Article

The Tragedy of the Commons

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

Abstract

"Technology is not the answer to the population problem. Rather, what is needed is 'mutual coercion mutually agreed upon'--everyone voluntarily giving up the freedom to breed without limit. If we all have an equal right to many 'commons' provided by nature and by the activities of modern governments, then by breeding freely we behave as do herders sharing a common pasture. Each herder acts rationally by adding yet one more beast to his/her herd, because each gains all the profit from that addition, while bearing only a fraction of its costs in overgrazing, which are shared by all the users. The logic of the system compels all herders to increase their herds without limit, with the 'tragic,' i.e. 'inevitable,' 'inescapable' result: ruin the commons. Appealing to individual conscience to exercise restraint in the use of social-welfare or natural commons is likewise self-defeating: the conscientious will restrict use (reproduction), the heedless will continue using (reproducing), and gradually but inevitably the selfish will out-compete the responsible. Temperance can be best accomplished through administrative law, and a 'great challenge...is to invent the corrective feedbacks..to keep custodians honest.'"

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... Structure of the paper In Sect. 2 of this paper, we investigate thoroughly the quintessential social purpose game, namely a standard implementation of the tragedy of the commons [17]. We show that the effects of the over-exploitation of the commons can be mitigated by partial cooperation among the players and that such cooperation can be stable. ...
... cattle owned by the village's peasants. If peasants freely access and use the land, a situation of over-exploitation arises, resulting in the depletion of the commons for collective use [21]. 1 The tragedy of the commons was formulated in game-theoretic terms by Hardin [17] and has been considered a totemic reference in many contributions to the social and biological sciences [14]. Hardin [17] only considered the non-cooperative case of unlimited and free extraction from the commons. ...
... If peasants freely access and use the land, a situation of over-exploitation arises, resulting in the depletion of the commons for collective use [21]. 1 The tragedy of the commons was formulated in game-theoretic terms by Hardin [17] and has been considered a totemic reference in many contributions to the social and biological sciences [14]. Hardin [17] only considered the non-cooperative case of unlimited and free extraction from the commons. Ostrom [32] challenged Hardin's reductionism by pointing out that in many social situations the commons was and still is successfully governed through the application of institutional and behavioural solutions. ...
Article
Full-text available
We study a class of non-cooperative aggregative games—referred to as social purpose games —in which the payoffs depend separately on a player’s own strategy (individual benefits) and on a function of the strategy profile which is common to all players (social benefits) weighted by an individual benefit parameter. This structure allows for an asymmetric assessment of a common social benefit across players. We show that these games have a weighted potential, and we investigate its properties. We investigate the payoff structure and the uniqueness of Nash equilibria and social optima. Furthermore, following the literature on partial cooperation, we investigate the leadership of a single coalition of cooperators, while the rest of players act as non-cooperative followers. In particular, we show that social purpose games admit the emergence of a stable coalition of cooperators for the subclass of strict social purpose games. As a particular application, we study a standard formulation of the tragedy of the commons . We show that there emerges a single stable coalition of cooperators that curbs the over-exploitation of the common resource.
... Vehicles 120 - When discussing the impossibility of achieving a point where population and the available goods are both maximized, Hardin (1968) introduced the tragedy of freedom in a Commons. Self-interested rational individuals that share a common will seek to maximize their gain without limits. ...
... Self-interested rational individuals that share a common will seek to maximize their gain without limits. Although it is a popular misconception to understand the term tragedy in the sense of misfortune, Hardin (1968) intended to use the term in the sense of the inevitability of overexploiting commons when individuals maximize their utility in complete freedom. ...
... The practical representation of this tragedy is well known as the pasture dilemma: in a pasture open to the public, herdspersons will try to introduce as many cattle as possible to maximize their individual utility. Given that all individuals will use their freedom in the same direction, it is inevitable that the aggregate of herdspersons will end up killing the pasture for everyone (Hardin, 1968). One additional dimension to the tragedy of unmanaged commons, as was corrected by Hardin (1998) thirty years later, lies in the nature of the Commons. ...
Research
Full-text available
VOLUMEN DIPONIBLE EN INGLÉS Y EN ESPAÑOL / FULLY AVAILABLE ALSO IN SPANISH The structural social and economic problems of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) have worsened since the arrival of COVID-19. The pandemic highlighted the weaknesses of public social protection systems and exposed the limitations of governments in the region in managing a major health emergency. A general atmosphere of political polarization, social discontent, democratic erosion, distrust in government, and increasing militarization added to the pandemic's old social problems and the new ones. The results have been as diverse as the resources and skills of each country to fight COVID-19. However, the global balance is a large number of infections and deaths throughout the region. Today, LAC countries face the challenge of overcoming the economic and social problems heightened by the pandemic within the post COVID-19 “new normal.” In such context, this special issue provided a forum to reflect on the actions taken by LAC governments in the face of the coronavirus pandemic. The authors of this volume (young scholars, almost all) explore the dilemmas, challenges, limitations, and success factors in managing the health emergency in the subcontinent. They depict an exciting series of findings and ideas that mark the beginning of promising research or suggest new analysis perspectives for future studies. Gabriel Rojas reminds us that government transparency works best when it has specific objectives, such as helping to build trust in the public; Felipe Blanco emphasizes the problem of ethnoracial inequality, evidenced and intensified by the pandemic; César Romero calls attention to the increase of militarization in some countries of the region, as a result of the lack of professional bureaucratic bodies to address the health emergency and its consequences. Alessandro Braga joins the discussion of remote work and its challenges for the public sector. Heidi Smith and José A. Perusquia call for methodological localism to better understand each local government's constraints on the implementation of national policies. Suggestive approaches to analysis are also proposed. José Sánchez and Alejandra Medina invite us to reflect on public health from the perspective of the tragedy of the commons and the logic of collective action to rethink government interventions in the face of the pandemic. Additionally, Samanta Varela proposes to analyze the global governance of health from the perspective of meta organizations, integrating the theoretical contributions of International Relations, Public Administration, regulation, and organizational studies. In the policy briefs section, Guillermo Cejudo and Pablo de los Cobos document the importance of appropriate information to respond efficiently to a health emergency, and Everardo Chiapa analyzes a failed policy of mobility containment to prevent the spread of COVID-19 through the approaches of groupthink and blame avoidance. Finally, Alejandra Rodas-Gaiter, Daniela Reina, and Óscar Escobar share the successful experience of Palmira, Colombia, in the local management of the pandemic. As Ricardo Bello-Gómez points out in his paper, these and other research about public management in LAC open a magnificent opportunity to enrich comparative studies in public administration and public policies, expand our understanding of public organizations, and strengthen the theories and frameworks of our disciplines.
... We begin with the introduction of Hardin's (1968) classic work on the "tragedy of the commons, " discussing some of its implications in relation to outdoor sports. Next, we present a brief overview of the theory of collective action. ...
... To understand some of the underlying variables associated with the increased demand for outdoor spaces, Hardin's (1968) explanation of the commons problem provides a useful lens through which to better grasp the commons dilemma. Specifically, when participants are provided with common-pool resources, the natural behavior is for those resources to be used to the point of overuse (e.g., surpassing the carrying capacity). ...
... Although Hardin (1968Hardin ( , 1985 had suggested that the best and possibly only approach to prevent a tragedy of the commons is to implement practices that are based on sanctions, such approach is yet to be proved successful. Other approaches have focused on technological advances such as artificial landscapes for cross-country skiing and canoe slalom (Backman and Svensson, 2022), and although technical remedies may be necessary, they are not sufficient. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper focuses on the social features of participation in outdoor sports that play a significant role in the lived experience of participants, and in their interactions with the environment. These embodied interactions can bridge nature and culture, and inform interventions for more sustainable ecosystems. Conceptual methods were used to explain the sport-nature-culture nexus and postulate an interdisciplinary framework of social sport ecology, incorporating management, nature sports, neo-tribalism, and non-representation theoretical perspectives. The proposed framework suggests that multi-sensory stimuli, embodied sport practices and neo-tribal cultural values shape the “sports ecosphere,” which needs to be attuned with the affective/cognitive dimensions of experience in ways that build caring cultures for the environment. The significance of this work lies in its comprehensive perspective to the environmental management of outdoor sports by demonstrating the critical role of politics, culture, experience and movement in contemporary sport. It suggests a holistic approach of social sport ecology to better understand and reimagine the environmental practices and character of outdoor sports.
... Prospect theory has been also combined with the theory of the tragedy of the commons [26] to capture the failure of the common pool resources (CPR), e.g., MEC servers, to serve the users due to their overexploitation [27]. In general, the principles of prospect theory and the tragedy of the commons have already been applied in several other research fields, such as dynamic spectrum management [28], [29], load balancing in smart grid systems [30], antijamming communications in cognitive systems [31], fog computing security [32], and network security [33]. ...
... The computing capabilities of the MEC servers are assumed to be shared among the users, thus, they are treated as a CPR. Given that the CPR is excludable, rivalrous, and can be commonly accessible to all users, the phenomenon of the tragedy of the commons may arise [26]. Thus, the MEC servers may fail to serve the users due to potential overexploitation, and no user will enjoy the computing capabilities of the server that failed. ...
... Because such land is not allocated to a particular person, it is usually over-exploited (Warming 1911;Gordon 1957). This is what Hardin (1968) refers to as 'the tragedy of the commons'. ...
... It is this tension between individual and collective interests that characterises situations known as social dilemmas (like the prisoner's dilemma). The solution for Hardin (1968) is the nationalisation or privatisation of this agricultural land. In the same sense Coase (1960) proposes private ownership, in case the transaction costs of land are zero. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
This thesis aims to analyse the profitability and economic efficiency of corn production in the Hauts-Bassins region. The survey was carried out in 26 villages selected using systemic random sampling method. A total of 262 maize farmers were selected according to a simple random sampling of four homogeneous Groups: production system, land tenure, farm size and agro-climatic zone. Descriptive statistics as well as the stochastic profit frontier method were used to analyse the data. The results of the study indicate that maize production is not profitable for all Categories of producers. The 0.1-1 ha, unsecured land tenure, harnessed and manual farms in the province of Kenedougou are not profitable. While motorized vehicles (profitability = 28%), with land titles (19%), from the province of Tuy (3%) and large areas (77%) are the most profıtable in their group. The estimated average profit efficiency is 0.86 and varies between 0.1 and 0.97. There is then a potential to increase the profits of 3% to 90% of corn growers with the given resources. Inefficiencies are lower among producers with more years of education or experience, enjoying secure land tenure, using quality fertilizers. While armyworms, drought, irregular rain and the age of growers over 50 years are aggravating factors of inefficiency. More specifically, large farms (5ha and more), motorized systems, producers with land titles and the province of Tuy are economically more efficient than others. Consequently, policies aimed at agricultural mechanization, land tenure security, enlargement of the size of farms, the establishment of an irrigation system, the improvement of human capital and accessibility to inputs, to fight some natural disasters are needed to improve the efficiency of corn growers.
... The Ostrom-Theoretical Approach The work of Elinor Ostrom, who in 2009 became the first woman to be awarded the Nobel Prize in economics, represents a direct challenge to the so-called 'tragedy of the commons' (Hardin, 1968): the assumption that the sharing of resources would invariably result in depletion. Ostrom, however, showed how communities of commoners, in the absence of favorable market conditions or adequate governmental regulations, have managed through space and time to govern autonomously the resources on which they were to rely. ...
... Når modellen om den instrumentelt rasjonelle aktøren, blir lagt til grunn for forklaring av kollektive handlingar, støyter ein på både problem og paradoks. Allmenningens tragedie kan vere eksempel på at hevding av eigeninteresser ikkje produserer fornuftige kollektive handlingar (Hardin, 1968;Jentoft, 1987). Dette var temaet i boka "The Logic of Collective Action" av Mancur Olson som kom ut i 1965 (Olson, 1965). ...
Book
Full-text available
Dette er ei fagbok der eg trekker inn ei lang rekke teoriar og relevant forsking for å drøfte spørsmålet om planlegging og partnarskap verkeleg er eigna til å gi politikken den legitimiteten og handlingskrafta som er nødvendig for å fremme berekraftig utvikling. Dette er difor ei bok om kvifor samskapt berekraft er nødvendig og kva samarbeidsdriven planlegging inneber. Utgangspunktet for boka er at sjølv om vi i dag har mykje vitskapleg kunnskap som dokumenterer at kloden lir under våre fotavtrykk, så uteblir nødvendige samarbeid mellom aktørar. Politikken for berekraftig utvikling manglar såleis både handlingskapasitet og legitimitet. I boka drøftar eg i kva grad planlegging kan bidra til institusjonell kapasitetsbygging og til å gi arbeidet for berekraftig utvikling tilstrekkeleg demokratisk legitimitet. Eg konkluderer med at dette er mogleg å oppnå dersom planlegginga både lokalt, nasjonalt og globalt fungerer kompetansebyggande og bidreg til ei lokal mobilisering som stiller krav til nasjonalt og globalt nivå om å sette rammer for berekraftig utvikling i form av regelverk og insitament om kva for kollektive handlingar som krevst. Boka er skriven for studentar på masternivå og for praktikarar som søker ny og nyttig kunnskap om ulike former for statsstyring og om samarbeidsdrivne plan- og innovasjonsprosessar.
... In mixed scenarios agents are characterized by general sum returns, so agents might compete or even have conflicting goals. These settings give rise to severe problems such as the tragedy of the commons [Ostrom, 1990;Hardin, 2009;Perolat et al., 2017], and often lead to undesirable outcomes in the presence of learning, resulting in overly greedy or aggressive behavior [Leibo et al., 2017;Lerer and Peysakhovich, 2017]. Humans on the other hand display the ability to overcome these pathologies through the evolution of social structures (also called institutions) [Ostrom, 1990;Janssen and Ostrom, 2008], which renders the question of how known structures can be utilized or learned in the context of multi-agent systems. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Some of the most relevant future applications of multi-agent systems like autonomous driving or factories as a service display mixed-motive scenarios, where agents might have conflicting goals. In these settings agents are likely to learn undesirable outcomes in terms of cooperation under independent learning, such as overly greedy behavior. Motivated from real world societies, in this work we propose to utilize market forces to provide incentives for agents to become cooperative. As demonstrated in an iterated version of the Prisoner's Dilemma, the proposed market formulation can change the dynamics of the game to consistently learn cooperative policies. Further we evaluate our approach in spatially and temporally extended settings for varying numbers of agents. We empirically find that the presence of markets can improve both the overall result and agent individual returns via their trading activities.
... This means that the legislation, indeed, increases the definiteness of disciplining means, but what will happen after disciplining is still unpredictable. Avoiding discipline, therefore, seems to be self-protective for personal interests, which eventually leads to the "tragedy of the commons" (Hardin, 1968(Hardin, , 1243. This echoes the opinion that possibilities for action come with 'identity and power implications' (Walkerdine, 1981) rather than "the essentialist connotations of personality" (Burr, 2003). ...
Article
Full-text available
Researchers have consistently identified the disparity between teachers’ practical and legal knowledge regarding teachers’ right to discipline students. However, few studies have investigated teachers’ construction processes that form construction outcomes, which would help navigate the role of legislation in school discipline. This study contributes to a holistic picture of the neglected disciplinary rights that teachers construct in teaching practice and their underexplored attitude toward the law, using an interview-based constructionist method on twelve teachers of Lvliang city in a Chinese K-12 context. The findings suggest that the participants prefer to acquire discipline knowledge by interacting with multiple power relations in their local environment and that their knowledge is historically and culturally specific. Although the disciplinary right they construct is never static, balanced, or essentialised, the participants’ constructions are commonly not in line with legal provisions or the aims of the law. Furthermore, school discipline legislation plays a silent role in empowering teachers to discipline students, but it is more visible in holding back teachers’ use of corporal punishment. These findings illustrate the complexity of implementing school disciplinary law as a universal national policy.
... 10 As the most densely occupied realm of outer space and the only realm in which a continuous human presence currently exists, it is arguable that LEO space in particular is a de facto global commons. As such, it risks suffering a "tragedy of the commons," (Hardin, 1968) in which resource depletion results from individual users acting independently according to their own self-interest when their activities are not restricted or regulated. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Our planet and our species are at an existential crossroads. In the long term, climate change threatens to upend life as we know it, while the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic revealed that the world is unprepared and ill-equipped to handle acute shocks to its many systems. These shocks exacerbate the inequities and challenges already present prior to COVID in ways that are still evolving in unpredictable directions. As weary nations look toward a post-COVID world, we draw attention to both the injustice and many impacts of the quiet occupation of near-Earth space, which has rapidly escalated during this time of global crisis. The communities most impacted by climate change, the ongoing pandemic, and systemic racism are those whose voices are missing as stakeholders both on the ground and in space. We argue that significant domestic and international changes to the use of near-Earth space are urgently needed to preserve access to - and the future utility of - the valuable natural resources of space and our shared skies. After examining the failure of the U.S. and international space policy status quo to address these issues, we make specific recommendations in support of safer and more equitable uses of near-Earth space.
... En suma, la baja densidad de las relaciones para la red total y filtrada, se asocia a una red en la que hay una reducida cohesión y cooperación entre sus miembros, aspecto que dificulta el concretar acciones para el resguardo del sistema en estudio (Navarro, 2017). Es posible discutir que, debido a la carente cohesión y cooperación entre los miembros de la red relacionada con el estado del humedal Laguna Torca, se generó una "tragedia de los comunes", en la que los actores motivados por su interés personal y actuación independiente, han terminado por incidir en el proceso de contaminación y eutrofización del humedal Laguna Torca, esto pese a que a ninguno de los actores les convenía que tal situación sucediera (Hardin, 1968). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
La laguna Torca es uno de los humedales más importantes de la región del Maule, producto de las más de 90 especies de aves en diferentes categorías de conservación que habitan en él. No obstante, entre los años 2008 y 2016 se produjo un proceso de eutrofización, que ha afectado negativamente a la avifauna, la memoria colectiva de la comunidad local y a las actividades turísticas locales. Esto, pese a que el humedal cuenta con las categorías de Santuario de la Naturaleza y Reserva Nacional y está bajo la administración de la Corporación Nacional Forestal. El presente estudio tuvo por objetivo proponer lineamientos para el fortalecimiento de la protección del humedal Laguna Torca desde la perspectiva de la gobernanza ambiental. Para ello: (1) se analizó el marco normativo e indicativo aplicable y/o potencialmente aplicable a este ecosistema; (2) se analizó la red de actores con incidencia en la protección del humedal; y (3) se identificaron oportunidades y desafíos para la protección. A nivel general, los resultados indican que existe un escenario desfavorable para la protección del humedal, debido a: una incipiente y desactualizada planificación territorial que impide otorgarle un ordenamiento al territorio, la ausencia del ecosistema en el marco indicativo regional y comunal, una administración que ha carecido de un rol protagónico en la protección, un sector privado que no se ha asociado con el sector público, una agrupación indígena que ha sido excluida de las instancias de participación, la falta de un canal de comunicación que sea reconocido por la red en su conjunto y la presencia de acuerdos infructíferos que han impedido otorgar una solución efectiva al proceso de eutrofización. No obstante, también se identificaron oportunidades de protección en: la elaboración e implementación de instrumentos normativos e indicativos sinérgicos entre sí; la inclusión del cambio climático en la planificación territorial; potenciales agentes de cambio en la sociedad civil; un nuevo gobierno local preocupado por el medioambiente; la posibilidad de postular proyectos a fondos estatales; la creación de un sistema integrado de información ambiental; y el involucramiento de la comunidad en el desarrollo de un marco regulatorio afín al resguardo del humedal. Las oportunidades y desafíos confluyeron en cinco lineamientos de protección: (1) fortalecer la planificación territorial; (2) consolidar el liderazgo y la institucionalidad; (3) asegurar la sostenibilidad y solvencia de la protección; (4) estructurar un sistema de información y de comunicación coordinado y eficiente; y (5) desarrollar espacios para la participación ciudadana y construcción de acuerdos. Se sugiere que las orientaciones sean adoptadas desde una mirada estratégica e integral y no de forma separada. Este estudio conforma un insumo para mejorar la gobernanza del humedal Laguna Torca y un set de aprendizajes para el resguardo de los humedales del país. Finalmente, se recomienda a próximos investigadores adoptar nuevas perspectivas en la proposición de orientaciones, tal como podría ser un enfoque de gobernanza climática.
... Bebasnya sumber daya alam itu dimanfaatkan oleh setiap orang untuk memenuhi kebutuhannya masing-masing, maka setiap orang berusaha dan berlomba lomba untuk memanfaatkan atau mengeksploitasi sumber daya alam semaksimal mungkin guna perolehan keuntungan pribadi yang sebesar-besarnya. Pada akhirnya hal tersebut akan mengakibatkan penurunan kualitas lingkungan dan kuantitas sumber daya alam yang efeknya juga akan mengakibatkan masyarakat secara keseluruhan akan menderita kerugian (Hardin, 1977). ...
... Through a series of extensive field analyses on indigenous groups, Elinor Ostrom defended the commons against the popular theory of "tragedy of commons" (Hardin, 1968). Parallel to the fishery example in the last section, Schlager and Ostrom (1992) examined property rights in a common resource-based scenario. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Blockchain and smart contracts enable the network of hybrid autonomous human and machine agents. In this paper, we propose the concept of engineered ownership, a blockchain-based socio-technical governance system. A system of coded rules that defines the boundaries, shapes incentives and distributes rights among such autonomous agents. To lay a foundation for engineered ownership, we first study the nature of ownership by examining the concept of property. Shaped by history and ideologies, property rights are the most formalized and studied ownership system. We then untangle the layered structures and system design impacts of property by investigating three property rights theories. Finally, we derive from these learnings the system features of engineered ownership, identify related challenges, and present a roadmap towards a holistic theory of engineered ownership.
... Historically nations with access to the oceans have enjoyed greater trading wealth and have developed exploration and colonisation far beyond their original borders. Extended territories, division of land and the subsequent implementation of sometimes arbitrary political boundaries, have all contributed to the 'tragedy of the commons' (Hardins, 1968). Dating back to economic theories of the mid-19 th century (Lloyd, 1833), but made popular in recent years by Ostrom's seminar work (Ostrom, 2009) on public choice, institutionalism and the relationship with the commons (a term used to represent common resources such as air, sunlight, wind but also water, forests, the oceans etc.), the tragedy relates to the over-use and exploitation of resources. ...
Article
Full-text available
The Blue Economy is an emerging paradigm with the potential to foster balanced socio-economic development of the world’s oceans and coastal areas, but it requires an understanding of the stakeholder landscape at a national and at an international sea basin scale, so that we can model potential equitable and collaborative economic development. Applying a novel, mixed-method approach we collected, collated and analysed spatial and non-spatial stakeholder information from five countries (United Kingdom, Ireland, France, Spain and Portugal), that border the North East Atlantic sea basin. Through the development of Blue Economy stakeholder directory for the North East Atlantic area more than 600 local, regional, national and international (EU wide and global) stakeholders were analysed in terms of their Blue Economy alignment and to determine their respective enabling role (financier, service providers, research/innovators and regulators/policy makers). Results show 72% of the North East Atlantic sea basin stakeholders fail to recognise the socio-economic potential of the Blue Economy, regardless of the new policy instruments and a strategic focus from the European Commission. We also identify that public and research/academic institutions currently dominate the landscape of Blue Economy stakeholders; but note this is inconsistent, when compared with other economic sectors in maritime territories. Based on the results, we discuss the key challenges facing equitable growth of the Blue Economy in the North East Atlantic area.
... El primero, conocido como el "Dilema del Prisionero", propone que dos jugadores obtienen el mejor resultado por medio de la cooperación, mientras que el comportamiento oportunista de uno de los jugadores no obtiene recompensa (Ostrom, 2011, 38-41). El segundo, conocido como la "tragedia de los comunes", pronostica las consecuencias de una sobrepoblación mundial en un mundo con recursos limitados (Hardin, 1968). Ambos modelos abordan no solo un problema del pensamiento económico -la escasez-sino uno que se relaciona con la política pública: ¿cómo hacer un uso eficiente de los recursos ante una alta demanda? ...
Research
Full-text available
El Simposio de Estudios Sociales y Educación Cívica es una actividad que se organiza de forma bianual desde el año 2009 en el marco de la autoevaluación de la carrera de Estudios Sociales y Educación Cívica de la Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica. En este ocasión, el VII Simposio contó con la oportunidad de organizar el I Encuentro de la Red Centroamericana de Investigación y Docencia en Estudios Sociales y Ciudadanía Crítica (RECIDEC). Ambas actividades se consolidaron como una oportunidad para discutir sobre los temas centrales que atañen la enseñanza de los Estudios Sociales, la Educación Ciudadana, la Enseñanza de las Ciencias Sociales, la Enseñanza de la Historia y la Innovación Educativa.
... Having secured a loan of approximately $120 million, the national government and its agencies, together with the local government in Accra, began this project in March 2000, anticipating its completion in December 2003. This project was a technical solution to what some see as a human-centric problem (Innes, 1995) the likes of which do not have technical solutions (Hardin, 1968), or that planning does not know how to solve (Wildavsky, 1973). If one accepts the inappropriateness of applying technical solutions to such problems, it is not surprising the $120M project has not yet been completed. ...
Article
This article puts the ‘communicative turn’ in planning into conversation with polycentric governance to offer three lessons for communicative and collaborative planning. These lessons probe the nexus of institutional-cultural contexts and (1) stakeholders’ agency to initiate, enter, and exit discursive arenas, (2) incentives and interactions among actors, and (3) information and power (a)symmetries within communicative-action-based planning processes. The empirical moments for these lessons are evinced using an ecological restoration planning project in a Global South context. The conceptual and empirical dialogues foreground Southern critiques of the limits of normative planning concepts, especially when they are decoupled from historically contingent asymmetric power structures and socio-economic differences within planning cultures.
... The dangerous maritime topography of the Paracels and Spratlys held others at bay, ensuring that only these fisher groups could harvest the marine resources. These fishing grounds were neither historical commons based on community-defined resources and rules governing their management (Boomgaard, Henley, and Osseweijer 2005), nor were they open-access resources whose use was entirely unregulated (see Hardin 1968); they were, rather, knowledge-cum-skills-based commons. The ways fishers exploit them have changed now that states employ modern technologies to control the reefs. ...
Article
Full-text available
Oceans have always been arenas of crime, drugs and human trafficking, and poaching. When such violations occur on fishing boats, they fall un¬der the rubric of “fisheries crime.” Political scientists and economists have tended to assume that these criminal fishers simply abandon their legal occupation and take up illegal practices, labelled “transnational organized fisheries crime” by the United Nations. On the other hand, some scholars have also argued that subsidized and militarized fishers in the South China Sea are simply acting as instruments of their states’ geopolitical agendas, responding to regulations, non-enforcement of regulations, and incentives. Such present-centric approaches both obscure the modalities of fishers’ embodied skills and knowledge and their motivations, and downplay the inter-ethnic networks that connected different fishers beyond state territo¬ries and localized fishing grounds in past and present. Charting the spike in maritime trespass in (and out of) the South China Sea, this article combines ethnography and historiography to show how fishers move in and out of legal and illegal, state and non-state categories of fisher, poacher, trader, smuggler, and militia. I propose the concept of occupational slippage as a way of going beyond the fiction of fishing as mono-occupational and theorizing the realities of fishers as mobile maritime actors who enact and conceal multiple—simultaneous and consecutive—livelihood strategies while navigating not just seas, but also markets and territorial sovereign¬ties. Thus, I argue that the fishers’ practices reflect wider interconnections between modern, state-supported, and technology-driven fisheries with older pre-nation-state patterns of mobility and knowledge accumulated through generations, producing new forms of versatility that operate under the states’ radars. [Keywords: Fishers, occupational slippage, tidalectic, market, sovereignties, maritime militia, South China Sea]
... This terminology was originally coined by Bulow et al. (1985) and expanded into social networks by Jackson and Zenou (2015). The underlying foundation for strategic complements is within game theory, a theoretical framework developed in the mid-twentieth century (von Neumann & Morgenstern, 2007), and this concept has been applied to problems ranging from environmental dilemmas (Hardin, 1968) to Cold War nuclear deterrence (Schelling, 1966) and food sharing among traditional hunter-gatherers (Hames & McCabe, 2007;Ziker & Schnegg, 2005). In our context, we will consider how strategic complements apply to faculty determining the relative advantage of applying EBIPs in their practice. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Many institutional and departmentally focused change efforts have sought to improve teaching in STEM through the promotion of evidence-based instructional practices (EBIPs). Even with these efforts, EBIPs have not become the predominant mode of teaching in many STEM departments. To better understand institutional change efforts and the barriers to EBIP implementation, we developed the Cooperative Adoption Factors Instrument (CAFI) to probe faculty member characteristics beyond demographic attributes at the individual level. The CAFI probes multiple constructs related to institutional change including perceptions of the degree of mutual advantage of taking an action (strategic complements), trust and interconnectedness among colleagues (interdependence), and institutional attitudes toward teaching (climate). Results From data collected across five STEM fields at three large public research universities, we show that the CAFI has evidence of internal structure validity based on exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. The scales have low correlations with each other and show significant variation among our sampled universities as demonstrated by ANOVA. We further demonstrate a relationship between the strategic complements and climate factors with EBIP adoption through use of a regression analysis. In addition to these factors, we also find that indegree, a measure of opinion leadership, correlates with EBIP adoption. Conclusions The CAFI uses the CACAO model of change to link the intended outcome of EBIP adoption with perception of EBIPs as mutually reinforcing (strategic complements), perception of faculty having their fates intertwined (interdependence), and perception of institutional readiness for change (climate). Our work has established that the CAFI is sensitive enough to pick up on differences between three relatively similar institutions and captures significant relationships with EBIP adoption. Our results suggest that the CAFI is likely to be a suitable tool to probe institutional change efforts, both for change agents who wish to characterize the local conditions on their respective campuses to support effective planning for a change initiative and for researchers who seek to follow the progression of a change initiative. While these initial findings are very promising, we also recommend that CAFI be administered in different types of institutions to examine the degree to which the observed relationships hold true across contexts.
... While this type of cooperation through public goods can be hugely beneficial for the group, the selfsacrifice it requires may outweigh the incremental benefits that an individual's own contribution adds to group success (3,4). As a result, individuals will often lack motivation to contribute to public goods, which can lead to the tragedy of the commons (5), where selfish behaviors that maximize personal interests reduce the success of the whole group (4). The potential risk that the tragedy represents to societies has long been recognized in economics (6,7), and its role in shaping the evolution of cooperation and group organization in nature has become increasingly recognized in biology (3,8,9). ...
Article
Full-text available
Organisms often cooperate through the production of freely available public goods. This can greatly benefit the group but is vulnerable to the “tragedy of the commons” if individuals lack the motivation to make the necessary investment into public goods production. Relatedness to groupmates can motivate individual investment because group success ultimately benefits their genes’ own self-interests. However, systems often lack mechanisms that can reliably ensure that relatedness is high enough to promote cooperation. Consequently, groups face a persistent threat from the tragedy unless they have a mechanism to enforce investment when relatedness fails to provide adequate motivation. To understand the real threat posed by the tragedy and whether groups can avert its impact, we determine how the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum responds as relatedness decreases to levels that should induce the tragedy. We find that, while investment in public goods declines as overall within-group relatedness declines, groups avert the expected catastrophic collapse of the commons by continuing to invest, even when relatedness should be too low to incentivize any contribution. We show that this is due to a developmental buffering system that generates enforcement because insufficient cooperation perturbs the balance of a negative feedback system controlling multicellular development. This developmental constraint enforces investment under the conditions expected to be most tragic, allowing groups to avert a collapse in cooperation. These results help explain how mechanisms that suppress selfishness and enforce cooperation can arise inadvertently as a by-product of constraints imposed by selection on different traits.
... It is an account of how incremental adjustments that would have seemed "minor and sensible" (Sterelny, 2021, p. 132) at the time might nonetheless have led to an end-state worse than the now-irrecoverable initial state. An important idea in the background is the tragedy of the commons (Hardin, 1968). A population of humans making individually rational choices to dial up the intensity of their storage and management of food resources may nonetheless find themselves depleting the environment to such an extent that they foreclose the option of ever returning to foraging in a world of abundant food. ...
Article
Full-text available
Kim Sterelny's book The Pleistocene social contract provides an exceptionally well‐informed and credible narrative explanation of the origins of inequality and hierarchy. In this essay review, we reflect on the role of rational choice theory in Sterelny's project, before turning to Sterelny's reasons for doubting the importance of cultural group selection. In the final section, we compare Sterelny's big picture with an alternative from David Wengrow and David Graeber.
... This can lead to 'free-riding' phenomena in vaccination games [9,12] or in disobedience of social distancing rules in social distancing games, which can both result in a higher prevalence of the spread of the epidemic [9,32] and to harmful consequences for the vulnerable members of the society. The phenomenon that the Nash equilibrium strategies result to a social welfare less than the optimal one is well known in game theory community as the Tragedy of the Commons [33]. There are some notable exceptions [34,35] analyzing epidemic games involving altruistic individuals. ...
Article
In this paper, we present a game-theoretic model describing voluntary social distancing during the spread of an epidemic. The payoffs of the agents depend on the social distancing they practice and on the probability of getting infected. We consider two types of agents: the non-vulnerable agents with a small cost if they get infected and the vulnerable agents with a higher cost. For the modeling of the epidemic outbreak, we consider a variant of the SIR (Susceptible-Infected-Removed) model involving populations of susceptible, infected, and removed persons of vulnerable and non-vulnerable types. The Nash equilibria of this social distancing game are studied. The main contribution of this work is the analysis of the case where the players, desiring to achieve a low social inequality, pose a bound on the variance of the payoffs. In this case, we introduce and characterize a notion of Generalized Nash Equilibrium (GNE) for games with a continuum of players and provide characterizations for this type of GNE. It turns out that often there is a continuum of GNE. However, among the GNE, for a given value of the variance bound, there is one that Pareto dominates the others. We also provide conditions under which a more restrictive variance constraint benefits all the game participants. Furthermore, we describe a bargaining-based algorithm for choosing the variance constraint. Through numerical studies, we show that inequality constraints result in a slower spread of the epidemic and an improved cost for the vulnerable players. Furthermore, we present some examples where inequality constraints are also beneficial for non-vulnerable players.
... Before nature governance became popular, nature management was conceived as a task for the government or the private sector. One of the most influential mindsets in this regard was expressed by Garret Hardin (1968) in the Tragedy of Commons. According to his theory, people who share a common pool resource will always choose their self-benefits, trying to obtain the maximum utility without considering neither other users nor the resource's sustainability. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
This article aims to contribute to the literature linking the three pillars of sustainable development with the human development field. To do so, it analyzes how a group of stakeholders that participate in collective action for nature governance in Segre Rialb, Catalonia, build collective capabilities and reconcile a holistic sustainable development with human development and collective well-being. The analysis is performed using nature governance and the capability approach theories. In particular, the framework providing the lenses to examine the collective action for nature governance is based on Elinor Ostrom's Institutional and Analysis framework and the Collective Capabilities concept. The study is based on document analysis (legal document namely, and online resources available in catalonian website) and a few online interviews since all fieldwork was cancelled due to the COVID 19 pandemic. The case study reveals that collective action for nature governance has a twofold function: it materializes holistic sustainability and produces capabilities, reconciling sustainable and human development. Therefore, the research proves that people who work together to govern nature can boost a holistic perspective of sustainability and reconcile sustainable and human development.
... La tragedia de los comunes, prevista por Hardin (1968), mantuvo en la segunda parte del siglo XX la afirmación de la incapacidad de que los individuos pudiesen organizarse para la gestión de bienes comunes. La evidencia empírica otorgada desde los trabajos (Ostrom 2011(Ostrom , 2015Ostrom y Ahn 2003;Poteete et al., 2012) prueba que existe una alternativa para la gestión de recursos en manos de pequeñas organizaciones. ...
... However, in the context of weak collective action or no action by different user groups that hold tenure rights to the same publicly owned common resources, the tendency to act based on individual interest increases and may lead to overuse, degradation and loss of resources. This view was originally initiated by Hardin (1968) in his well-known article "The tragedy of the commons", with a central argument that nobody will be concerned to improve and protect "common resources", since each individual tries to maximize economic benefit from it. ...
Article
This study examined the actions and involvement of stakeholders in the management of wetland resources in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia. Data were generated through interview conducted with 78 key informants selected from different stakeholders using snowball sampling technique. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data using NVivo 8 qualitative data analysis software. The result revealed that wetland management is in the dominion of many stakeholders that are categorized into local community, government institutions, private sectors, research institutions and civic societies. The stakeholder arena was characterized by weak coordination, conflicting and/or overlapping roles, responsibilities, and influence power asymmetry. Stakeholders" collaboration and engagement in wetland management is challenged by weak institutional frameworks typified by inconsistency, vague provisions on wetlands, and weak enforcement. The common property notion and the lack of clear property rights regime for wetland resources exacerbated the challenge for proper management of wetland resources. All these factors have contributed to the lag in the management of wetland resources of the area which probably may lead to unsustainable resources outcomes. Hence, there is a need to integrate institutions to avoid conflicting or contradictory issues, enact wetland-specific institutional frameworks, and design multi-stakeholder platforms at various levels via public-private partnership for effective, proactive and synergetic involvement of stakeholders.
... By the latter we mean (basically public) land over which the members of the relevant community (usually the nearest village) has certain common rights, such as to pasture livestock, to collect wood, or to cut turf for fuel. It is well known that when it is difficult and costly to exclude potential users from common-pool resources the so-called "tragedy of the commons" arises (Hardin 1968), with the associated over-exploitation of the common resources. However, multiple studies have demonstrated that sometimes users are able to overcome social dilemmas and craft institutions to govern their own resources (Ostrom 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
In the last decades, wildfire hazards have increased to dangerous levels, becoming the focus of debate among policymakers both at the local and national levels. This paper proposes a Spatio-temporal approach to study the determinants of fire size distributions taking Sardinia as a case study in the time span 1998–2009. Special attention is devoted to socio-economic factors of local communities where wildfires occurred. The main finding of this study is that the proportion of public lands in a given municipality tends to mitigate the extent of the burned area. In addition, communities with a higher percentage of people employed in the primary sector are less likely to experience large burned extents.
... Parlare di "beni comuni", come ha insegnato Elinor Ostrom (E. Ostrom, 1990), significa muovere dal riconoscimento della natura esauribile di categorie di beni che offrono utilità non escludibili, ma significa anche assumere la non ineluttabilità della 'tragedia dei beni comuni' (figurata nella nota metafora dei pastori coniata da G. Hardin, 1968). La ricerca empirica ha fatto emergere la sussistenza di situazioni in cui l'autogoverno comunitario responsabile offre una praticabile alternativa alla dicotomia tra la parcellizzazione-privatizzazione del bene (la proposta liberale) o la sua pubblicizzazione (la proposta conservatrice). ...
Book
Full-text available
The present technical document is designated to the win-win approach in the River Contracts (RCs), to be considered both in relation to the dynamics which could be developed within local participative processes, and in terms of integrated actions produced as a result of these processes. The participative logic which permeates the RCs shows that it is possible to establish relationships that are winning on all fronts and that these could be decisive to launch decisions finalized to overcome the mere integration among single interests. The theme of the win-win approach and the design and realization of win-win measures was subject to an intense activity carried out by the National Observatory of the RCs (NORCs) starting from the first workshop in 2021. This activity has arisen an ample discussion upon two main questions. • “Which characteristics should the RCs have in order to be a decisional arena on which an integrated approach from the various public and private stakeholders interested in the watercourses, lakes, groundwater, transitional waters and coastal waters, develops?” • “Which objectives could be discerned from the RCs in contributing to the update and implementation of the Management Plans of the river basin districts?” The involvement of all the local actors in the management policies concerning river basins may represent an important strategic step in order to facilitate the assumption of collective responsibility, necessary to both the protection and rehabilitation of the water bodies and the flood risk reduction. The valorization of the role played by local communities is key to the success of the risk-reducing policies and, furthermore, to the activation of prevention procedures and/or management of emergency measures. This technical document aims to become a “guide” in the world of RCs, to overcome sectoral approaches and measures, supporting a greater integration. At the same time, it may provide some prompts and food for thought to all that, in more general terms, deal with RCs. The document is composed by three chapters and in each one a specific theme is discussed, as well as an appendix which includes seven case studies, exemplifying implementation of win-win measures at local scale.
... Based on numerous case studies, she offered an original approach to the governance of common resources and demonstrates that communities are able to govern themselves and avoid the over-exploitation of resources. The problem of the overexploitation of common resources, now well known in economics, was first analyzed by Warming (1911) and Gordon (1957) but was popularized by a biologist, Hardin (1968), as "the tragedy of the commons" in an article in Science. The classic problem of "the tragedy of the commons" is that every user of a shared resource, if he pursues only his individual interest, will try to use the resource to maximize their individual gains, which increases the cost for the entire community. ...
Thesis
The main purpose of the present dissertation is to study the role of social capital in the capacity of local communities to undertake collective action and to produce local public goods by themselves We extend the scope of existing studies encompass in developing countries. The analysis is carried out using two distinct approaches. The first approach uses an original mixture of survey and experimental data on trust from four villages in Senegal to assess the capacity of trust to predict participation in provision of local public good. The results show that trust, as measured by survey questions, has poor predictive power, while the results from a simple experimental measure of trust are much better predictors of public-goods production. The second approach consists in investigating the causal impact of trust in the quality of public goods produced at district level in Africa. We use Afro-barometer data to test the role of social capital and ethnic divisions in determining access to basic health care and schooling. We skirt any reverse-causality problems between trust and the quality of public goods, and omitted-variable bias due to endogenous ethnic sorting, by the use of historical data on the settlement patterns of ethnic groups in Sub-Saharan Africa. Our measure of local trust (used as an indicator of social capital) is shown to have a causal impact access on quality of health and quality of schools in Africa.
... If we dig deep we find that this process leads to information asymmetry between the regulated and less informed regulators. Three decades ago, Hardin advocated for overuse of common resources introducing the metaphor of tragedy of the commons (Hardin, 1968) but overlooked the possibility of overuse of rights over resources to exclude others. The expansion of IP rights upstream (i.e., over the consequences of essential research) makes a progression of snags to downstream (i.e., applied) research and product advancement; the outcome is that upstream licensing not just neglects to boost the improvement of innovations, it likewise discourages it-forwarded as tragedy of the anticommons (Heller & Eisenberg, 1998). ...
Article
Abstract: Inclusive innovation & indigenous development of affordable solutions is the much needed remedy for India’s challenge of the low translational rate of healthcare technologies. A study is conducted to understand Indian Technology Transfer landscape and functional analysis of Technology Transfer entities, with qualitative dataset collected from six Indian Technology Transfer entities having different models of Technology Transfer for health technologies. The study provides comprehensive strength, weakness, opportunity, and threat (SWOT) analysis of current Indian Technology Transfer Entities. This has encouraged addressing an inevitable need of a robust translational healthcare model. The study proposes a translational model based on five major translational factors viz. Translational Activities, Human Resource Development, Liaising Activities, Technology Transfer, and Entrepreneurial Support. The model uses a matrix approach to have a focal authority (National Biomedical Technology Authority) with decentralized approach at its five regional facilitation centres (Regional Biomedical Technology Facilitation Centres) and a blue print towards regional development. Further, proposes a platform for sustenance and integrative approach for existing translational capacities. Keywords: Healthcare Innovation, Translational model, Technology transfer, Policy Asian Biotechnology and Development Review Vol. 21, No. 3 & Vol. 22 No. 1 pp 3-39 © 2020, RIS. Introduction
... The settlement maintenance has four and common pasture has three role choices. may occur[18,32]. Here, the tragedy is when resources in the environment become depleted as a result of individuals pursuing their own selfish interests without regard to mounting social cost. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Human ecological success relies on our characteristic ability to flexibly self-organize in cooperative social groups. Successful groups employ substantial specialization and division of labor. Unlike most other animals, humans learn by trial and error during their lives what role to take on. However, when some critical roles are more attractive than others, and individuals are self-interested, then there is a social dilemma: each individual would prefer others take on the critical-but-unremunerative roles so they may remain free to take one that pays better. But disaster occurs if all act thusly and a critical role goes unfilled. In such situations learning an optimum role distribution may not be possible. Consequently, a fundamental question is: how can division of labor emerge in groups of self-interested lifetime-learning individuals? Here we show that by introducing a model of social norms, which we regard as patterns of decentralized social sanctioning, it becomes possible for groups of self-interested individuals to learn a productive division of labor involving all critical roles. Such social norms work by redistributing rewards within the population to disincentivize antisocial roles while incentivizing prosocial roles that do not intrinsically pay as well as others.
... The theory of evolution that was proposed by Charles Darwin in "By Means of Natural Selection" (Hardin, 1968) is explicitly competitive and "survival of the fittest." It is also explicitly Malthusian and "struggle for existence, " and even gladiatorial "survival of the fittest" and "nature, red in tooth and claw." ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study is a differential study that describes the nature of the relationship between cooperation and altruistic behavior in a sample of gifted adolescents in three universities in Egypt and Kuwait University. It also identified the differences between males/females, and senior students/junior students in both cooperation and altruism. A total of 237 gifted adolescents—with average age 21.3 ± SD 2.6 years—from three Egyptian universities: Alexandria University, Sadat Academy for Management Sciences, and Suez University (in Egypt), and Kuwait University, were involved in this study. Measures used in the study include the Scales for Rating the Behavioral Characteristics of Superior Students (SRBCSS), Generative Altruism Scale (GAlS), and The Cooperative/Competitive Strategy Scale (CCSS). Results revealed that there is a significant positive relationship between altruism and cooperation among gifted adolescents. Also, findings show that there are statistically significant differences between males and females in both altruism and cooperation. In addition, there are differences statistically significant between senior students and junior students in both altruism and cooperation in favor of senior students. It is recommended that altruism and cooperation intervention-based programs should be designed to increase the adaptive behaviors of adolescents.
... Coalitions only succeed where returns stay balanced to members, if each can negate the arrangement for all. This is our 'tragedy of the commons' (Hardin 1968(Hardin , 1980) seen among organized groups. Trust is the glue which holds them in place, cemented by active foresight along with a jointly shared understanding. ...
... Examples include forests, pastures, fishing grounds, parking lots or wiki libraries. In a CPR scenario, users might appropriate resources at a higher than optimal rate, resulting in a downward spiral of total resource availability (Hardin 1968). This is known as the tragedy of the commons. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
This paper outlines why and how blockchain can digitally support and evolve the governance of collaborative project deliveries, such as integrated project deliveries (IPDs), to provide the foundation for novel and disruptive forms of organizational collaboration in the construction industry. Previous work has conceptualized IPDs as a common pool resource (CPR) scenario, where shared resources are collectively governed. Through the use of blockchain and smart contracts for trustworthy peer-to-peer transactions and execution logic, Ostrom's design principles can be digitally encoded to scale CPR scenarios. Building on the identified connections, the paper 1) synthesizes fourteen blockchain-based mechanisms to govern CPRs, 2) identifies twenty-two applications of these mechanisms to govern IPDs, and 3) introduces a conceptualization of the above relationships towards a holistic understanding of collaborative project deliveries on the crypto commons for novel collective organization of construction project delivery between both humans and machines.
... In the seminal paper of Garrett Hardin, the general notion of inexhaustibleness of natural resources was broken. Tragedy of the commons put forth the argument by pointing out inability of the society to govern a complex, crowded and changing world due to ancient ethics (Hardin, 1968(Hardin, :1243(Hardin, -1248. Another landmark study done by Elinor Ostrom criticized Hardin's projection of inevitable overexploitation and eventual destruction of the commons by citing sustainable man agement of common pool resources by communities and the traditional knowledge systems that enabled them to survive (Ostrom, 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
The concept of commons has gone through an evolutionary process in terms of natural resource management and its associated challenges. I find, coordinated efforts at multiple levels are required to bring resilience in environmental policy making as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has weakened conservation efforts in some key areas with a possibility of inducing further imbalance to the state of natural systems of the planet. Therefore, in the light of climate change, mass scale biodiversity loss and natural capital depletion, I propose multipronged strategy covering legal, socio-political and economic aspects to improve effectiveness and resilience of collective actions. The discipline of anthropology can provide the necessary holistic view in integrating several aspects of science, economy, human perceptions, culture and politics related to global environmental changes in order to untangle the complexity of adaptation and mitigation strategies. ------------------------------------------------- Citation: Guha, A.(2022).'The Plurality of Commons: Climate Change from an Anthropological Perspective.' South Asian Anthropologist, 22(1): 1-9.
... Ecologist Garett Hardin brought TOC dilemmas to modern relevance in a 1968 when he linked this to population growth in the journal Science [Hardin, 1968]. He pointed out that at the most local level, it's a basic Human Right for parents to decide the number of children to have. ...
Thesis
p>The earliest, and still most influential, human rights texts were drafted at a time when environmental considerations held a low priority in world politics. It is therefore unsurprising that environmental factors were not even mentioned in the original legal definition of human rights. Given the rise in the salience of environmental politics in recent years, this research examines which environmental conditions can be legitimately claimed as universal human rights. Two environmental human rights are subsequently identified; (i) the right to an environmental free from toxic pollution and (ii) the right to natural resources. The topic of environmental human rights has generated significant interest in the discipline of international law since the early 1990s. In focusing on how political power relates to the subject, this thesis fills a significant gap in the existing literature and contributes to the growing interdisciplinary discourse on environmental human rights. In particular, environmental degradation and human rights violations caused by the capitalist system are normalised and made invisible by the dynamics of power. Therefore, a human rights perspective based on ecological values reveals how harmful acts have been both constructed and legitimised by the power relations of capitalism.</p
Thesis
Full-text available
This thesis is an account of Utopoly, a new utopian research method that incorporates a game. It is the result of research provoked by a question concerning the validity of using games in the field of utopian studies. My research set out to develop methods that would complement utopian literary fiction by providing more concrete rather than abstract utopian conceptualisations. Speculative forms of utopian discourse are brought into explicitly social, political and economic configurations of utopian thought. Through the Utopoly method participants can experience utopia-as-practice by co-constructing and encountering their own vision of a utopian future. Utopoly evolved through collaborative practice-based research over several years. It was collectively imagined and improvised through a series of public workshops in which Utopoly was enacted, critiqued and subsequently modified. The method incorporates an adapted Future Workshop where participants critique and analyse established political, socioeconomic, environmental situations and then engage their imagination to produce possibilities for a better society. The architecture of the board game Monopoly is then cooperatively 'hacked' to incorporate these visions as alternative features, including values, currencies and rules. Participants then play the new game to negotiate, interact with and evaluate the utopian possibilities they have created. An important realisation for the method during the research was that the creative and utopian practices that emerged during its development should be incorporated into the method itself. The method then includes various utopian processes such as: critique, improvisation, imagination, playfulness and hopeful narratives of a better future. By enacting the method, a creative event is produced where new knowledge emerges through praxis. Utopoly contributes to the imaginary reconstitution of society. This thesis concludes with a detailed set of guidelines-like those to enable a game to be played-to allow the reproduction of the method. The method developed has already been used independently by other research groups in diverse contexts. Utopoly therefore creates utopian moments and temporary utopians and is presented as a new utopian research method in the field of utopian studies and beyond.
Thesis
Full-text available
Commercial interest and technological advancements (such as modern biotechnology) in plant research have led to the affirmation of sovereign and proprietary rights over plant genetic resources (PGRs). The result is an increasingly complex national regulatory system for rights in PGRs, shaped by a dense web of international law instruments regulating trade, intellectual property, food and agriculture, environmental, and human rights law. The narrative of the international trade and intellectual property instruments, buttressed by the liberal rhetoric of property, is one of long-term, sustainable, economic and social development, although the strength of this argument is increasingly challenged. This thesis adds to the body of critical literature by exploring the socio-economic impact of the current regulatory regime on a vulnerable farming community growing genetically modified cotton in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa. The thesis questions whether greater limitations on proprietary rights in modern biotechnology would improve matters. The outcome of the study (completed in 2009) of these vulnerable cotton farmers implicates the IP-protected technology in the destruction of many livelihoods and in the stifling of technology transfer to aid local innovation. The thesis acknowledges the negative role played by other external factors, such as low rain fall, but suggests that some seemingly external factors, such as poor agricultural policy, and falling world prices for cotton, are consequences of the prevailing regime. The thesis proposes that this regime overly prioritises private rights at too high a social cost. In order to rein in these rights the thesis argues, through the lens of the South African Constitution, for law and policy reform. On a theoretical level, the property concept, including the notion of excludability, the idea of common and public property, sovereign rights, and the public trust doctrine are explored as mechanisms within the property paradigm to aid the case for limiting proprietary rights.
Chapter
Full-text available
Modern science increasingly works with large amount of data, which are heterogeneous, are distributed, and require special infrastructure for data collection, storage, processing, and visualization. Science digitalization, likewise industry digitalization, is facilitated by the explosive development of digital technologies and cloud-based infrastructure technologies and services. This paper attempts to understand impact and new requirements to the future Scientific Data Infrastructure imposed by growing science digitalization. The paper presents two lines of analysis: one is a retrospective analysis related to the European Research Infrastructure (RI) development stages and timeline from centralized to distributed and current Federated Interoperable; another line provided analysis of digital technology trends and identified what technologies will impact the future Scientific Data Infrastructure (SDI). Based on this analysis, the paper proposes a vision for the future RI Platform as a Service (PRIaaS) that incorporates recent digital technologies and enables platform and ecosystem model for future science. Notably the proposed PRIaaS adopts TMForum Digital Platform Reference Architecture (DPRA) that will simplify building and federating domain-specific RIs while focusing on the domain-specific data value chain with data protection and policy-based management by design.
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the psychological causes of variation in climate change belief and pro-environmental behaviour remains an urgent challenge for the social sciences. The “cooperative phenotype” is a stable psychological preference for cooperating in social dilemmas that involve a tension between individual and collective interest. Since climate change poses a social dilemma on a global scale, this issue may evoke similar psychological processes as smaller social dilemmas. Here, we investigate the relationships between the cooperative phenotype and climate change belief and behaviour with a representative sample of New Zealanders (N = 897). By linking behaviour in a suite of economic games to self-reported climate attitudes, we show robust positive associations between the cooperative phenotype and both climate change belief and pro-environmental behaviour. Furthermore, our structural equation models support a motivated reasoning account in which the relationship between the cooperative phenotype and pro-environmental behaviour is mediated by climate change belief. These findings suggest that common psychological mechanisms underlie cooperation in both micro-scale social dilemmas and larger-scale social dilemmas like climate change.
Article
The paper begins with popular narratives on climate change and food insecurity in the Sahel, painting a brief history of how pastoralists and their lifestyles have been understood by external scholars dealing with the theme of natural resource commons. This leads into a deeper analysis of multiple understandings of the productive political potential of the common/s as articulated by economists, historians and academics, and an exploration of the implications of these theories for the Sahel. This includes various government policies managing the commons, ranging from open-access to ranch-based systems, and the privatisation or exploitation of the commons by capitalist actors. The paper further explores three design principles, namely, mobility, inclusion and conflict mediation, for better governance in the region, and ends with a note of caution against the green-washed pursuit of growth rates, tempered by a note of hope in the figure of the vigilant and empowered pastoralist.
Book
Full-text available
Este libro es producto del Seminario de Gobernanza Comunitaria para los Bienes Comunes, realizado del 10 al 13 de agosto de 2021 por la Comisión Estatal de Derechos Humanos de Jalisco y la Universidad Nacional Micaela Bastida de Apurímac, en Perú. El objetivo fue informar al público interesado sobre diversos estudios de caso y estrategias para la defensa de los bienes comunes en América Latina, especialmente, en la región andina (Colombia, Perú y Bolivia) y México. El libro expone el problema que existe en torno a la forma en la cual se pueden administrar los bienes públicos en comunidades campesinas, a ello se le ha nombrado gobernanza comunitaria; por su parte, los bienes comunes son aquellos elementos propios de la comunidad o donde todas y todos los habitantes de una comunidad reciben sus beneficios. El documento presenta diversos trabajos que dan cuenta del despojo territorial al cual son sujetos grandes pueblos originarios de América Latina. En ella, existen tendencias importantes que han sido comentadas por cuerpos de investigadores/as sociales especializados/as en América Latina. Este saqueo lo efectúan empresas transnacionales a las cuales se les abren las puertas de la explotación de los bienes de la Tierra con la concupiscencia del Estado, que flexibiliza leyes de acceso a elementos naturales y del sistema agrario para que pueda darse esta depredación ecosistémica de la madre Tierra.
Thesis
The world of fisheries is complex, dynamic and contested. At the core of fishery management lie technical challenges but also fundamental socioeconomic issues such as valuation and ownership. So far, as for other natural resources, fisheries resources have been largely over exploited and alarms from the scientific community on rapidly declining stocks and species disappearance have been repeatedly published. In what follows, I first strive to explain the repeated failures to manage fisheries in a sustainable way. In this perspective, I overview existing management instruments and the weaknesses of fisheries governance. Next, I raise the main challenges faced by the aquaculture industry to take over on capture fisheries, as a sustainable source of food security. This leads us to an introduction to the two first chapters of this dissertation, which focuses on the economic and ecological impacts of the expansion of aquaculture, and its implications for the capture fishery sector. Finally, I expose the complexity of managing harvested ecosystems under uncertainty, in practice. Thus, I present the third chapter of this dissertation which puts forward a theoretical management framework grounded in viability theory to deals with risk, ecosystem dynamics and conflicting sustainability objectives. In particular, I examine the different analytical possibilities provided by this framework to handle uncertain dynamics.
Chapter
Full-text available
“Fiyat Etiketlerinde Bedavacılık “Free Rider” Sorunu” başlıklı yedinci bölümde öncelikle fiyat etiketlerindeki bedavacılık sorununun daha iyi anlaşılması açısından haksız fiyatlandırma kavramı açıklanarak bedavacılık sorunu ele alınmış ve daha sonra kur oynaklığı ve geçişkenlik kavramları hem teorik olarak ortaya koyulmuş hem de Türkiye odaklı yapılan ampirik çalışmaların bulguları üzerinde durulmuştur.
Technical Report
Full-text available
This carrying capacity cites Cifuentes 1992 (Cifuentes, M.A. 1992. Determination Carrying Capacity of Tourism in Protected Area. CTIE Papers. Turrialba, Costa Rica. Pp.1-19)
Article
This article discusses the National Protected Areas (NPA), focusing on the alterations of the life systems of people who live therein. Throughout qualitative ethnographic research, the interests, actions, and resistance of relevant actors in NPA are analyzed. The article explores the strategies and interests surrounding the Cofre de Perote National Park (CPNP), a protected area with populations who permanently live there, enjoy usufruct rights, and have a perpetual dependence on various forest resources. The park offers a set of ecosystemic services to a vast region: it generates humidity and rain while supplying water for human consumption and productive activities. It is concluded that, since the establishment of the CPNP, the State has intervened in various ways. Participation, conflict, and tensions between inhabitants, bureaucrats, and technical officials have been ongoing. This situation leads to revisiting critically the ways of intervention in these spaces, which are growing at the global level. Co-management is a path of shared responsibility for threatened ecosystems, with a balance of power and interaction among stakeholders, and transparency in information that would substantially improve management and make a real contribution to fighting climate change.
Book
Full-text available
This document analyses the European Union’s funding policies and programmes in order to provide River Contracts (RCs) with an overview, as much detailed as possible, on the state-of-the-art and future prospects to support processes and programmes of actions. A scenario which contributes to what has already been achieved by the River Contracts in the EU’s previous programming cycles, together with the in-depth analysis conducted by the Italian Observatory on River Contracts (Osservatorio Nazionale dei Contratti di Fiume) on this topic (through workshops, exchange of experiences and the Working Groups of the Observatory Steering Committee). The River Contracts have been recognized in the Italian legal system with the inclusion of Article 68-bis in the Legislative Decree No. 152/2006, the Environmental Consolidated Act (ECA) (“Testo Unico Ambiente”). Last year, on November 18th, the VIII Committee on Environment, Land and Public Works of the Italian Chamber of Deputies, unanimously approved the Resolution No. 8-00092 on the ‘strengthening of the River Contracts’ which commits the Italian Government to «take actions within its own competence to insert the River Contracts in the Italy’s Partnership Agreement and operational programmes for the EU programming cycle 2021-2027, whilst ensuring consistency in the implementation of the Basin Management Plans and the Sub-basin management Plans as well as an adequate financial support to the RCs processes and programmes of actions». In this perspective the River Contracts, making use of a multi-scalar governance system, integrated programming and direct community engagement, constitute a model for introducing participatory and integrated management mechanisms aimed at improving the quantity, and the quality, of EU spending foreseen in 2021-2027 for the pursuit of the objectives of environmental legislation, with specific regard to: the EU Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC), the Floods Directive (2007/60/EC), the Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC), the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (2008/56/EC) and their implementing measures. In the next, Green Deal-inspired EU programming period 2021- 2027, the River Contracts could significantly contribute to shaping priorities and partnerships in a participatory and shared manner with local communities, with a view to fostering and strengthening the ecological transition, which plays a central role in the European and national policies. The financial resources deployed by the new total long-term EU budget are huge: EUR 2,018 bilion for the EU-27, consisting of the Multiannual Financial Framework amounting to EUR 1,210.9 billion, supplemented by EUR 806.9 billion through Next Generation EU (NGEU). The Next Generation EU will allow the Union to provide unprecedented funding in the coming years to support the recovery from the Covid-19 pandemic and to implement the long-term political priorities of the EU. Thirty per cent of the long-term budget 2021-2027 together with the Next Generation EU will be paid to support the fight against climate change (funds being set aside for climate change mitigation). In the EU’s next programming cycle, the Cohesion Policy for 2021-2027 is also well aligned with the objectives of the European Green Deal. Overall, it is made up of approximately EUR 373 billion, plus EUR 50.6 billion under the Next Generation EU and EUR 19.2 billion under the Just Transition Fund — JTF. Although not specifically mentioned by the European Regional Development Fund and Cohesion Fund (EUR 274 billion + NGEU), the River Contracts fall within the scope of ‘territorial development’ under Chapter II of Title III of the general regulation (CRP) 2021-2027, with specific regard to Articles 22 (integrated territorial development), Article 23 (territorial strategies) and Article 24 (integrated territorial investment - ITI). Therefore, in the framework of the new EU programming cycle, the ITI is confirmed as one of the three tools to implement territorial strategies, particularly indicated when the strategy is co-financed by several funds (e.g. ERDF and ESF+) or by several Axes of the same Operational Programme. Considering that the River Contracts are expressly mentioned in Article 36-ter paragraph 9 ‘Simplification and acceleration of the procedures for implementing interventions against hydrogeological instability’ of the Law Decree No. 77, of 31 May 2021, converted with amendments by Law no. 108 of 29 July 2021, laying down a ‘Governance of the National Recovery and Resilience Plan and first measures for strengthening administrative structures and accelerating and streamlining administrative procedures’ – so-called ‘Simplification Decree Bis’, the full alignment of national and regional operative programmes with this approach would be of great importance, e.g. by providing an explicit reference to the RCs in the dedicated section of the Partnership Agreement (which is currently being finalized). Anyway, in addition to the funding opportunities for specific actions arising from the operational programmes of the Cohesion policy, the River Contracts are valuable tools to promote integrated and participatory approaches in the management of natural resources, having the potential to support integrated projects connecting different public policies (e.g. the objectives related to sustainable development and agriculture, climate change mitigation, etc.) and facilitate their implementation, with a view to contributing to local development and territorial valorisation. The document primarily addresses public administrations and is intended to provide practical insight and advice, as well as easy-to-use tools to strengthen planning skills in the public sector and enhance the capacity of the administrative structures in Italy to incorporate River Contracts in a well-structured and coherent way, seizing the opportunities arising from the EU programming process. More broadly, it is aimed at those involved in the EU programming process, such as officials, administrators, managers of local authorities but also associations, operators and local entrepreneurs, who seek to promote a more holistic and integrated approach into the implementation of shared projects. In this perspective, the present work provides an overview, designed for the River Contracts themselves, over the available financial resources, seeking to outline the various funding possibilities that the RCs could draw on in the preparation of their Action Programs.
Chapter
This section discusses the option to address the challenge of patent thickets by abandoning patents on plant related innovations. It discusses the need for patents of plants in the era of new breeding technologies with reduced innovation lifecycle and lower innovation costs, but also the challenges to implement patent abandonment in an international context.
Thesis
p>Group fissions occur when two or more members leave a parent group to either form a new group or join an existing group. Despite their widespread occurrence in diverse settings, much of the social psychological research on membership change has concentrated on why individual members leave groups alone, rather than in conjunction with others. This thesis introduces the concepts of group fissions and group faultlines to the study of membership dynamics and transformations in small social dilemma groups. In a series of studies, two potentially important endogenous factors in the fission process are examined; free-rider conflict and the role of diversity faultlines (subgroup divisions). Evidence of how the free-rider perspective and the subgroup perspective may be linked with fission is proffered in the first part of this thesis. By integrating these perspectives it is possible to make hypotheses about the pathways leading from conflict to fission, and the role that faultlines may play in the process. According to the strong faultline hypothesis, the presence of subgroup divisions magnifies the impact of the free-rider conflict, so that groups with faultlines are more likely to split than those without faultlines. The weak faultline hypothesis presupposes that free-rider conflict alone is sufficient to initiate fission, and the faultlines facilitate the fission by determining the location of the split – the faultline is not a cause of the fission per se. The research provided in this thesis has a varied methodological base incorporating both role-playing studies and controlled laboratory experimentation. The second part of this thesis describes four studies that employ step-level public good dilemmas to examine the validity of the strong and weak faultline hypotheses. In three out of four studies, group fission was shown to be a two-stage process; the free-rider conflict initiated the fission and the faultlines determined the composition of the break-away group, thus supporting the weak faultline hypothesis. The aims of the third part of the thesis are three-fold. We continue to search to support for the faultline hypotheses, as above, extend the faultline hypothesis by adding a physical faultline manipulation (ease of resource division), and investigate the popularity of the fission option as a way of dealing with free-riders when other structural solutions are available (electing a leader, equal privatisation, harvest cap, sanctions).</p
Article
A City is coming, I know it well: Beat on pots and bang on pans! The eye can see, the nose can smell, for this is country piled with cans.Refrain: A country piled with cans, behold, a country piled with cans. A million people foul their nest and when the wind is from the west a noseless man will sleep the best in country piled with cans. Ringed with the noble dead it lies, their hollow coffins catch the light, dead fish, dead meat, decillions of flies, an archaeologist's delight. O city fathers, vain of luck and arrogant with dynamism: The traveler sees, for all your plans, a stinking country piled with cans.
The Wealth of Nations (Modern Library
  • A Smith
A. Smith, The Wealth of Nations (Modern Library, New York, 1937), p. 423.
Two Lectures on the Checks to Population (Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, England, 1833), reprinted (in part) in Population
  • W F Lloyd
W. F. Lloyd, Two Lectures on the Checks to Population (Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, England, 1833), reprinted (in part) in Population, Evolution, and Birth Control, G. Hardin, Ed. (Freeman, San Francisco, 1964), p. 37.
From Wealth to Welfare
  • H Girvetz
H. Girvetz, From Wealth to Welfare (Stanford Univ. Press, Stanford, Calif., 1950).
Planned Parenthood News
  • U Thant
  • Int
U. Thant, Int. Planned Parenthood News, No. 168 (February 1968), p. 3.
Evolution after Darwin (Univ. of Chicago Press
  • S Tax
  • Ed
S. Tax, Ed., Evolution after Darwin (Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1960), vol. 2, p. 469.