Prevalence of Traumatic Brain Injury in an Offender Population: A Meta-Analysis
Department of Biostatistics, Bioinformatics and Epidemiology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, USA. Journal of Correctional Health Care
04/2010; 16(2):147-59. DOI: 10.1177/1078345809356538
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can create challenges to managing offenders and to their successful community reentry upon release. In this study, the researchers reviewed relevant articles in Pubmed, PsycInfo, Medline, and EmBase (1983 to 2009) and communicated with other researchers to identify 20 epidemiologic studies that met preestablished inclusion criteria. Random-effects meta- and subgroup analyses were conducted to calculate the prevalence of TBI and the effects of gender, offender type, and definition and method of identifying TBI. The estimated prevalence of TBI in the overall offender population was 60.25 (95% confidence interval: 48.08 to 72.41). A truer estimate of TBI prevalence in offending populations could lead to more appropriate resource allocation, screening, and management of offenders.
Available from: Christopher P Salas-Wright
- "Two meta-analyses have examined its prevalence in offender populations. Shiroma et al. (2010) found a prevalence of about 60% (95% CI = 48.1-72.4) among young offenders, whereas (Farrer et al. (2012) revealed from nine studies of juvenile offenders that about 30% of them have a TBI. "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: There is some evidence that antisocial individuals, including young delinquents, are significantly more likely than people in the general population to incur a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Extant studies are hampered by methodological limitations, such as small sample sizes, lack of control for confounding effects, and use of single sites and may lack representativeness.
The hypothesis for this study is that young offenders with a history of TBI will not only be at higher risk of impulsivity and negative emotionality than their non-injured peers but also that those with TBI will have had more previous victimisation experiences.
Data from two sites (Philadelphia, PA and Phoenix, AZ) in a substantial longitudinal, prospective study - the Pathways to Desistance Study - were used to compare young people (average age 16 years) who reported TBI with those who did not. Independent variables were behavioural, criminogenic and psychosocial measures.
Male youths were about twice as likely as young females to report TBI. Such injury was associated with higher impulsivity and negative emotion ratings, even after allowing for potentially confounding factors, including sex. In addition, TBI was independently associated with self-reported experience of victimisation.
This extends the generalisability of earlier suggestions of a relationship between TBI and offending, and various factors thought likely to mediate the relationship. The implications are, thus, that it is likely to be of practical value to screen young people who get into the criminal justice system for a history of TBI, and thus to allow for more specific tailoring of interventions to reduce the range of associated problems, including likely reoffending. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Although self-sustaining combustion has often been termed auto ignition in studies on scramjet combustors, it should be interpreted as a flame-holding phenomenon rather than ignition. Criteria for flame holding in H2-fueled scramjet engines have been discussed by approximating the recirculation zone in the combustor with a perfectly stirred reactor. The influence of mass flow rates and reactor volumes on flame holding can be summarized by a critical reaction time in the recirculation zone. It was found that the reaction time was proportional to pressure, with P−13 for H2 reactions, and the recirculation zone should be occupied with reactants having equivalence ratios in the range 0.4<<3. The flow time was evaluated from the turbulent exchange rate over the backward-facing steps, and it was proportional to the size of the steps and struts. Comparison between the reaction and the residence times in the step case yielded a new criterion for flame holding. It indicated that the step with 4 mm height, the design of which was based on component studies, was insufficient to anchor the flame in the Mach 4 (M4) flight condition. This explained why a flame stabilized on the top wall of an engine failed to propagate to the cowl side of the engine in the M4 tests. Because burning pressure is low and convective velocity becomes high, flame holding is till crucial in the 4 mm step case under flight conditions at March 6 and 8. Consequently, flameholding struts are necessary, in addition to the step and the flame tends to elongate from the combustor to cause imperfect combustion. A competition between the slow heat release and the high convection velocity dominates the performance of scramjet engines in flight at the higher Mach numbers.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Traumatic brain injury can cause numerous behavioral abnormalities including aggression, violence, impulsivity, and apathy, factors that can be associated with criminal behavior and incarceration. To better characterize the association between traumatic brain injury and incarceration, we pooled reported frequencies of lifetime traumatic brain injury of any severity among incarcerated samples and compared the pooled frequency to estimates of the lifetime prevalence of traumatic brain injury in the general population. We found a significantly higher prevalence of traumatic brain injury in the incarcerated groups compared to the general population. As such, there appears to be an association between traumatic brain injury and incarceration.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.