Quality Improvement Report Using care bundles to reduce in-hospital mortality: quantitative survey

North West London Hospitals NHS Trust, Harrow HA1 3UJ.
BMJ (online) (Impact Factor: 17.45). 04/2010; 340(mar31 3):c1234. DOI: 10.1136/bmj.c1234
Source: PubMed


To reduce hospital inpatient mortality and thus increase public confidence in the quality of patient care in an urban acute hospital trust after adverse media coverage.
Eight care bundles of treatments known to be effective in reducing in-hospital mortality were used in the intervention year; adjusted mortality (from hospital episode statistics) was compared to the preceding year for the 13 diagnoses targeted by the intervention care bundles, 43 non-targeted diagnoses, and overall mortality for the 56 hospital standardised mortality ratio (HSMR) diagnoses covering 80% of hospital deaths.
Acute hospital trust in north west London.
Use of clinical guidelines in care bundles in eight targeted clinical areas.
Use of care bundles in treatment areas for the diagnoses leading to most deaths in the trust in 2006-7.
Change in adjusted mortality in targeted and non-targeted diagnostic groups; hospital standardised mortality ratio (HSMR) during the intervention year compared with the preceding year. Effect of the change The standardised mortality ratio (SMR) of the targeted diagnoses and the HSMR both showed significant reductions, and the non-targeted diagnoses showed a slight reduction. Cumulative sum charts showed significant reductions of SMRs in 11 of the 13 diagnoses targeted in the year of the quality improvements, compared with the preceding year The HSMR of the trust fell from 89.6 in 2006-7 to 71.1 in 2007-8 to become the lowest among acute trusts in England. 255 fewer deaths occurred in the trust (174 of these in the targeted diagnoses) in 2007-8 for the HSMR diagnoses than if the 2006-7 HSMR had been applicable. From 2006-7 to 2007-8 there was a 5.7% increase in admissions, 7.9% increase in expected deaths, and 14.5% decrease in actual deaths.
Implementing care bundles can lead to reductions in death rates in the clinical diagnostic areas targeted and in the overall hospital mortality rate.

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Available from: Karen Elcock, Feb 17, 2014
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    • "The goal of the bundle was to be accurate, inclusive, and simple to follow. The COPD bundle from Robb et al11 was modified to incorporate ten elements that should all be implemented within 24 hours of admission. Items were selected for the bundle based on their importance in the management of COPD exacerbations but particularly if they were perceived as being poorly implemented in usual care. "
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the efficacy and usefulness of a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) care bundle designed for the initial management of acute exacerbations of COPD and to assess whether it improves quality of care and provides better outcomes. The level of care provided in the emergency department (ED) for COPD exacerbations varies greatly, and there is a need for a more systematic, consistent, evidence-based quality improvement approach to improve outcomes and costs. A prospective before and after study was carried out in a university teaching hospital. Fifty consecutive patients were identified in the ED with COPD exacerbations and their management was reviewed. Following the education of ED staff and the implementation of a COPD care bundle, the outcome for 51 consecutive patients was analyzed. This COPD care bundle consisted of ten elements considered essential to the management of COPD exacerbations and was scored 0-10 according to the number of items on the checklist implemented correctly. Following implementation, the mean bundle score out of 10 improved from 4.6 to 7 (P<0.001). There was a significant decrease in the unnecessary use of intravenous corticosteroids from 60% to 32% (P=0.003) and also a marked improvement in the use of oxygen therapy, with appropriate treatment increasing from 76% to 96% (P=0.003). Prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism also improved from 54% to 73% (P=0.054). The 30-day readmission rate did not significantly improve. The use of a bundle improves the delivery of care for COPD exacerbations in the ED. There is more appropriate use of therapeutic interventions, especially oxygen therapy and intravenous corticosteroids.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · International Journal of COPD
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    • "Implementing care bundles and increasing compliance with them relies not only on individual health care professionals but even more on the availability of adequate resources, support systems and leadership. Aligning care bundles with larger quality improvement initiatives and providing related training also appears to be an important factor influencing success and impact [28]. These issues need to be considered if the care bundle approach is to be successfully implemented in primary care settings. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background A significant minority of patients do not receive all the evidence-based care recommended for their conditions. Health care quality may be improved by reducing this observed variation. Composite measures offer a different patient-centred perspective on quality and are utilized in acute hospitals via the ‘care bundle’ concept as indicators of the reliability of specific (evidence-based) care delivery tasks and improved outcomes. A care bundle consists of a number of time-specific interventions that should be delivered to every patient every time. We aimed to apply the care bundle concept to selected QOF data to measure the quality of evidence-based care provision. Methods Care bundles and components were selected from QOF indicators according to defined criteria. Five clinical conditions were suitable for care bundles: Secondary Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease (CHD), Stroke & Transient Ischaemic Attack (TIA), Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD), Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and Diabetes Mellitus (DM). Each bundle has 3-8 components. A retrospective audit was undertaken in a convenience sample of nine general medical practices in the West of Scotland. Collected data included delivery (or not) of individual bundle components to all patients included on specific disease registers. Practice level and overall compliance with bundles and components were calculated in SPSS and expressed as a percentage. Results Nine practices (64.3%) with a combined patient population of 56,948 were able to provide data in the format requested. Overall compliance with developed QOF-based care bundles (composite measures) was as follows: CHD 64.0%, range 35.0-71.9%; Stroke/TIA 74.1%, range 51.6-82.8%; CKD 69.0%, range 64.0-81.4%; and COPD 82.0%, range 47.9-95.8%; and DM 58.4%, range 50.3-65.2%. Conclusions In this small study compliance with individual QOF-based care bundle components was high, but overall (‘all or nothing’) compliance was substantially lower. Care bundles may provide a more informed measure of care quality than existing methods. However, the acceptability, feasibility and potential impact on clinical outcomes are unknown.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · BMC Health Services Research
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    • "In-hospital mortality is often reported as a measure of quality of care [17]. It has been widely used internationally because it is relatively easy to measure using existing data and has good face validity i.e. hospitals with higher rates of risk adjusted mortality would be expected to demonstrate poorer quality of care. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background The need to improve patient safety has been identified as a major priority for health reform in developed countries, including Australia. We investigated the implementation and appropriateness of Variable Life Adjusted Displays as a quality control procedure to monitor “in-control” versus “out-of-control” processes in Victorian public hospitals. Methods Victorian Admitted Episode Data from Department of Human Services, Victoria for 2004–7 were used. The VLAD is a plot of a cumulative sum of the difference in expected outcome (range 0–1) and observed outcome (0 or 1) for sequential separations. Three outcomes were assessed: in-hospital mortality for acute myocardial infarction, stroke and heart failure. Logistic regression was used to obtain a realistic measure of expected mortality over the period 2004–5, adjusting for covariates and comorbidities, to estimate expected mortality risk for the separations between 2005–7. VLAD were plotted for the years 2005–7, by the 11 hospitals with the highest frequency of separations. Signalling limits for 30%, 50% and 75% risk decrease and risk increase were determined and plotted for each VLAD utilizing risk-adjusted cumulative sum techniques. This is a likelihood-ratio test statistic for signalling. If the VLAD signalled by intersecting with a limit, the limit was reset. Results The three logit models displayed reasonable fit to the observed data. There were n = 2999 separations in the AMI model, n = 3598 in the HF model and n = 1922 in the stroke model. The number of separations plotted by VLAD ranged from n = 126 to n = 648. No signals were observed in 64%, 55% and 18% of VLAD for AMI, HF and stroke respectively. For AMI and HF 9% of hospitals signalled at least once for each of 30%, 50% and 75% risk increase, whereas this was 45% for stroke. Hospitals signalling at least once for risk decrease ranged from 18% to 36% across the levels of risk and outcomes. No VLAD signalled for both risk decrease and increase. Conclusions VLAD intersecting with limits to signal “out-of-control” states, may be an appropriate technique to help hospitals assess quality control. Preliminary work displays some between hospital differences. Relevant signals can be used to investigate why a system is potentially performing better than or worse than expected. Types and levels of investigation could depend on the type of signalling. Validation work, for example attempting to correlate signals with clinical notes, prior to VLAD distribution needs to be undertaken.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · BMC Health Services Research
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