Conference Paper

A Robust Device Hybrid Scheme to Improve System Performance in Gigabit Ethernet Networks

Beijing JiaoTong University, China
DOI: 10.1109/LCN.2007.20 Conference: Local Computer Networks, 2007. LCN 2007. 32nd IEEE Conference on
Source: IEEE Xplore

ABSTRACT

Studies of the performance of interrupt-driven operating systems in high-speed networks have brought forth the problem of receive livelock. Device hybrid interrupt-polling and interrupt coalescing are two common techniques used in general-purpose operating systems to mitigate this problem. Adaptive schemes based on local knowledge have been proposed for each technique above. However, all the schemes proposed so far are designed using heuristics. In addition, the capabilities of the proposed schemes have not been systematically compared. In this paper, we first analyze the capabilities of these schemes by investigating the relationship between key system parameters and system goodput in different packet protocol processing modes under heavy traffic load. Then we propose a robust device hybrid interrupt-polling (RHIP) scheme which achieves high system goodput, low packet loss and good latency with low consumption of CPU cycles, compared to other schemes. The key idea of RHIP is to use the recipient's buffer information to adjust the interrupt rate and the protocol processing time. We validate our analysis and design through several experiments.

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    • "In application hosts such as web servers, user application buffer is more appropriate. In particular, the protocol receiver buffer was used in [2], while in [9] [10], the application receive buffer was used. "
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    ABSTRACT: The performance of network hosts can be severely degraded when subjected to heavy traffic of today’s Gigabit networks. This degradation occurs as a result of the interrupt overhead associated with the high rate of packet arrivals. NAPI, a packet reception mechanism integrated into the latest version of Linux networking subsystem, was designed to improve Linux performance to suit today’s Gigabit traffic. NAPI is definitely a major step up from earlier reception mechanisms; however, NAPI has shortcomings and its performance can be further enhanced. A hybrid interrupt-handling scheme, which was recently proposed in Salah et al. [K. Salah, K. El-Badawi, F. Haidari, Performance Analysis and Comparison of Interrupt-Handling Schemes in Gigabit Networks, International Journal of Computer Communications, Elsevier, Amsterdam 30 (17) (2007) 3425–3441], can better improve the performance of Gigabit network hosts. The hybrid scheme switches between interrupt disabling–enabling (DE) and polling (NAPI). In this paper, we present and discuss major changes required to implement such a hybrid scheme in the latest version of Linux kernel 2.6.15. We prove experimentally that the hybrid scheme can significantly improve the performance of general-purpose network desktops or servers running network I/O-bound applications, when subjecting such network hosts to both light and heavy traffic load conditions. The performance is measured and analyzed in terms of throughput, packet loss, latency, and CPU availability.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2009 · Computer Communications
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    • "Moreover, the saturation point was not identified arbitrary but using before-hand experimentation. On the other hand, different ways to identify severity of traffic load conditions as well as the switching point were used in [2] [5] [8] [9] [10]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The heavy traffic introduced by Gigabit networks can result in a significant performance degradation of network hosts. This degradation happens as a result of the interrupt overhead associated with the high rate of packet arrivals. NAPI, a packet reception mechanism integrated into the latest version of Linux networking subsystem, was designed to improve Linux performance to suit today's Gigabit traffic. NAPI is definitely a major step up from earlier reception mechanisms; however, NAPI has shortcomings and its performance can be further enhanced. A hybrid packet reception scheme that switches between interrupt disabling-enabling (DE) and polling (NAPI) can better improve the performance of Gigabit network hosts. In this paper we prove experimentally that the hybrid scheme can boost under different traffic load conditions the performance of general-purpose network desktops or servers running network I/O-bound applications. The implementation of the hybrid scheme is done in the latest version of Linux kernel 2.6.15.
    Full-text · Conference Paper · Jan 2009
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    • "Then the wrong adjustment is done, leading to the goodput fluctuation. The authors in [6] proposed adaptive IC scheme, which adjusts T based on the maximum rcv_buffer utilization in the sampling interval and then avoids the goodput fluctuation. "
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    ABSTRACT: Interrupt coalescing (IC) technique has been used in general-purpose operating systems to mitigate receive livelock (RL) problem in gigabit Ethernet network hosts. Schemes for dynamically tuning the interrupt coalescing behavior of a communication interface based on traffic load or system state have been proposed. However, all the existing IC schemes are designed using heuristics. In this paper we present an analytical model for the IC technique and carry out a detailed study of existing IC schemes in terms of their performance characteristics including system goodput, CPU consumption and latency. We validate our analysis through measurement-based experiments.
    Full-text · Conference Paper · Jun 2008
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