Physiological effects of wearing graduated compression stockings during running. Eur J Appl Physiol

Sport and Exercise Science, Institute of Food, Nutrition and Human Health, Massey University, Private Bag 102904, North Shore Mail Centre, Auckland, 0745, New Zealand.
Arbeitsphysiologie (Impact Factor: 2.19). 03/2010; 109(6):1017-25. DOI: 10.1007/s00421-010-1447-1
Source: PubMed


This study examined the effect of wearing different grades of graduated compression stockings (GCS) on physiological and perceptual measures during and following treadmill running in competitive runners. Nine males and one female performed three 40-min treadmill runs (80 +/- 5% maximal oxygen uptake) wearing either control (0 mmHg; CON), low (12-15 mmHg; LO-GCS), or high (23-32 mmHg; HI-GCS) grade GCS in a double-blind counterbalanced order. Oxygen uptake, heart rate and blood lactate were measured. Perceptual scales were used pre- and post-run to assess comfort, tightness and any pain associated with wearing GCS. Changes in muscle function, soreness and damage were determined pre-run, immediately after running and 24 and 48 h post-run by measuring creatine kinase and myoglobin, counter-movement jump height, perceived soreness diagrams, and pressure sensitivity. There were no significant differences between trials for oxygen uptake, heart rate or blood lactate during exercise. HI-GCS was perceived as tighter (P < 0.05) and more pain-inducing (P < 0.05) than the other interventions; CON and LO-GCS were rated more comfortable than HI-GCS (P < 0.05). Creatine kinase (P < 0.05), myoglobin (P < 0.05) and jump height (P < 0.05) were higher and pressure sensitivity was more pronounced (P < 0.05) immediately after running but not after 24 and 48 h. Only four participants reported muscle soreness during recovery from running and there were no differences in muscle function between trials. In conclusion, healthy runners wearing GCS did not experience any physiological benefits during or following treadmill running. However, athletes felt more comfortable wearing low-grade GCS whilst running.

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    • "Bu süreçlerde giysinin rahatlığı, hafifliği, hareket kolaylığı, uyguladığı basınç, vücuda uygunluğu, amaca uygunluğu, teri emme ve atma özelliği, dokunsal, görsel ve termal özellikleri tüm giysiler için ortak özellikler olmasının yanında, sportif giysiler ve kompresyon giysileri için de oldukça önemli özelliklerdir (Choudhury ve ark., 2011; Çivitçi ve Dengin, 2014; Utkun, 2014). Kompresyon giysilerinin sağladığı konforla ilgili yapılan sınırlı sayıdaki çalışma sonuçlarına göre düşük basınç (4-12 mmHg) uygulayan giysilerin daha konforlu hissettirdiği, daha yüksek basınç (23-32 mmHg) uygulayan giysilerin ise daha rahatsız hissettirdiği, yüksek basınç aralıklarının daha sıkı ve acı verici hissettirdiği (Ali ve ark., 2010; 2011), sıradan şortlara kıyasla kompresyon giysilerinin daha konforlu hissettirdiği (Rugg ve Sternlicht, 2013) ve psikolojik konforu arttırdığı (Venckünas ve ark., 2014) belirtilmiştir. Kompresyon giysilerinin psikolojik etkileri, değinilmesi gereken diğer bir konudur. "
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Compression garments are modern textiles that has a special structure which be able to apply external mechanical pressure over the skin to the subcutaneous tissues. Research results showing that the positive physical, physiological and psychological benefits of externally applied pressure to the tissue might have led to widespread among athletes of compression garments. According to these possible effects of compression garments has become increasingly widespread among athletes. However, with the presence of the studies that have no positive effects for athletic performance shows that the results are influenced by the variables such as the garment type, surrounding area and worn duration, exercise type, age, gender, form level and anthropometric characteristics of practitioners gradient of applied pressure and according that the effect mechanisms of these clothes are not clarified. In this review, the characteristics, the main effect common consensus on the mechanism, usage, effects of compression garments was described. General information and the new research results about these clothes with increasing popularity in the sports field was discussed to provide useful information for athletes, coaches and sports specialists and this way, we purposed to taking its place in national sports science literature.
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    • "Nevertheless, effective pressure gradients for compression clothes do not seem to have been studied systematically, which is not surprising given the modest effects of CG during or following exercise (MacRae et al., 2011). Furthermore, attention towards understanding the mechanical and physical properties of compression clothes in the published literature is rare (Troynikov et al., 2010), although pressure measurement has become more common in studies on CG in sports (Ali et al., 2010; Trenell et al., 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The aim was to identify benefits of compression garments used for recovery of exercised-induced muscle damage. Methods: Computer-based literature research was performed in September 2015 using four online databases: Medline (PubMed), Cochrane, WOS (Web Of Science) and Scopus. The analysis of risk of bias was completed in accordance with the Cochrane Collaboration Guidelines. Mean differences and 95% confidence intervals were calculated with Hedges' g for continuous outcomes. A random effect meta-analysis model was used. Systematic differences (heterogeneity) were assessed with I(2) statistic. Results: Most results obtained had high heterogeneity, thus their interpretation should be careful. Our findings showed that creatine kinase (standard mean difference=-0.02, 9 studies) was unaffected when using compression garments for recovery purposes. In contrast, blood lactate concentration was increased (standard mean difference=0.98, 5 studies). Applying compression reduced lactate dehydrogenase (standard mean difference=-0.52, 2 studies), muscle swelling (standard mean difference=-0.73, 5 studies) and perceptual measurements (standard mean difference=-0.43, 15 studies). Analyses of power (standard mean difference=1.63, 5 studies) and strength (standard mean difference=1.18, 8 studies) indicate faster recovery of muscle function after exercise. Conclusions: These results suggest that the application of compression clothing may aid in the recovery of exercise induced muscle damage, although the findings need corroboration.
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    • " 2013 ) . Increased blood flow produces greater heat dissipation through the skin ( Formenti et al . , 2013 ) . In this sense , the greater skin temperature observed in the body regions that were not in contact with the garment could be explained by the greater blood perfusion gen - erated by the compression of the stockings ( Agu et al . , 1999 ; Ali et al . , 2010 ; Bochmann et al . , 2005 ) . It is therefore speculated that the thermographic images may be indirectly capturing the greater venous return generated by the GCS . However , future studies should investigate this hypothesis by correlating blood flow with the skin surface temperature with the use of GCS . The accumulation of sweat on the"
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    ABSTRACT: High skin temperatures reduce the thermal gradient between the core and the skin and they can lead to a reduction in performance and increased risk of injury. Graduated compression stockings have become popular among runners in the last years and their use may influence the athlete’s thermoregulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of graduated compression stockings on skin temperature during running. Forty-four runners performed two running tests lasting 30 minutes (10 minutes of warm-up and 20 minutes at 75% of their maximal aerobic speed) with and without graduated compressive stockings. Skin temperature was measured in twelve regions of interest on the lower limbs by infrared thermography before and after running. Heart rate and perception of fatigue were assessed during the last minute of the running test. Compression stockings resulted in greater increase of temperature (p=0.002 and ES=2.2, 95%CI [0.11-0.45 °C]) not only in the body regions in contact (tibialis anterior, ankle anterior and gastrocnemius) but also in the body regions that were not in contact with the garment (vastus lateralis, abductor and semitendinosus). No differences were observed between conditions in heart rate and perception of fatigue (p>0.05 and ES<0.8). In conclusion, running with graduated compression stockings produces a greater increase of skin temperature without modifying the athlete’s heart rate and perception of fatigue.
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