.e. public parking) to demonstrate some interesting ideas and show some open problems.
  • ... All these processes communicate with each other through database information. G. Ostojic [3] has developed an automatic vehicle parking control system based on RFID technology in the city of Novi Sad, Republic of Serbia. The hardware of the system consists of RFID tag and reader operating at a frequency of 13.56MHz for authentication, inductive loop for metal detection, a capacity sensor for counting vehicles, Siemens MC 39i GPRS modem for communication between entrance and exit gates and FEC FC440 programmable logic controller (PLC) which is the heart of the system. ...
  • ... RFID is becoming an important identification technology in applications such as inventory management, security access, personnel identification, factory automation, automotive toll debiting, and vehicle identification to name just a few (Ostojic et al. 2007). ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    In this study, a solution has been provided for the problems encountered in parking-lot management systems via RFID technology. RFID readers, RFID labels, computers, barriers and software are used as for the main components of the RFID technology. The software has been handled for the management, controlling, transaction reporting and operation tasks for parking lots located on various parts of the city. Check-ins and check-outs of the parking-lots will be under control with RFID readers, labels and barriers. It will be possible to see unmanned, secure, automated parking-lots functioning with RFID technology in the future. Check-ins and check-outs will be handled in a fast manner without having to stop the cars so that traffic jam problem will be avoided during these processes. Drivers will not have to stop at the circulation points and parking tickets will be out of usage during check-ins and check-outs. Vehicle owners will not have to make any payments at each check-out thus a faster traffic flow will be possible. Since there will not be any waiting during check-ins and check-outs the formation of emission gas as a result of such waiting will be avoided.
  • Article
    The analysis of possible application of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology in machining fixture for metal cutting manufacturing assembly/disassembly process is presented in this paper. An analysis involves hardware and software components that designed system for assembly/disassembly needs to have. Sugested structure of the system should provide easier and faster identificationof basics fixture elements. The paper presents the overall structure of aplied technology, description of particular system segments and their implementation in laboratory conditions. The paper concludes with final remarks, discussing advantages and disadvantages of the developed system, as well as the directions of future research.
  • Article
    The development of the 'CENtral CIty Movement Model' (CENCIMM) package is a timely and logical research project aimed at providing a detailed planning and system-design tool for use in evaluating the needs for and operation of urban parking systems. The CENCIMM development has focussed on modelling traffic within the Perth Central Business District, and the support of the Western Australian Department of Transport (WADoT) has been instrumental in the conduct of the research. The CENCIMM software package comprises a suite of models to aid in the investigation of parking in central city areas. It is a practical tool that can be used to plan road networks and evaluate parking, traffic management and public transport policies in the (Central Business District) CBD.
  • Article
    The New Urbanists assume that if you build a village center or Main Street-style retail businesses in the middle of a residential neighborhood, it will, among other things, reduce the level of automobile usage. Based on the claim of reduced automobile travel, advocates suggest that parking requirements and transportation impact fees should similarly be reduced. Although it would be ideal to test these claims using New Urbanist development, current developments lack well-established retail businesses. Thus, this study considers these claims of the New Urbanisa using six prototypical traditional shopping districts in the Oakland-Berkeley subarea of the San Francisco Bay Area. Each of these districts is surrounded by residential areas of moderately high density [between 5.3 and 8.5 persons per hectare (13-21 persons per gross acre)] and middle-class residents. These shopping areas vary to scale and mix of businesses covering the range of sizes and types espoused by the New Urbanists. The trip generation rates and parking needs for each of these prototypical shopping areas are calculated and compared with ITE-based rates for both an average hour and a daily rate. Based on these comparisons, a conclusion is reached that the claims of the New Urbanists for reduced parking and transportation fees cannot be woleheartedly supported if the needs of the neighborhood are to be considered. Although many customers walk to these shopping areas, the trips by modes other than automobile are offset by a higher overall level of activity in the shopping area.
  • Article
    A study has been made of the factors which determine the choice of parking places of visitors to a city center. The starting point of the investigation was the results of a traffic and parking survey held in the central area of Haarlem (The Netherlands) in 1972. To describe the choice of parking places, an attempt was made to specify and test a logit chance model. Possible indicators were: walking time, parking charges, occupation rates of different parking alternatives, possible parking-time restriction, and some “accessibility factors” connected with parking alternatives from which a visitor could make a choice. It became obvious that walking time greatly influenced the visitor's choice. Further, except for the group “loading/unloading”, some preference for “off-street carparks” and “parking garages” could be seen over other categories of parking places. It was also notable that visitors seemed just as inclined to use “illegal parking” as an “ideal” parking place on the street. As for the remaining situations, it seemed that the categories related to the purpose of the trip determined which of the factors played an important part.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Parking Guidance and Information (PGI) signs are thought to enable a more efficient use of the available parking stock. Despite the installation of PGI systems in many cities and their operation for a number of years, there is a lack of reliable evidence of the size of the benefits that these systems can achieve. This paper describes the development of driver parking choice models (both during the journey and pre-trip) and the implementation of these models in the existing network traffic simulation model RGCONTRAM. Besides quantifying the effects of the PGI system on both the drivers seeking suitable parking spaces and the parking stock itself, this also enables quantification of the impact of parking choice on the wider network. Factors influencing PGI effectiveness are described and conclusions are drawn that illustrate the potential of PGI to induce the demand to spread more efficiently across the parking stock.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    This paper describes an animated simulation model which was used to assess several strategies for improving urban on- street parking systems. Built in ARENA, the model tracks six key performance measures including the probability of finding a parking space, the time spent searching for a parking space, and the total amount of money put into parking meters. Sensitivity analyses performed with the model revealed that a driver's chances of finding a parking space increase at about the same rate as decreases in the mean actual parking time. The model was also used to assess the effects of various degrees of enforcement of the one-hour time limit on system performance. Finally, experiments were performed with the model to determine how newer meter technologies might affect parking revenues collected by city management. Specifically, when existing meters were replaced by resetting meters which zero out any time left after a car pulls out of a space, parking meter revenues rose by 23 %.
  • Article
    Over recent years, parking policy has become a key element of transport policy in many countries. Parking policy measures can affect many different dimensions of travel behaviour but are likely to be most significant in terms of travellers' choice of parking type and location. This dimension of travel choice has, to date, received comparatively little attention, yet is of vital importance if we are to properly understand and predict the effects of parking policy measures. This paper presents two studies addressing this issue carried out in the United Kingdom and Germany. Both studies used a stated preference approach in order to collect disaggregate data on travellers responses to changes in parking attributes and used these data to build simple logit models of parking type choice. The studies were designed in order to allow comparable choice models to be estimated from the two datasets. The results obtained strongly indicate the need to separately identify the costs associated with different components of the parking activity (e.g., general in-vehicle time, parking search time, egress time) and also point to the existence of significant differences in the relative valuation of these components across different journey purposes. Where possible, the results of the choice modelling exercises are also compared with existing revealed and stated preference results and are found to be generally in line with prior expectations.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Urban planners typically set the minimum parking requirements for every land use to satisfy the peak demand for free parking. As a result, parking is free for 99% of automobile trips in the United States. Minimum parking requirements increase the supply and reduce the price – but not the cost – of parking. They bundle the cost of parking spaces into the cost of development, and thereby increase the prices of all the goods and services sold at the sites that offer free parking. Cars have many external costs, but the external cost of parking in cities may be greater than all the other external costs combined. To prevent spillover, cities could price on-street parking rather than require off-street parking. Compared with minimum parking requirements, market prices can allocate parking spaces fairly and efficiently.
  • Article
    This paper presents a simple model of parking congestion focusing on drivers' search for a vacant parking space in a spatially homogeneous metropolis. The mean density of vacant parking spaces is endogenous. A parking externality arises because individuals neglect the effect of their parking on this mean density. We examine stochastic stationary-state equilibria and optima in the model. Due to the model's nonlinearity, multiple equilibria may exist and the effects of parking fees are complex. Several extensions are discussed, including determining the social value of a particular parking information system.
  • Article
    Parking plays an important role in urban transport systems. However, there is currently a lack of understanding of how motorists choose car parks. This paper presents a model that represents the parking search behaviour of motorists. A search process was defined within a behavioural modelling framework and subsequently represented using analytical procedures. Relationships for estimating the utility of a car park incorporating access, waiting, direct and egress cost components were developed. Parameters were specified to represent the uncertain attributes of car parks, including queue sizes and departure rates. The size and composition of the choice sets of individual motorists were determined endogenously by the model. Searchers' perceptions of car park attributes based on their observations from previous and current searching experiences were represented. Applications of the model showed that long term experience does not necessarily lead to better choices. The effects of reducing duration limits were also investigated.