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Educational Change and ICT: An Exploration of Priorities 2 & 3 of the DfES eStrategy in Schools and Colleges

  • The University of Newcastle (NSW)
  • Broadie Associates

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An analysis of the issues surrounding the implementation of the DfES eStrategy (Harnessing Technology) in schools and colleges. Examines issues linked with learning platforms (VLEs) and Management Information Systems (MIS), collaboration, support for learners, mobile devices, curriculum, pedagogy, assessment (including e-portfolios), digital resources, access, complexity and change, people, buy in, leadership, shared understandings (vision), procurement.
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... Adoption rates for learning platforms are lower among primary schools, and even in schools with learning platforms, developing the capability for sharing and transferring information electronically is not automatic. Schools report that it is difficult to link transfer data within institutional systems, especially linking management information systems to learning platforms Twining et al., 2006). Other research (Becta, 2006i) and Becta's own work on developing frameworks for learning platforms have highlighted the ongoing issue of interoperability between these systems. ...
... Tutors had a wide range of technical and other skills, but lacked those specifically required to use ICT effectively in teaching, especially when it came to understanding how ICT could contribute towards learning and teaching in their subject area. Twining et al. (2006) found that when ICT was used in a teaching context, it tended to support traditional teaching approaches rather than innovative ones. There was also a universal and unfounded assumption that teachers' existing pedagogic skills transferred unproblematically to different technologies, media and delivery systems, which in reality was clearly not the case (LSDA, 2006). ...
... Over half used e-learning to present and communicate to learners, but use was more variable with regard to administration and management and in the interaction between lecturers and learners. Twining et al. (2006) identified curriculum areas that were high and low users of ICT. Four of the nine areas most often cited as high users of ICT also appeared among the most frequently cited low users. ...
... What followed was an era of investment along with organisations, policies and strategies promoting and enabling technology use in schools (e.g. Becta, 2009;Twining et al., 2006;DfES, 2005). Then, in 2010 amidst a recession, a general election brought a coalition government and an era of austerity with huge cuts to funding. ...
... In the 1980s and 1990s the focus had been on discussion and practice of children beginning to use new technologies (Twining, 2002b;Rossi, 2015). In the 2000s this shifted to teachers increasingly becoming the users with high profile initiatives such as the introduction of Interactive Whiteboards (IWBs) and teacher laptops (Twining et al., 2006;Becta, 2008;NFER, 2008). These kinds of initiatives brought with them political pressure to 'do something' with the ICT but provided only vague guidelines about what those actions might be (Luckin et al., 2012). ...
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This study explores the relationship between teachers’ pedagogical stances and their use of ICT in classroom practice. Most previous research about ICT use in schools is quantitative and/or treats technology and teachers as independent of each other. Yet ICT practices do not exist without the individuals who use them and the contexts in which they are used. Very little is currently known about the sociocultural influences that affect teacher’s implicit (rather than espoused) views on ICT in teaching practices. In this study Twining et al's (2017) sociocultural framework has been synthesised with further literature foregrounding influences from Identity and the Self. This offers a new model - the Funnels of Influence - as a means to understand the ways in which individual teacher’s pedagogical views come to exist and how they affect the use of ICT within their teaching practices. This sociocultural study adopted a qualitative, interpretative method of enquiry. Between January 2018 and April 2019, data was generated in two primary schools in England. This consisted of two headteacher interviews, 21 teacher interviews and eight observations of teacher practice. Through the use of case study, three individual teacher’s espoused, intended and enacted pedagogical stances were probed, surfacing the many influences and revealing teachers’ implicit pedagogical stance. The ways in which those teachers used (or did not use) ICT in their teaching practice were then unpacked by considering relationships between teacher’s pedagogical stance and enacted ICT practice. The study exemplifies how different teachers who appear to be using the same ICT practices and who appear to be pedagogically aligned, can instead be enacting profoundly different practice. There are important implications for policy makers and practitioners who seek consistency within and across schools, and for those who seek to disseminate successful practices. Most importantly, the findings within this study emphasise the importance of researchers and practitioners looking deeply below the surface when considering ICT in teaching practice.
... Research [30], Collaborative learning [31], Active Engagement [32], Knowledge formation [33], Learnability [34], Construction of knowledge [35], self-Efficacy [36], vertical training [37], Employability [38], Centrality [39], Re-skilling [40], Educational change [41], reform [42], accessibility [43],learner-faculty interaction [44],anytime-anywhere [45],student-centred [46] , self-directed learning [47], creative learning environment [48], collaborative learning [49], distance learning environment [50], higher-order skills [51], critical thinking [52], improve teaching [53], learning quality [54], sustainable development [55], blended learning [56], Adjunct e-learning [57], Fully online learning [58], synchronous collaboration [59] , Asynchronous collaboration [60], individualised learning [61]. ...
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Purpose: The aim of this paper is to emphasise the relevance and importance of Information and Communication Technology(ICT) skills of University Faculty community/people in educational institutions/universities, and how they can matter in complete change/transition in the Teaching/Learning process(Learning 3.0) and help Faculty in informatization of students(society) through Openness movement in Higher Education. Methodology: The paper uses secondary data gathered from case studies, journals, reputed magazines, and the internet for its preparation. Findings: ICT (web 2.0) has immensely contributed to changing the education scenario from obsolete and boring classroom learning to an innovative teaching /learning process. Research limitations/implications: ICT Skill is a topic too vast for academics to consider researching on. Anything and everything related to Computers and the Internet is the result of some sort of ICT skill usage by some individual. Heavy cost of ICT infrastructure is also a limiting factor. Originality/value: This paper is based on findings collected from reputed journal data, reputed books, report from reputed and authorized institutions and Ph.D Thesis from reputed websites that is accepted worldwide. Paper type: A Review Paper.
... Somekh (2000) suggested that despite changes in research approaches in the field over the previous twenty years research findings had not substantially changed. Twining et al. (2006) similarly noted that many of the issues to do with the implementation of ICT in education are to do with the management of change rather than technological issues. They state that many of these change management issues have been well documented in the literature over several decades, but have remained as key factors impacting on ICT use in education. ...
This paper sets out to address the problem of the imbalance between the number of quantitative and qualitative articles published in highly ranked research journals, by providing guidelines for the design, implementation and reporting of qualitative research. Clarification is provided of key terms (such as quantitative and qualitative) and the interrelationships between them. The relative risks and benefits of using guidelines for qualitative research are considered, and the importance of using any such guidelines flexibly is highlighted. The proposed guidelines are based on a synthesis of existing guidelines and syntheses of guidelines from a range of fields. This is available on open access from
... El desafío que impone hoy la profesión docente exige de los profesores la construcción de aprendizajes centrados en sus estudiantes, sin embargo, estos últimos son obligados a ser parte de un sistema educacional que guarda poca relación con el contexto sociocultural en el que habitan. En este sentido, numerosas investigaciones (Bustos y Coll, 2010;Cox, 2006;Cox, et al., 2011;Haydn y Barton, 2005;Silva, Gros, Garrido y Rodríguez, 2006;Twining, Broadie, Cook, Ford, Morris, Twiner y Underwood, 2006;Walsh, 2002) tanto a nivel nacional como internacional señalan que los docentes deben responder a las necesidades de aprendizaje individual de los estudiantes. Así, los programas de FID deben formar a un profesional que sea experto en su disciplina, que domine los estándares mínimos que propone el Ministerio de Educación y que además posea una serie de competencias, las cuales aparentemente aumentarán sus posibilidades de encontrar trabajo. ...
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En Chile, tras 30 años de liberalización del sistema de Educación Superior, la oferta de carreras de pedagogía se ha incrementado sobre el resto de las carreras, lo que ha constituido uno de los factores en la disminución de los niveles de exigencia al ingreso. Bajo este contexto y ante las críticas a la calidad de los programas de formación de profesores y las competencias que estos desarrollan durante la carrera, surge el cuestionamiento de identificar, además de la calidad de los programas de formación, qué otros elementos influyen en las condiciones de empleabilidad de los titulados de pedagogía. En este sentido, el ensayo operacionaliza el constructo empleabilidad, revisa sus distintas formas de medición y elabora una propuesta al respecto. Entre los principales resultados es posible precisar que el constructo empleabilidad reúne una serie de factores dinámicos que han sido clasificados en externos al sujeto e internos a él. Algunos externos son el prestigio de la universidad, la influencia del establecimiento educacional de origen y el salario. Entre los factores internos, se describe la influencia de los resultados en pruebas estandarizadas, la adaptación al contexto y la percepción de autoeficacia, entre otras. Los factores recién descritos, han sido regularmente observados de forma independiente, lo que a juicio de los autores, limitaría las opciones de análisis del fenómeno. Por lo anterior, se propone una mirada que integre dichos factores y considere elementos de contexto que permitan estudiar la empleabilidad como un constructo complejo, considerando la influencia que ejerce el entorno.
... Certainly e-learning policy in the UK has supported some degree of improvement in student learning (Condie, 2007) but advances have been piecemeal and have not approached the 'transformation' which was predicted and which could form the foundation of a system of schooling fully equipped to take advantage of the full range of affordances offered by digital technologies (OECD, 2001). Further, a range of studies have questioned whether the output measures used are appropriate if we are to achieve a broader understanding of impact which transcends examination and test scores (Twining, 2006). ...
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This article provides a critical review of ICT and e-learning policy in the UK from the foundation of the National Grid for Learning in 1997 to the current time. It outlines the key strands of policy and critically reviews the economic, political and social context in which policy has been formed and implemented. E-learning policy in the UK is associated with the large scale funding of projects, major curricular intervention and a teacher development programme which seeks to address the needs of all new and serving teachers. Perspectives on e-learning and their potential for levering positive change in schools equate directly to the interests of various stakeholder groups inside and outside the wider educational establishment and those who form a part of the broadly based 'community of practice' concerned with the use of ICT in schools. Much of the debate associated with applying ICT in schools has focused on the types of technology to be used, the degree of access to technology and the manner in which it can be integrated into current organizational frameworks. This article seeks to focus attention not on the technologies which have flowed into UK schools but on the issues which have comprised the policy environment and have significantly impacted on the degree to which e-learning initiatives have achieved the 'transformation' predicted when the foundations of the National Grid for Learning were laid.
... The shared aim has been to investigate and attempt to enact new models of education, centered upon a cradle-to-grave ethos, providing participants with increased range, responsibility, and control of their learning and greater opportunities for collaboration. From the perspective of the director of the project (Peter) it was rooted in the experience of participating in an eStrategy Implementation Review team (Twining et al., 2006), which led to vision-building activities in schools (Rix & Twining, 2007;Sheehy & Bucknall, 2008;Craft, Chappell, & Twining, 2008) and an identifi cation of key elements of what the UK's future education system should provide. A simplifi ed version of that identifi cation summary appears as Table 12.1. ...
... The Schome Park Programme (SPP) set out in 2006 to develop visions for what Schome might look like in practice. It took as its starting point the eSIR Reference Statement (Twining et al., 2006), which is summarised in The SPP went through three main phases of development, which are summarised in Table 3. Throughout the programme the majority of participants were volunteers, taking part in their own time. ...
Conference Paper
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Whether we live in the (so called) ‘developed’ or ‘developing’ worlds digital technology has had a significant impact on many aspects of our lives. Terms such as ‘globalisation’ and ‘21st century skills’ dominate discussions of education policy. Inevitably this raises questions about how our education systems should change and how we should prepare our current and future teachers to meet the needs of the young people in their care. In order to answer these questions you first need to identify what the purposes of school will be in our rapidly changing world. Then you need to consider how this will impact on the organisation of schooling, including expectations of curriculum, pedagogy, and assessment. This then impacts on views about the role of teachers and the competencies that they require. This paper will explore competing narratives about what the future holds and thus what the purposes of schooling might be. It will then examine alternative models of what education for school age children might look like, drawing on work within the Schome Initiative and from the literature. Building on these analyses and work within Vital (a £9.4million professional development programme to help teachers make better use of ICT) some implications for teachers and teaching will be considered.
... One approach for integrating student personalised learning and assessment that has gained momentum over the past five years, are e-portfolios. E-Portfolios refer to the personalised spaces that enable learners to save their own work, store material that as been or as yet to be assessed, maintain records of their assessment and achievements, and allow access to personal records and work (Twining et al., 2006). As a personalised mechanism, eportfolios represent a move towards a self-directed, learner-centered approach to learning that incorporates both autonomous learning and peer-to-peer (Roberts et al. 2005). ...
The advent and diffusion of information technology has ushered in a new era for the mass media, leading to revolutionary changes in communication and interpersonal behaviours. Since 1999 the internet has become a major source of health information; nevertheless a growing body of evidence suggests that, despite the benefits of ready and free availability of health and medical information, this communication means also prefigures the creation of a new form of health risk for some users. This concern includes also whether access to such wealth of information will improve health and whether the variable quality of information could be harmful to patients. The internet has become an extraordinarily powerful tool for entertainment, communication and education among children and adolescents and an easy and valued source of information on a range of sensitive health issues, mainly sex and sexual behaviours, which are of great interest; nevertheless, the free access to such large and unselected volume of information may have deleterious effect on their psychological and physical well-being.
The Purpose of Education: To Thrive on UncertaintyThe Sociocultural Approach to Learning: A Tale of Three DiscoursesThe Layers of CultureResilienceResourcefulnessTime and Open-MindednessConclusion
Examines why computers are used less often in classrooms than in other organizations; suggests that technological innovations have never been central to national school improvement movements, and that the dominant cultural belief about teaching, learning, and proper knowledge and about the way schools are organized for instruction inhibits computer use. (Source: ERIC) Main Article Today, computers and telecommunications are a fact of life as basic as electricity. They have altered the daily work of large businesses and industry. Yet why is it that with all the talk of school reform and information technologies over the last decade, computers are used far less on a daily basis in classrooms than in other organizations? The question often generates swift objections. What about the $19.6 million Quince Orchard High School in Montgomery County (Maryland), where there are 288 computers for 1,100 students? Or the Juan Linn School in Victoria (Texas), where a computerized integrated learning system (ILS) provides instruction to 500 students and records daily their work? What about the thousands of elementary and secondary school teachers who have students work together on computers to write, tally figures, draw, and think? Are there not many experiments under way such as Apple's Classroom of Tomorrow, micro-computer laboratories, and exciting software that tutors students in academic subjects and skills? The answer to all of these questions is that such instances do exist but they are scattered and atypical among the 80,000-plus public schools across the nation, where over 2 million teachers teach over 40 million students.(n1) So why is instructional use of information technologies (computers, television, multimedia machines and software, etc.) still the exception and not the rule in American schools? The answers to this question are important in assessing claims of policymakers who argue that such technologies can fundamentally reshape schooling and entrepreneurs seeking profits in the schooling market who offer a vision of classrooms where students work three or more hours a day on computers. I will argue that the familiar excuses used to explain the snail-likepace of technological progress (insufficient money to buy machines, teacher resistance, little administrative support, and inadequate preparation for those becoming teachers) are plausible but ultimately superficial. Such explanations assume that schools are just like other places facing technological innovation. If sufficient money, support, and preparation are mobilized, computerization of classrooms will occur. I argue that there are fundamental reasons within schools as institutions that make them substantially different from businesses, industries, and other organizations.
A study was undertaken to investigate which factors were perceived by teachers using computers as part of their teaching (Class Users) as facilitating or hindering the use of computers in schools and how these factors would be viewed by teachers who were Non Class Users.
At a time of unprecedented levels of investment in ICT in UK schools this article reflects on curriculum issues raised by a recent piece of research into the potential of multimedia authoring to enhance children's learning in the context of a drugs education programme with Year 6 children. It is argued that, given proper supporting structures, ICT of this highly interactive kind has the potential to develop qualities of evaluation, independence and responsibility in children's learning and understanding. Its use can also challenge the existing culture of the classroom and stimulate teachers to devise teaching strategies which celebrate a reassertion of liberal educational values which have implications for the role of the teacher in interpreting the curriculum, teacher‐pupil interaction and modes of assessment.