Why Do Women Present Late for Abortion?
SSPSSR Cornwallis NE, University of Kent, UK.Best practice & research. Clinical obstetrics & gynaecology (Impact Factor: 1.92). 03/2010; 24(4):479-89. DOI: 10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2010.02.005
This article summarises the findings of studies relating to why women present for abortion at gestations of more than 12 weeks. Its primary focus is on British experience, but relevant studies from other countries are described. Key findings reveal that there are many different reasons. Much of the delay occurs prior to women requesting an abortion; other key issues include women's concerns about what is involved in having the abortion and aspects of relationships with their partners and/or parents. Further, after requesting an abortion, delays are partly 'service-related' - for example, waiting for appointments - and partly 'woman-related' for example, missing or cancelling appointments. The relative contributions to the delay of these various factors are discussed. The implications of the research for abortion education and service provision are considered. Abortion for reasons linked to foetal abnormality is not covered in this article.
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- "According to one study, the mortality from abortions rises exponentially by 38% for each additional week of gestation beyond 8 weeks. Some of the causes for second-trimester abortions have been highlighted earlier; they include difficulty in early recognition of pregnancy and logistic delays, the latter being partly woman-related and partly service-related. However, whether factors such as age, parity, education, employment, income and religion influence the timing for presentation for abortion is not well documented. "
ABSTRACT: To identify the socio-demographic differences between a sample of women who present for first-trimester and second-trimester abortion. To determine whether women presenting late (in the second trimester) for abortion differ socio-demographically from those presenting early (in the first trimester). Data over 4 years for women presenting for second-trimester abortion were collected from the records of Family Planning Clinic at a public tertiary level teaching hospital in India. Eighty-four cases were analysed. The case presenting for first-trimester abortion after each second-trimester abortion was included for comparison. Information was gathered concerning age, parity, educational background, employment status, educational background of the husband, family expenditure and religion. Data were statistically analysed and significance determined using logistic regression analysis. Second-trimester abortions represented 2% (84/4254) of all abortions in the study period. More women of higher age (P = 0.03) and parity (P = 0.02) and higher educational status (P = 0.04) presented for second-trimester abortion as compared to first-trimester abortion. The occupational status of the woman, husband's educational background, monthly family expenditure per person and religion did not significantly influence the time of presentation for abortion. Second-trimester abortions are associated with both increasing age and parity and higher education. This group of educated, older and multiparous women should be one of those targeted for counseling to reduce the risks associated with second trimester abortion.
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ABSTRACT: Contamination of drinking water due to fluoride is a severe health hazard. Present investigation aims to remove fluoride by polycinnamamide thorium (IV) phosphate. Polycinnamamide thorium (IV) phosphate was synthesized by co-precipitation method and was characterized by SEM and FTIR. Dependence of adsorption on adsorbent dose, pH of the solution, contact time, temperature had been studied to achieve the optimum condition. The removal of fluoride was 87.6% under optimum conditions. Adsorption kinetic study revealed that the adsorption process followed first order kinetics. Adsorption data were fitted to linearly transformed Langmuir isotherm with correlation coefficient (R2) > 0.99. Adsorption capacity calculated from Langmuir isotherm was found to be 4.749 mg/g. Thermodynamic parameters were also calculated to study the effect of temperature on removal process. In order to understand the adsorption type, equilibrium data were tested with Dubinin–Radushkevich isotherm.
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ABSTRACT: to describe women's experiences of an abortion in the second trimester. qualitative design using semi-structured interviews. six women were interviewed after a second trimester abortion. the women were interviewed in person after they were discharged from the hospital. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and then analysed using qualitative content analysis. four categories were identified: to consider and accept the decision; to lack understanding about the abortion procedure; to be in need of support and information; to have memories for life. Findings show that information and support during the whole abortion process is important. Women found it difficult to make the decision and going through abortion left memories for life. information and support is of great importance for women in this vulnerable situation. The need for further support points out the need to have follow-up contacts with women after an induced second trimester abortion.
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