Article

Duelo: evaluación, diagnóstico y tratamiento

06/2008; 5(1).
Source: OAI

ABSTRACT

A lo largo de la vida, todos los seres humanos sufren en mayor o menor medida el duelo por una pérdida. Es una experiencia inevitable que conlleva sufrimiento pero también puede ser una oportunidad de crecimiento. Objetivo: realizar una revisión bibliográfi - ca tanto de los artículos publicados durante los últimos años sobre estudios relacionados con el duelo, como de los aspectos más relevantes contenidos en la literatura reciente. Material y método: las referencias bibliográfi cas en las que nos hemos basado han sido recogidas de las bases computerizadas Medline y PsycINFO, siendo la mayoría de los artículos encontrados de procedencia anglosajona; además se han consultado las principales revistas españolas relacionadas con el tema. Resultados: en función del contenido de los resultados, hemos tratado de organizar el trabajo en las siguientes áreas: evaluación del duelo; diagnóstico de duelo complicado; predictores de duelo patológico; prevención y tratamiento. Conclusiones: la mayoría de estudios encontrados sobre el duelo son descriptivos, en cambio hay pocos estudios con un diseño experimental adecuado. No obstante, consideramos que es necesario investigar más sobre los aspectos fundamentales de esta compleja realidad Throughout their life, all human beings suffer in greater or lesser extent the grief due to a loss. It is an inevitable experience which causes suffering, but it also can be an opportunity for growth. Objectives: with this study our goal is to conduct a bibliographical review both of the articles published over the last few years of studies related with bereavement, as well as of the most relevant details contained in recent literature. Materials and methods: the bibliographical references on which we have based our research have been gathered from Medline and PsycINFO computerized databases. The majority of the articles are of Anglo-Saxon origin and noteworthy Spanish journals related with the topic have also been consulted. Results: according to the content of the results, we have tried to organize the study in the following areas: evaluation of grief; diagnosis of complicated bereavement; predictors of pathological bereavement, prevention and treatment. Conclusions: the majority of the studies found on bereavement are descriptive; however, there are few studies with an adequate experimental design. Nevertheless, we believe that it is necessary to further investigate the fundamental aspects of this complex reality

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    ABSTRACT: Las teorías contemporáneas sobre el duelo enfatizan en el papel de la adaptación activa a la pérdida como un factor que afecta a un amplio rango de aspectos psicosociales. A pesar del considerable número de investigaciones empíricas que refuerzan este punto de vista, los investigadores comúnmente han limitado su atención a las respuestas a las pérdidas más recientes sufridas por las personas en duelo antes que estudiar su posible adaptación a las diversas pérdidas sufridas a lo largo de su historia vital. Para ello, los autores presentan el Inventario de Historia de Pérdidas (IHP), el cual evalúa sistemáticamente la forma en que las pérdidas han sido experimentadas por los sujetos y su percepción de haberse adaptado satisfactoria o insatisfactoriamente a cada una de ellas. El IHP puede ayudar en la evaluación psicológica y en la planificación del tratamiento, así como permitir la recolección de datos históricos relevantes para la investigación futura en temas de duelo y pérdida.
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: A thorough study of the complicated or pathological grief phenomenon and a recapitulation of those detection and assessment indicators enabling a speedy identification in the clinical practice. Method: A compilation of the most significant indicators was carried out after a large research on the scientific literature appeared latterly and the results derived from our professional experience. Results: A presentation of the major diagnosis criteria and tools used at present, which allow professionals of the field of health to a more precise valuation of possible complications happening during the grief process. Conclusions: We rely on important indicators and grief assessment tools since the recognition of such clinical diagnosis is gaining in importance, thus becoming a matter of significance within the scientific community. Consequently, a development in the investigation of the complicated grief aimed at optimizing the possibilities of the emotional support should be considered a must.
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