Article

Youth in Society: Contemporary Theory, Policy and Practice

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Abstract

The new edition of this bestselling text offers a comprehensive introduction to the policy developments affecting young people in today's society, covering the areas of education and training, work, youth justice, residential care and child protection. It brings together a wide-ranging series of readings written by leading experts, to encourage those working with young people, or training to do so, to critically reflect on both the theoretical and practical dimensions of their work. The themes and issues addressed in this book include: citizenship, participation and empowerment; social difference and social identity; images of youth; young people and the politics of service provision; and working with young people in different contexts. This new edition has been revised in order to bring it up-to-date on contemporary policy, law and practice changes and developments. Written in a lively and engaging manner, this accessible text will be invaluable reading for students taking courses in youth and social work, social policy, youth and criminal justice and the sociology of youth.

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... In an analysis of youth there are important factors to consider such as class, sex, race, disability and sexual orientation (Miles, 2000; Wyn and White, 1997; Roche and Tucker, 1997; Griffin, 1997). Wyn and White (1997) want to define youth as a social process, they argue that the idea of young people as a large, secure and homogenous mainstream is a myth. ...
... Those issues are connected to a limited period in the individual biography – the youth time -which are characterised by education, temporary work, travel and search for experience (ibid.). The concept of youth is constructed in relation to adulthood (Wyn and White, 1997; Roche and Tucker, 1997). Roche and Tucker (1997) This means that there is no difference between the experience that young people and adults have concerning variation and separations, the differences appear because young people are connected and united because of the reaction they get from the adult society. ...
... The concept of youth is constructed in relation to adulthood (Wyn and White, 1997; Roche and Tucker, 1997). Roche and Tucker (1997) This means that there is no difference between the experience that young people and adults have concerning variation and separations, the differences appear because young people are connected and united because of the reaction they get from the adult society. The concept of youth is a relational concept which refers to a socially constructed age that is constructed in a social process, where age is institutionalised and controlled in cultural and historical ways (Wyn and White, 1997). ...
... The consequent despair is framed within the risk discourse, understood as a psychological fault line rather than a systemic injustice, which, in turn, evokes punitive and corrective responses (Finn, Nybell, & Shook, 2013;Tyler, 2013). The educational, social, health and financial structures that foster the predicaments that face youth are irrelevant to the narrative that holds youth fully accountable for the obstacles to opportunities that might provide security, self-efficacy and sustenance (Roche et al., 2004). Media, policy, health services (including social work), and program development are formed by, and forming of a youth narrative that is a life stage marked by risk and adversity (Chisholm, Kovacheva, & Merico, 2011), relative to adulthood in such a pivotal way as to portray youth primarily as the transition stage into adulthood. ...
... Media, policy, health services (including social work), and program development are formed by, and forming of a youth narrative that is a life stage marked by risk and adversity (Chisholm, Kovacheva, & Merico, 2011), relative to adulthood in such a pivotal way as to portray youth primarily as the transition stage into adulthood. With a transitional conceptualization, successful transition into normative adulthood is emphasized, while the here-and-now experience of being young becomes marginalized (Chisholm et al., 2011;Roche et al., 2004;Wyn & White, 1996). ...
... With a risk-based construction of youth, social controls become a legitimate means to correct the deficits (Gilchrist, Jeffs, Spence, & Walker, 2009). Policies are developed that consider the timing of events that might interfere with successful transitioning, focusing again on risk and adversity (Chisholm et al., 2011;Roche et al., 2004). Ungar (2008) points out how a complete account of a youth's experience is lost when professional experts are understood to be in a better position than youth to assert what are healthy and normal outcomes for youth. ...
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There is a strong parallel between the discursive construction of youth and the definition of resilience, with shared characterizations of deficit, risk and adversity. The purpose of this study was to explore the possibility of redefining resilience by incorporating youth’s own conceptualizations and experiences through collaborative art-making. Twenty-three youth (16–29 years old) participated in art-making workshops guided by six youth researchers, who also assisted with data collection. While youth participants were strongly impacted by external forces imposing a normative assumption of ‘successful youthhood,’ they actively sought out both unique subjectivity and solidarity to counter the negative forces threatening their well-being. The findings suggest that these young people perceive resilience as a crucial component of identity management. Acknowledging youth perceptions of resilience as an intersubjective process of identity negotiation, rather than a personality trait or a buildable capacity for coping, may provide valuable guidance to social work professionals.
... The UNCRC seems to lack accuracy in the definition of some of the terms used within the articles (Beazley et al. 2009). It does not take into account cultural diversity (Roche 2004) and UNICEF does not demand global governments to ratify this treaty; countries can express reservations regarding specific articles not in line with their culture or government policies (Killkelly and Lundy 2006). However, and despite its limitations, this convention puts forward an internationally recognised rights-based approach which allows us to acknowledge a wide diversity of childhoods around the world. ...
Article
Although the importance of listening to young children’s voices is acknowledged in international literature, it is not clear whether educational researchers really listen to them and, if they do, what research designs and methods facilitate that. Therefore, using the EPPI-centre approach (2007), a systematic literature review was undertaken of all papers published between 2015 and 2020 that indicated the author/s had listened to young children’s (3–7 year-old) voices. The aim was to identify, appraise and synthesise international research focused on listening to their voices, and the research designs, methods of data collection and theoretical frameworks authors have used to achieve this. From the 74 studies that met the inclusion criteria, we found that there was some evidence of listening to young children’s voices. However, there was a tendency to use adult-led methods rather than child-led methods along with the use of adult data sources for confirmation. Further, in many studies no specific theoretical framework was used. Based on our review of reviews, it is evident that this is the first international systematic review of its kind and provides unique insights that are relevant to researchers, professionals and policy makers internationally.
... Further according to Hackett there are assumptions made about young people being apathetic or indifferent to society (Roche & Tucker, 1997) or have a lack of desire to participate within the existing adult-dominated political structures (Furlong & Cartmel, 1997). This decline or democratic deficit is usually highlighted by the declining uptake of voting amongst young voters but is not as simple as an analysis of turnout (Pini, 2009), which could be viewed as an inaccurate indicator of a deficit in democracy due the voting age in the UK is eighteen years of age. ...
... A pervasive feature in policies concerned with young people derives from the negative characterisation of groups of young people, periodically fuelled by media hyperbole about growing youth disorder, school, other agency and parenting failures (Roche and others 2006). While recent youth policy (DCSF, 2008: 2) aims to redress the 'unrelentingly negative' view of youth, other policies reinforce controls and punishment. ...
Article
Recent UK policy changes have generated renewed public and academic interest in the contexts and purposes for work with young people. Emphasis on youth inclusion and participation as components of policy discourse associated with citizenship and community cohesion contrasts with other more regulatory trends in youth policy, while moves towards integrating local services have increased dependence on community providers. The paper draws on empirical study of community organisations working with young people to consider how recent transitions have been reflected in the experiences of community ‘partners’ and activities with young people. Do the greater emphases on community level involvement and young people’s participation mark a shift towards more responsive, better integrated services? Research to date suggests significant gaps between how policy-makers promote inclusive services and perceptions of delivery at local level. Despite professional initiatives to create new spaces for young people to participate, dominant institutional cultures and contractually led service targets present barriers to involving disengaged young people, undermining alternative models of working. The paper argues the need for a better appreciation of the complexity and challenges of work with young people at community level, together with greater openness to diversity and risk.
... This shift cohered with a range of New Labour policies towards children, youth and disadvantaged communities, yet all had a central contradiction at their heart. Despite a rhetoric of inclusiveness, empowerment and 'responsibilising' youth, the top-down imposition of outcome measurements, targets and constantly-changing criteria for funding led initiatives to strengthen elements of disciplinary control and surveillance over young people, particularly with regard to the 'NEET' group (Milbourne, 2009; Roche, Tucker, Thomson, & Flynn, 2006). Such tendencies towards increased regulation of young people by professional agencies had already been increasing over the previous 30 years (Jeffs & Smith, 2002). ...
Article
Disadvantaged young people often inhabit a dangerous space: excluded from education, training and employment markets; constructed as disposable; and cast out as ‘human waste’ (Bauman, 2004). There are many macro-level analyses of this catastrophic trend, but this article provides insights into some of the everyday educational micro-practices which contribute to such marginalisation. It presents findings from a study of a national school-to-work transition service in England, in a context not only of neo-liberal policies but also of severe austerity measures. The data reveal processes of triage, surveillance and control – driven by governmental and institutional targets – which denied many young people access to the service, including some of the most vulnerable. Beneath a rhetoric of social inclusion, the service in fact acted as a conduit into a dangerous space of exclusion. Drawing on the work of Butler and of Agamben, the article argues innovatively that such practices may represent an encroaching state of exception, in which more or less subtle forms of governmentality are gradually being supplanted by the more overt exercise of sovereign power.
... In a recent issue of Sociological Research On Line, Christine Griffin reviewed four new books (Roche & Tucker, 1996;Cohen, 1997;Furlong & Cartmel, 1997;Wyn & White, 1997) devoted to the changes affecting the lives of young people. She noted the emergence of new perspectives on youth which propose a reconsideration of established frameworks of research and analysis concerning not only the conceptualisation of youth as an independent social category, but also their changed experience of transition towards independence, adulthood and future careers, as well as the new ways in which they are responding to the social, economic and educational changes that have affected their life-courses over the past decade at least. ...
Article
The transitions of young people into adult life in most Western nations have been significantly transformed as a result of the new economic and education policy settings. In both Norway and Australia these changes have been the subject of extensive analysis, and quite independently researchers from each nation have identified new patterns of student transitions that have much more than limited national significance. This article examines both the commonalities and the differences in the separate national research findings, pays particular attention to urban/rural differences and varying patterns of choice across different post-compulsory education settings, and draws conclusions about the broader implications for further educational research. The evidence suggests that if we are to make sense of the impact of change, our research will need to adopt a more critical approach to the outcomes of new policy frameworks, promote more detailed reappraisals of which structural factors continue to exert influence, and above all place much greater emphasis on the ways in which students themselves interpret and respond to the changes affecting them.
... Se incorporan también nuevos enfoques, como el constructivista y más tarde los debates de modernidad y posmodernidad, así como aspectos culturales y de identidad (Krüger, 2002: 13-22). En todas las disciplinas y etapas hasta la actualidad se detecta el dominio de una visión de la juventud como grupo problemático (Roche y Tucker, 1997). Esto se hace aún más notable en el contexto de estudios de los llamados países en desarrollo, donde generalmente se los relaciona con la violencia (pandillas), drogas, falta de expectativas, etc. ...
Article
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Los estudios de la juventud han ganado en los últimos años en relevancia tanto para instituciones internacionales y gobiernos, como para la comunidad científica en general. Diferentes disciplinas dedican esfuerzos por comprender sus problemas y diseñar estrategias para mejorar su situación. Desde la geografía, sobre todo desde la geografía social anglosajona, se observa un creciente interés por este grupo etario. En este trabajo se aplican métodos de la geografía social orientada a los actores, para definir los espacios de acción de los jóvenes, es decir los espacios que ellos construyen a partir de sus actividades. El oeste argentino – y en este estudio de caso, el departamento de Malargüe –, como espacio rural marginal, pone a sus jóvenes en condiciones de fuerte vulnerabilidad, que los lleva a una emigración hacia ciudades, pero con limitaciones y desventajas en comparación con sus pares urbanos. Este trabajo pretende ser un alegato por una geografía de la juventud que realice aportes concretos para aprovechar al máximo el potencial de una sociedad joven a fin de mejorar las condiciones de vida de toda la población.
... The definition of 'adolescence' is the transitional period of a human's life between late childhood and the beginning of adulthood (Choudhury, Blakemore and Charman, 2006;Andersen and Vandehey, 2011). However, psychology researchers go further and state that the term also incorporates the social, mental and physical changes that virtually all humans undergo (Roche et al., 2004;Eaton et al., 2006;Ernst, Pine and Hardin, 2006). As a consequence, adolescence deals with the biological and psychological aspects of a young person of a certain age, whilst, youth is a socially constructed term. ...
Thesis
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Despite anthropogenically induced climate change being viewed by many as one of the greatest societal challenges of the 21st century, discernment from the public, especially young people, remains under explored within the mitigation debate. This is surprising given research demonstrating the potential for collective action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions nationally through individual behaviour changes. Young people are those in society that will live with the effects of future climate change the longest but are typically overlooked in forward planning. Consequently, this PhD thesis aims to provide detailed understanding of intersecting perception of climate change and levels of engagement being undertaken to explore how people, particularly the young, are reacting to climate change. The nexus of these themes was explored using a mixed method approach through the use of primary data collection, including interviews (N = 5), two national surveys (N = 1,134, survey 1 and N = 1,700, survey 2) and a participatory workshop using the Yonmenkaigi System Method approach (N = 16). In addition, this primary data is cross-analysed through the use of secondary data (BEIS and Eurobarometer) to extrapolate a more comprehensive picture based on the case of the United Kingdom. The research found that in the United Kingdom (and implicitly elsewhere) there are high-levels of perception of climate change as a major concern, especially amongst young people, and more extensively since 2013 when a social tipping point around this issue occurred. This has occurred despite of the ‘finite pool of worry’, a theory suggesting a likely plateauing or decline in concern when other crises start to predominate in people’s day to day, such as during the aftermath of the Brexit vote, COVID-19 and associated economic uncertainty. In terms of youth and perception, this thesis found that whilst young people were the most likely to believe a climate change was happening and most likely to view that climate change is a serious problem, they were one of the least likely group of people to be able to determine what impacts were already being felt within the United Kingdom due to climate change. Although there is this high level of belief in climate change amongst young people and civil society more widely, the level of engagement through mitigation strategies varies. Those strategies that are behavioural are generally undertaken, especially among the youngest in society and those who view climate change as serious. However, this applies when there is substantive investment. This demonstrates that if the government wants to implement significant change through the will of society to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, investment for those on low incomes is needed to enable the requisite behaviour change needed. This research also confirms a view, as iterated by many of its respondents, that education on climate change within the United Kingdom is lacking; application of participatory methods, such as the Yonmenkaigi System Method, demonstrated how education would progress the interconnection between perception and engagement. This study recognises complexity involved in the interconnection between perception, engagement and reaction. However, it is argued that if social media generates fake news especially around climate change, then young people who are the most personal users of social media should be the most exposed. The results show that they are the most believing of climate change and that it is likely social media self-reinforces consistent beliefs through echo chambers. Into the current lacuna of action by the government during this PhD research period, climate activism groups of ‘Extinction Rebellion’ and ‘School Strikes for Climate Change’ materialised. It is argued that the actions of these groups are a form of ‘post-normal engagement’, where people apply their understanding, and that arises through a lack of facilitation of ‘post-normal science’ in relation to climate change within the United Kingdom. It was found that the majority of survey respondents were overall supportive of “Extinction Rebellion”. In addition, it was found that there was also a majority of support for the children striking for climate change and the mass civil disobedience that “Extinction Rebellion” called for in London in April 2019, though at varying levels across the demographic. However, respondents were generally not willing to themselves join future “Extinction Rebellion” protests. Women, younger people and left-leaning voters were more likely to support these two types of protests. The monitoring of the demographic composition of climate protests in terms of perception and engagement drivers helps to assess the nature of likely reactions and resistance to future climate policy including that associated with the content of COP26 being hosted in the UK during 2021. However, the implementation of a post-normal climate change science might help reduce the need for climate activism.
... This praxis is valorised according to Gidwani & Sivaramakrishnan (2003:187) in which youth "mirror new attempts at self-making" and the "capacity to generate new substantive practices along the surfaces of economy and society". Supporting this notion, Roche and Tucker (1997) argued that individuals and groups can be empowered to challenge those societal representations and power relations that perpetuated subjugated images of young people. Bourdieu (1977) progressed this persuasion further as he believed that 'heterodoxy" enabled disempowered groups to "repudiate established structures of authority and oppression" solidifying the coherence between Bobo & Gilliam, Jr's (1990) Compensatory Theory in which they espoused that high levels of participation by blacks were correlated with political discontentment. ...
Article
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This article interrogates the dominant discourse on youth empowerment from different perspectives, based on a range of circumstances experienced by young people in South Africa. It examines the scope for empowerment highlighting the need for structural and cultural synergy through the analysis and understanding of the individual, cultural and structural processes and considers how these affect the personal aspirations of the youth. By using a multi-level discourse the agency of youth, as advocates and catalysts for change, is viewed as a function of transition post apartheid in South Africa. In this examination, the assumption that empowerment is inextricably linked to power is given close scrutiny through analysis of structural, contextual and personal juxtaposition of factors impacting on young peoples' life chances. Drawing on the micro/macro nexus, the author developed a model, which espouses the young person's interdependency to facilitate and support youth empowerment. Essentially, this multi-level cyclical framework theorizes that connecting individuals, in the first instance, with their immediate environment is crucial to facilitating their connection with their community and society. While the ecological system provides the lens through which the environment is assessed, with regard to resources and opportunities, the participatory approach stresses youth agency capitalising on their role as catalysts and advocates in their own empowerment.
... Concerns about youth behaviour and risk are central to current policy and practice. Negative views of youth have been fuelled by media representation of growing youth disorder, as well as school, other agency and parenting failures (Roche, Tucker, Thomson, & Flynn, 2006). It has been suggested that contemporary youth " have to negotiate a set of risks which were largely unknown to their parents; this is true irrespective of social background or gender " (Furlong & Cartmel, 1997, p. 1). ...
Article
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This paper presents a discussion of the methodologies used in a small scale 'popular education' project involving young people in creative activities. The goal of the project is to explore their experiences and feelings about risk and safety and their 'connectedness' to their local community. A number of different methods are discussed as ways of empowering marginalised young people, including the use of visual methods, and new media in the form of blogs and Twitter Scripts, within an overarching participatory methodology. Arts-based and multimedia activities are powerful tools to enable young people to collectively question the nature of their historical and social situation and have the potential to raise sensitive issues, therefore, encouraging wider debate, producing new understandings, and facilitating social change. Building on insights gained in earlier research, which suggested that young people felt that they were not listened to or had enough influence in their neighbourhoods, this paper discusses the use of multimedia and creative means to develop a more accessible and effective arena in which young people can learn new skills to enable them to tell their story. In keeping with Bourdieu's General Theoretical Framework, consideration is given to the ways in which such participatory and arts-based approaches can demonstrate value for the social and cultural capital of young people.
... Lasten ja nuorten hyvinvoinnin tukeminen ja edistäminen edellyttää, että meillä on tietoa siitä, miten eriarvoisuus vaikuttaa lasten ja nuorten arjessa -vertaissuhteissa, per heissä, koulussa ja vapaa-aikana. Lapsinäkökulmaisella, lasten kokemustietoon ja oman elämänsä asiantuntijuuteen perustuvalla tiedolla on merkittävä rooli lasten hyvinvoinnin turvaamisessa ja edistämisessä (Kiili 1999;Alanen 2001;Roche 2001;Alanen 2009; Helavirta 2011). ...
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Mitä lapset ja nuoret käsittävät taloudellisella eriarvoisuudella ja miten he sen kokevat? Miten taloudelliset erot näkyvät lasten arjessa ja mitä seurauksia niillä voi olla? Minkälaisia keinoja ja toimintamalleja lapsilla on puuttua taloudelliseen eriarvoisuuteen omassa arjessaan? Taloudelliset erot lasten välillä ovat kasvaneet myös Suomessa, mutta niin aiheesta tehdyissä tutkimuksissa kuin julkisissa keskus- teluissakin kuuluu usein vain aikuisten ääni. Tässä tutkimuksessa taloudellista eriarvoisuutta tarkastellaan lapsuudentutkimuksen viitekehyksessä ja lasten näkökulmista käsin, tarjoten kosketus- pintaa lasten elämään ja kokemusmaailmaan. Tutkimusta varten haastateltiin kolmeakymmentä viides- ja kahdeksasluokkalaista lasta. Haastattelujen lisäksi lapsilta kerättiin eläytymistarinoita, joita lapset saivat halutessaan kuvittaa piirtämällä.
... Similarly, there is vast but distinct volume of literature that attempts to set out neat understandings of the development and position of young people within western society (see Roche, 2004 for an overview). However, it may be said that the nuances and diversity of adolescence are as complex as bereavement, and subsequent endeavours to make these concepts fit into ordered theoretical endeavours, fall short of providing adequate explanations (Ribbens McCarthy, 2006). ...
Thesis
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This dissertation explores a practitioner's perspective of the relationship between loss, grief and young people's offending behaviour. It will focus on if, from a practitioner's perspective, loss/grief contributes to a young person's offending behaviour; and to explore if, from a practitioner's perspective, there is sufficient specific or specialist support available for young people experiencing loss/grief. This paper argues that, the introduction of the Crime and Disorder Act 1998 has had an adverse effect on the ability of youth offending team (YOT) practitioners to adequately support young people who have experienced bereavement. This paper highlights the challenge, though, namely it being through a risk-focused system that is geared towards preventing (re)offending-of responding to childhood adversity and trauma. Drawing on a focus group with YOT practitioners, it explores the practical and personal difficulties they face in providing timely, effective and professional support to young people in contact with the service. Moreover, this study explores if austerity has had a detrimental impact on the quality and availability of bereavement services for young people. This study finds, that mental health provision for children and young people is significantly fragmented and largely dependent on the channel it is accessed through (mainstream NHS, schools or YOT). This small scale qualitative study recommends the importance of investing in community based mental health provision for young people, and further, the importance of front-line youth justice professionals receiving sufficient training, regarding how to practice in a trauma-informed way.
Chapter
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In this chapter, the contextualized narratives of four boys coming of age in a street environment in urban Brazil will be analyzed, and the socio-spatial dynamics shaping their livelihood paths from vending on the city buses and begging in early childhood to minding cars and assaulting in young adulthood will be explored. The analysis reveals how the livelihood choices alter throughout their street careers – influenced by past encounters, present situation, and future aspirations – all tightly connected to numerous spatial, temporal, and relational processes. In this sense, the data shows how livelihood trajectories emerge in the intersection between individual experiences and attitudes and wider social, cultural, and economic contexts. Recent debates on young people, livelihoods, and conventional models of youth transitions are discussed against the backdrop of three key perspectives from the empirical material: the significance of social networks in earning livelihoods, the negotiations of risk and blurred moralities in involvement in illegal livelihoods, and the occurrence of vital transitions throughout the life course. The study indicates how social transitions for marginalised youth are rarely unidirectional, but instead fluid and dynamic processes underpinned by structural constraints within which their lives unfold. Although young people’s livelihoods are marked by and are responses to inequality and marginality, they are part and parcel of the wider urban environment, as they draw on great spatial mobility and broad socioeconomic networks.
Article
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After World War Two, youth in Britain was constructed as unruly, troublesome, and deviant, particularly in public urban space and streets. However, not all children and young people were discouraged from entering these environments or engaging with the general public. Drawing from literature published by the Boy Scout Association and a case study of Bob-a-Job Week in Britain launched in 1949, I examine the institutional geographies of responsibility, risk, and reward embedded in this youth activity, orchestrated by the most popular youth organisation in Britain. This fundraising scheme involved Boy Scouts completing domestic tasks for householders and encouraged uniformed youth to be visible, proficient, and useful. Significantly, this also took place in largely urban areas—complicating our understanding of scouting as an idealised ‘rural’ practice with camping as its central activity. Furthermore, this paper explores how this fundraising spectacle also functioned as a hybrid space that permitted ‘feminine’ domestic tasks as appropriate for ‘British boyhood’ until the scheme’s eventual demise in the 1990s. Overall, the complex geographies of Bob-a-Job Week reveal how this organisation negotiated the boundaries between domestic and public space, providing an insight into broader constructions of youth and gender in the postwar period
Article
The article begins by examining the predominant image of young people today as alienated, apathetic, and uninvolved in their communities. It is argued that any debate about participation and politics should consider young people's involvement in voluntary and campaigning activities. Using data from a study of 1160 14-16 year-olds, it is shown that a considerable number of young people are involved in volunteering and campaigning, and also that these activities are influenced by gender, ethnicity, locality and the family. The article then explores the ways in which participation in volunteering and campaigning can promote the development of young people's political knowledge, awareness and understanding. It is demonstrated that involvement in these activities affects young people's political development in five ways, specifically in developing an understanding of the needs of different groups in society; a sense of influence over political and social events; a growing sense of party political differences and voting intent; reflection on social structures and processes; and acquiring skills useful in political campaigning. The policy implications of these findings are discussed.
Chapter
This chapter deliberates on youth participation and (mis)representation in community governance structures at South African townships. Youth participation entails active participation of youth in the policymaking procedures happening and problems disturbing their lives. Youth have the opportunity to influence their community governance structures. A study found that the current generation of youth are not aligned to the community governance structures. Youth participation and representation in community governance structures such as ward committees and community policing forums (CPFs) are essential as they could help youth fight issues such as teenage pregnancy, drug use, crime, unemployment, school dropout, etc. because they spend time in socially meaningful activities such as volunteering at different community structures.
Article
The purpose of this study was to test the contention that feminine media stars who are idolized by adolescent girls provide a safe target of romantic love in the period of time before girls start dating and become sexually active. Girls in heterogeneous 7th and 9th grade classes in an Israeli urban center responded to a questionnaire about media stars, attributed feminine characteristics to feminine, masculine, and neutral media stars, and answered questions about having and desiring a boyfriend. There were more consensual choices of feminine idols than of nonfeminine idols. Girls who have or want a boyfriend chose nonfeminine idols whereas girls who do not currently want a boyfriend chose feminine idols. Girls with a nonfeminine idol who want a boyfriend and girls with a feminine idol who do not want a boyfriend attributed greater femininity to masculine and neutral stars. Finally, girls who did not want a boyfriend and attributed feminine characteristics to movie stars evidenced more negative attitudes toward sex. Although the number of posters of both feminine and nonfeminine idols correlated with the amount of time spent talking about the idol, the less consensual the idol, the more time was spent talking about him. Girls with a nonfeminine idol who hang posters of their idol indicated greater excitement when thinking about the idol and more jealousy of their idol's real and on screen relations. The findings were interpreted in the context of feeling norms and the need to practice these norms on safe love-objects.
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Esta tese retoma a problemática da transição para a vida adulta de uma perspectiva qualitativa e procura contribuir com uma compreensão sociológica desse processo no contexto do município de São Paulo contemporâneo. A partir de discussões em grupo focal e entrevistas biográficas com jovens adultos, de ambos os sexos e diferentes origens sociais, a pesquisa explorou representações sobre adolescência, juventude e idade adulta, modalidades de construção de identidades sociais e experiências pessoais diversas que nos informam acerca dos significados, valores, expectativas e auto-imagens associadas ao adulto hoje, num contexto de crescentes exigências quanto à escolaridade e qualificação profissional e intensa competitividade no mercado de trabalho. O estudo teve entre seus principais objetivos analisar diferenças de classe, gênero e raça, bem como a maior ou menor capacidade dos entrevistados de estabelecer perspectivas para o futuro e concretizar objetivos. Também procurou identificar as percepções dos sujeitos acerca de suas próprias experiências de transição, inclusive em comparação com os percursos biográficos de seus pais. As discussões e relatos colhidos apontaram a centralidade da família de origem como mediadora e/ou facilitadora do processo de transição e a importância dos valores na construção de projetos para a vida adulta. A análise também permitiu estabelecer de que forma fatores sociais importantes como o gênero, a ori. Tese (Doutorado).
Article
Q methodology was applied to investigate the views of young people from Catalunia, England and Slovakia regarding sexual relationships and their health implications. The Q sorts of 188 16-18-year-olds from these three diverse European regions were reduced by Q factor analysis to six clear accounts. These accounts are presented in relation to three emergent themes: (a) traditionalism/liberalism; (b) locus of responsibility; and (c) the relationship between sex and love, and these discursive themes are discussed in relation to health-salient criteria such as awareness of sex-related risk and corresponding implications for conduct.
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