Possible Delayed Cut-End Recurrence After Limited Resection for Ground-Glass Opacity Adenocarcinoma, Intraoperatively Diagnosed as Noguchi Type B, in Three Patients
In our limited resection trial of pulmonary peripheral ground-glass opacity (GGO) lesions from 1998 to 2002, limited resection of Noguchi type A and B carcinomas seemed to have a positive outcome. However, recently three of the 24 patients, with mixed GGO lesions intraoperatively diagnosed as type B, developed a solid lesion at the cut-end scar.
Medical records and radiology and pathology findings of the three patients were reviewed. We also analyzed epidermal growth factor receptor gene mutations when possible.
Radiologically, these three second tumors were clearly cut-end scar area recurrences. However, other pathologic and mutation findings suggest metachronous primary cancers developed in Case 1, cut-end recurrence in Case 2, and needle biopsy implantation in Case 3. It is difficult to definitively conclude whether the second tumors were recurrences or metachronous primaries.
These second tumors have convinced us that our initial caution in concluding GGO lesions can be cured by limited resection was very appropriate. The recurrences definitely indicate that continuing follow-up attention for more than 5 years is needed after limited resection even for GGO bronchioloalveolar carcinomas.
Available from: Yasuhiro Hida
- "Ichiki et al. reported that of 16 patients who were diagnosed with Noguchi type A or B disease intraoperatively, 3 were diagnosed with Noguchi C disease postoperatively . Yoshida et al. reported three recurrent patients who were diagnosed with Noguchi type B disease on intraoperative examination and underwent limited resection . One had metachronous cancer, one had recurrence of the bronchial stump, and another had Noguchi type C disease on postoperative examination. "
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Lung tumors showing ground-glass opacities on high-resolution computed tomography indicate the presence of inflammation, atypical adenomatous hyperplasia, or localized bronchioloalveolar carcinoma. We adopted a two-staged video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy strategy involving completion lobectomy for localized bronchioloalveolar carcinoma with an invasive component according to postoperative pathological examination by permanent section after partial resection.
Forty-one patients with undiagnosed small peripheral ground-glass opacity lesions underwent partial resection from 2001 to 2007 in Hokkaido University Hospital. Localized bronchioloalveolar carcinoma was classified according to the Noguchi classification for adenocarcinoma. Malignant lesions other than Noguchi types A and B were considered for completion lobectomy and systemic mediastinal lymphadenectomy. Perioperative data of completion video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomies were compared with data of 67 upfront video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomies for clinical stage IA adenocarcinoma performed during the same period.
Postoperative pathological examination revealed 35 malignant and 6 non-malignant diseases. Histologically, all of the malignant diseases were adenocarcinomas of Noguchi type A (n = 7), B (n = 9), C (n = 18), and F (n = 1). Eleven of 19 patients (58%) with Noguchi type C or F underwent two-staged video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy. Three patients refused a second surgery. There was no cancer recurrence. The two-staged lobectomy group had a significantly longer operative time and more blood loss than the upfront lobectomy group. There was no surgical mortality or cancer recurrence.
Two-staged lobectomy for undiagnosed small peripheral ground-glass opacity lesions showed satisfactory oncological results. However, low compliance for and invasiveness of the second surgery are concerns associated with this strategy.
Available from: erj.ersjournals.com
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ABSTRACT: A new adenocarcinoma classification was recently introduced by a joint working group of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC), American Thoracic Society (ATS) and European Respiratory Society (ERS). A distinction is made between pre-invasive lesions, and minimally invasive and invasive adenocarcinoma. The confusing term "bronchioloalveolar carcinoma" is not used any more and new subcategories include adenocarcinoma in situ and minimally invasive adenocarcinoma. Due to a renewed interest in screen-detected nodules and early-stage lung cancers of <2 cm, this classification also has profound implications for thoracic surgeons. In this article, surgical topics are discussed: the role of a minimally invasive approach, especially video-assisted thoracic surgery, limited resection for early-stage lung cancer, the extent of lymph node dissection, the accuracy of intraoperative frozen section analysis, management of multiple lung nodules and prognostic factors in operated patients. Specific key issues are presented based on the current evidence and areas of surgical uncertainty are defined providing a basis for further studies. Thoracic surgeons will play a major role in the application and global introduction of this new adenocarcinoma classification. The remaining controversies regarding the precise diagnosis and management of early-stage lesions will have to be resolved by multidisciplinary and international collaboration.
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