The chondroprotective effects of ferulic acid on hydrogen peroxide-stimulated chondrocytes: Inhibition of hydrogen peroxide-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines and metalloproteinase gene expression at the mRNA level
The objective of the study is to evaluate the effect of ferulic acid (FA), an antioxidant from the Chinese herb Dong-Gui [Chinese angelica, Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels], on the regulation of various genes in hydrogen peroxide-stimulated porcine chondrocytes at the mRNA level. The effect of FA and the effective concentration of FA on porcine chondrocytes was evaluated by the lactate dehydrogenase, WST-1, crystal violet assay, and a chemical luminescence assay. Gene expression in hydrogen peroxide-stimulated chondrocytes either pre- or post-treated with FA was evaluated by real-time PCR. Chondrocytes pre-treated with 40 microM FA decreased the hydrogen peroxide-induced interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and MMP-1 and partially restored SOX9 gene expression. Post-treatment with 40 microM FA also decreased the expression of MMP-1 and MMP-13. FA decreased the hydrogen peroxide-induced IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, MMP-1 and MMP-13 and increased SOX9 gene expression. These findings suggest that FA may prove to be important in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Further research is needed.