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Physiological effects of wearing graduated compression stockings during running. Eur J Appl Physiol

Sport and Exercise Science, Institute of Food, Nutrition and Human Health, Massey University, Private Bag 102904, North Shore Mail Centre, Auckland, 0745, New Zealand.
Arbeitsphysiologie (Impact Factor: 2.19). 03/2010; 109(6):1017-25. DOI: 10.1007/s00421-010-1447-1
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

This study examined the effect of wearing different grades of graduated compression stockings (GCS) on physiological and perceptual measures during and following treadmill running in competitive runners. Nine males and one female performed three 40-min treadmill runs (80 +/- 5% maximal oxygen uptake) wearing either control (0 mmHg; CON), low (12-15 mmHg; LO-GCS), or high (23-32 mmHg; HI-GCS) grade GCS in a double-blind counterbalanced order. Oxygen uptake, heart rate and blood lactate were measured. Perceptual scales were used pre- and post-run to assess comfort, tightness and any pain associated with wearing GCS. Changes in muscle function, soreness and damage were determined pre-run, immediately after running and 24 and 48 h post-run by measuring creatine kinase and myoglobin, counter-movement jump height, perceived soreness diagrams, and pressure sensitivity. There were no significant differences between trials for oxygen uptake, heart rate or blood lactate during exercise. HI-GCS was perceived as tighter (P < 0.05) and more pain-inducing (P < 0.05) than the other interventions; CON and LO-GCS were rated more comfortable than HI-GCS (P < 0.05). Creatine kinase (P < 0.05), myoglobin (P < 0.05) and jump height (P < 0.05) were higher and pressure sensitivity was more pronounced (P < 0.05) immediately after running but not after 24 and 48 h. Only four participants reported muscle soreness during recovery from running and there were no differences in muscle function between trials. In conclusion, healthy runners wearing GCS did not experience any physiological benefits during or following treadmill running. However, athletes felt more comfortable wearing low-grade GCS whilst running.

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    • "Bu süreçlerde giysinin rahatlığı, hafifliği, hareket kolaylığı, uyguladığı basınç, vücuda uygunluğu, amaca uygunluğu, teri emme ve atma özelliği, dokunsal, görsel ve termal özellikleri tüm giysiler için ortak özellikler olmasının yanında, sportif giysiler ve kompresyon giysileri için de oldukça önemli özelliklerdir (Choudhury ve ark., 2011; Çivitçi ve Dengin, 2014; Utkun, 2014). Kompresyon giysilerinin sağladığı konforla ilgili yapılan sınırlı sayıdaki çalışma sonuçlarına göre düşük basınç (4-12 mmHg) uygulayan giysilerin daha konforlu hissettirdiği, daha yüksek basınç (23-32 mmHg) uygulayan giysilerin ise daha rahatsız hissettirdiği, yüksek basınç aralıklarının daha sıkı ve acı verici hissettirdiği (Ali ve ark., 2010; 2011), sıradan şortlara kıyasla kompresyon giysilerinin daha konforlu hissettirdiği (Rugg ve Sternlicht, 2013) ve psikolojik konforu arttırdığı (Venckünas ve ark., 2014) belirtilmiştir. Kompresyon giysilerinin psikolojik etkileri, değinilmesi gereken diğer bir konudur. "
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Compression garments are modern textiles that has a special structure which be able to apply external mechanical pressure over the skin to the subcutaneous tissues. Research results showing that the positive physical, physiological and psychological benefits of externally applied pressure to the tissue might have led to widespread among athletes of compression garments. According to these possible effects of compression garments has become increasingly widespread among athletes. However, with the presence of the studies that have no positive effects for athletic performance shows that the results are influenced by the variables such as the garment type, surrounding area and worn duration, exercise type, age, gender, form level and anthropometric characteristics of practitioners gradient of applied pressure and according that the effect mechanisms of these clothes are not clarified. In this review, the characteristics, the main effect common consensus on the mechanism, usage, effects of compression garments was described. General information and the new research results about these clothes with increasing popularity in the sports field was discussed to provide useful information for athletes, coaches and sports specialists and this way, we purposed to taking its place in national sports science literature.
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    • "Nevertheless, effective pressure gradients for compression clothes do not seem to have been studied systematically, which is not surprising given the modest effects of CG during or following exercise (MacRae et al., 2011). Furthermore, attention towards understanding the mechanical and physical properties of compression clothes in the published literature is rare (Troynikov et al., 2010), although pressure measurement has become more common in studies on CG in sports (Ali et al., 2010; Trenell et al., 2006). "
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    • " 2013 ) . Increased blood flow produces greater heat dissipation through the skin ( Formenti et al . , 2013 ) . In this sense , the greater skin temperature observed in the body regions that were not in contact with the garment could be explained by the greater blood perfusion gen - erated by the compression of the stockings ( Agu et al . , 1999 ; Ali et al . , 2010 ; Bochmann et al . , 2005 ) . It is therefore speculated that the thermographic images may be indirectly capturing the greater venous return generated by the GCS . However , future studies should investigate this hypothesis by correlating blood flow with the skin surface temperature with the use of GCS . The accumulation of sweat on the"
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