How, When, and Why Do Physicians Choose Careers in Academic Medicine? A Literature Review
Medicine has different pathways in which physicians pursue their vocation. Clinical practice, research, and academia are common paths. The authors examined the literature to identify research-based factors influencing physicians to choose a career path in academic medicine.
In the fall of 2006, the authors searched the PubMed database from 1960 to 2006 using the term career academic medicine. Review of articles resulted in the identification of nine themes relating to academic medicine career paths. The authors summarized the important and relevant articles to capture what the literature contributed as a whole to the larger question, "How, when, and why do physicians choose an academic career in medicine?"
A synthesis of articles revealed that (1) values are essential to understanding the decision to enter a career in academic medicine, (2) factors associated with academic medicine career choice include research-oriented programs, gender, and mentors and role models, (3) an obstacle to pursuing this career path is loss of interest in academic careers during residency as residents learn about factors associated with academic careers in medicine, and (4) debt may be a barrier to choosing an academic career in medicine for some individuals in some specialties.
Despite the study findings, the larger question (stated above) remains essentially unanswered in the literature. The authors propose a call to action by various professional groups and organizations to use rigorous and complex research efforts to seek answers to this very important question.
Available from: Josep M Monguet
- "However,  mentioned that some health professionals still show some resistance towards the acceptance of new technologies, even when some health sectors are beginning to integrate ICT in some of their fields. Besides, Bernard et al.  mention that ICTs offer practical and timely mechanisms for continuing medical education allowing the improvement of educational programs for health professionals in rural areas   . Simultaneously, ICT may also have an important role in transferring clinical data . "
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ABSTRACT: In recent years, the advances in information and communication technology (ICT) have resulted in the development of systems and applications aimed at supporting rehabilitation therapy that contributes to enrich patients' life quality. This work is focused on the improvement of the telemedicine systems with the purpose of customizing therapies according to the profile and disability of patients. For doing this, as salient contribution, this work proposes the adoption of user-centered design (UCD) methodology for the design and development of telemedicine systems in order to support the rehabilitation of patients with neurological disorders. Finally, some applications of the UCD methodology in the telemedicine field are presented as a proof of concept.
Available from: Manuel Joao Costa
- "The reasons why and when physicians choose careers in academic medicine have been explored and evidence has been found connecting graduate and postgraduate research : (a) participating in research methodology courses and more positive attitudes towards science and scientific research in medicine [12,13]; (b) participating in required research experiences and publishing research reports [14,15] or participating in postgraduate research ; (c) engaging in intensive research experiences and receiving a faculty appointment with research responsibility  and (d) publishing research as an undergraduate medical student and/or pursuing an MD/PhD and choosing academic medicine [5,18-20]. Evidence also shows that engagement in undergraduate extra-curricular scientific activity results in a higher rate of publication after graduation . "
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In light of the increasing recognition of the importance of physician scientists, and given the association between undergraduate research experiences with future scientific activity, it is important to identify and understand variables related to undergraduate students' decision to engage in scientific research activities. The present study assessed the influence of individual characteristics, including personality traits and socio-demographic characteristics, on voluntary engagement in scientific research of undergraduate medical students.
For this study, all undergraduate students and alumni of the School of Health Sciences in Minho, Portugal were invited to participate in a survey about voluntary engagement in scientific research activities. Data were available on socio-demographic, personality and university admission variables, as part of an ongoing longitudinal study. A regression model was used to compare (1) engaged with (2) not engaged students. A classification and regression tree model was used to compare students engaged in (3) elective curricular research (4) and extra-curricular research.
A total of 466 students (88%) answered the survey. A complete set of data was available for 435 students (83%).Higher scores in admission grade point average and the personality dimensions of "openness to experience" and "conscientiousness" increased chances of engagement. Higher "extraversion" scores had the opposite effect. Male undergraduate students were two times more likely than females to engage in curricular elective scientific research and were also more likely to engage in extra-curricular research activities.
This study demonstrated that student' grade point average and individual characteristics, like gender, openness and consciousness have a unique and statistically significant contribution to students' involvement in undergraduate scientific research activities.
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ABSTRACT: A sensorless control method of brushless DC (BLDC) motors is presented in this paper. Differently from the previous ones, this method is based on the zero crossing of line back EMFs, which is proofed corresponding to the commutation points and more reliable at low speeds. For the accuracy and robust of the method, an artificial neural network with a section dealing with the outliers is also employed to estimate the line back EMFs by only using measurements of the stator line voltages and currents. The method provides more wide-speed range, and no neutral voltage, phase shifted or silent phase required. A simulation result of the proposed sensorless method is shown. Also, the performance of the proposed method is verified by real-time experiments using the digital signal processor (DSP) TMS320LF2407A.
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