Accumulation of potassium, rubidium and caesium (133Cs and 137Cs) in various fractions of soil and fungi in a Swedish forest

Article · March 2010with720 Reads
DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.02.024 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
Radiocaesium ((137)Cs) was widely deposited over large areas of forest in Sweden as a result of the Chernobyl accident in 1986 and many people in Sweden eat wild fungi and game obtained from these contaminated forests. In terms of radioisotope accumulation in the food chain, it is well known that fungal sporocarps efficiently accumulate radiocaesium ((137)Cs), as well as the alkali metals potassium (K), rubidium (Rb) and caesium (Cs). The fungi then enhance uptake of these elements into host plants. This study compared the accumulation of these three alkali metals in bulk soil, rhizosphere, soil-root interface, fungal mycelium and sporocarps of mycorrhizal fungi in a Swedish forest. The soil-root interface was found to be distinctly enriched in K and Rb compared with the bulk soil. Potassium concentrations increased in the order: bulk soil<rhizosphere<fungal mycelium<soil-root interface<fungal sporocarps; and Rb concentration in the order: bulk soil<rhizosphere<soil-root interface<fungal mycelium<fungal sporocarps. Caesium was more or less evenly distributed within the bulk soil, rhizosphere and soil-root interface fractions, but was actively accumulated by fungi. Fungi showed a greater preference for Rb and K than Cs, so the uptake of (137)Cs could be prevented by providing additional Rb or K at contaminated sites. The levels of K, Rb, and Cs found in sporocarps were at least one order of magnitude higher than those in fungal mycelium. These results provide new insights into the use of transfer factors or concentration ratios. The final step, the transfer of alkali metals from fungal mycelium to sporocarps, raised some specific questions about possible mechanisms.
    • Rb is particularly likely to be re-absorbed by the upper organic layers when the system is acidic (Folkeson et al., 1990), as it is the case of Sureanu bog. It has been demonstrated that acidity can exacerbate the uptake by causing K þ leaching losses, resulting in replacement by Rb þ where available (Nyholm and Tyler, 2000), especially when mediated by intense fungal activity (Vinichuk et al., 2010), which would be concentrated in the upper peat layers. Between 2950 and 200 yr BP some similarities may be observed between Rb/Sr ratios and the MM content, with most of the major rises in the MM values corresponding with a lower Rb/Sr ratio (Fig. 6).
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Romanian Carpathians are located at the confluence of three major atmospheric pressure fields: the North Atlantic, the Mediterranean and the Siberian. Despite its importance for understanding past human impact and climate change, high-resolution palaeoenvironmental reconstructions of Holocene hydroclimate variability, and in particular records of extreme precipitation events in the area, are rare. Here we present a 7500-year-long high-resolution record of past climatic change and human impact recorded in a peatbog from the Southern Carpathians, integrating palynological, geochemical and sedimentological proxies. Natural climate fluctuations appear to be dominant until 4500 years before present (yr BP), followed by increasing importance of human impact. Sedimentological and geochemical analyses document regular minerogenic deposition within the bog, linked to periods of high precipitation. Such minerogenic depositional events began 4000 yr BP, with increased depositional rates during the Medieval Warm Period (MWP), the Little Ice Age (LIA) and during periods of societal upheaval (e.g. the Roman conquest of Dacia). The timing of minerogenic events appears to indicate a teleconnection between major shifts in North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and hydroclimate variability in southeastern Europe, with increased minerogenic deposition correlating to low NAO index values. By linking the minerogenic deposition to precipitation variability, we state that this link persists throughout the mid-to-late Holocene.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2017
    • Mushrooms are relatively rich in mineral constituents, both edible and inedible or poisonous species which all are eaten by game animals (wild boars, stags, and others) and may end up in humans via the food chain (Brzostowski et al. 2011; Falandysz et al. 2007a Falandysz et al. , b, 2015). This is spectacularly evidenced for radiocesium ( 137 Cs), which is radiotoxic but also for typical toxic metals such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), or silver (Ag), which are well bioconcentrated from soil by many mushrooms (Borovička et al. 2010; Falandysz and Brzostowski, 2007; Malinowska et al. 2006; Solomko et al. 1986; Vinichuk et al. 2010). Edible wild-growing mushrooms with an estimated number of 2000 species worldwide are a portion of a larger group of similar species (fungi forming fruit bodies in the form of mushrooms or similar shapes which are also called sporocarps ) in the Kingdom of Fungi, and more studies are needed to characterize their mineral and other compound contents and compositions (Kalač 2016).
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study, the composition of bio-elements (K, Na, Mg, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn) and toxic elements (Ag, Cd) in seven edible mushrooms from the rural and woodland region of Morąg (north-eastern Poland) and the rural and industrial region of the Tarnobrzeska Upland (south-eastern Poland) were investigated using a validated method. The species examined were Boletus edulis, Cantharellus cibarius, Leccinum aurantiacum, Leccinum versipelle, Lycoperdon perlatum, Suillus luteus, and Xerocomus subtomentosus. Final determination was carried out by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS) after microwave-assisted decomposition of sample matrices with solutions of concentrated nitric acid in the pressurized polytetrafluoroethylene vessels. The contents of the alkali elements and alkali earth elements were determined in the species surveyed. The alkali elements, earth alkali elements, and transition metals (Ag, Cu, Zn, Fe, and Mn) were at typical concentrations as was determined for the same or similar species elsewhere in Poland and Europe. The results may suggest a lack of local and regional emissions of those metallic elements from industrialization of some sites in the Tarnobrzeska Plain. Cadmium was at elevated concentrations in L. versipelle from the Tarnobrzeska Plain but the reason—pollution or geogenic source—was unknown, while it was at typical concentrations in other species.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2016
    • Both, the Chernobyl and Fukushima catastrophes, caused emission of a huge amount of radioactivity into the environment (Steinhauser et al. 2014; Trappe et al. 2014 ), and as a result, concerns about bioaccumulation of nuclides and food safety were raised. Fungal fruiting bodies (mushrooms) are rich in minerals including caesium (stable 133 Cs), an element that occurs at various concentrations in the species of wild-growing mushrooms from the same area (Falandysz et al. 2007; Ismail et al. 1995; Vinichuk et al. 2010). A similar pattern was observed for the anthropogenic 134 − 137 mushrooms were published half a century ago and showed an elevated activity of 137 Cs accumulated in fruiting bodies of species foraged in wild (Grueter 1964).
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The activity concentrations of (137)Cs and (40)K in mushrooms of the genus Cantharellus (Cantharellus cibarius, Cantharellus tubaeformis, and Cantharellus minor) collected across Poland from 1997 to 2013 and in Yunnan province of China in 2013 were determined using gamma spectrometry with an HPGe detector, respectively. Activity concentrations of (137)Cs in C. cibarius from the places in Poland varied from 64 ± 3 to 1600 ± 47 Bq kg(-1) db in 1997-2004 and 4.2 ± 1.2 to 1400 ± 15 Bq kg(-1) db in 2006-2013. In the Chinese Cantharellus mushrooms, the activity level of (137)Cs was very low, i.e., at a range <1.2 to 1.2 ± 0.6 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass. The natural radionuclide (40)K was at similar activity level in C. cibarius collected across Poland and in China, and fluctuations in levels of (40)K over the years and locations in Poland were small. In C. cibarius from diverse sites in Poland, content of (137)Cs highly fluctuated in 1998-2013 but no clear downward trend was visible (Fig. 1). Published activity levels of (137)Cs in fruitbodies of Cantharellus such Cantharellus californicus, Cantharellus cascadensis, C. cibarius, Cantharellus cinnabarius, Cantharellus formosus, Cantharellus iuteocomus, Cantharellus lutescens, Cantharellus minor, Cantharellus pallens [current name C. cibarius], Cantharellus subalbidus, Cantharellus subpruinosus, and C. tubaeformis collected worldwide were compared. In the Polish cuisine, mushrooms of the genus Cantharellus are blanched before frying or pickling, and this kind of treatment, and additionally also pickling, both very efficiently remove alkali elements (and radioactivity from (134/137)Cs) from flesh of the species.
    Article · Jul 2016
    • Despite the weak binding of caesium on humus particles, a considerable amount of 137 Cs from the fallout stock persists in humus for a long time. This is due to the specific binding of some Cs content in the clay minerals that are always present as an admixture in the forest floor humus (Shand et al., 1994;Hird et al., 1996;Wauters et al., 1996), the uptake and retention of easily bioavailable 137 Cs þ in the microbial and fungi biomass that occurs abundantly in forest humus (Sanchez et al., 2000;Vinichuk et al., 2005Vinichuk et al., , 2010), and finally due to the lifting of 137 Cs from deeper soil horizons by bioturbation and soil-plant litter-soil recycling (Kruyts and Delvaux, 2002;Goor and Thiry, 2004;Zhiyanski et al., 2008;Thiry et al., 2009;Matisoff et al., 2011). Organic soil matter with a higher content of the mineral portion (eumor, moder) is a significantly better sorbent of 137 Cs than organic matter with a small clay content, e.g.
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Current (137)Cs activity concentrations were studied at three localities in individual soil horizons of Stagnosol, Arenic Podzol and Haplic Cambisol soil units in soil blocks with dimensions of 20 × 20 × 40 cm situated below pine canopies (n = 3) and spruce canopies (n = 3), and below small canopy gaps, at least 15 × 15 m in area (n = 3 + 3), which have probably endured since 1986. The main zone of (137)Cs accumulation in all the localities was found to be in the organic horizons (H and F). No significant transport and accumulation of (137)Cs into illuvial soil horizons (Bm, Bs or Bhs, Bv and Bv/IIC) was found. The estimated current total (137)Cs activity concentrations in the soil blocks 40 cm in depth were only slightly higher below the coniferous canopy than they were below nearby canopy gaps. The inventory of (137)Cs in the soils was found to be in accordance with the estimated (137)Cs inputs from the Chernobyl fallout and from global fallout. The low amounts of (137)Cs found accumulated in the aboveground biomass (mosses, grasses, needles) did not substantially bias the studied radiocaesium balance in the soils. The vertical migration rate of (137)Cs in soils (cm/year) had a tendency to be higher below canopies than below canopy gaps and below pine canopies than below spruce canopies. We expected the current (137)Cs activity concentrations in the individual soil horizons to be related to the studied soil parameters: pH (H2O), pH (CaCl2), content of organic matter and mineral portion and portion of humic and fulvic acid contents (Q4/6). However, this was not confirmed. Similarly, we observed a weak tendency toward higher (137)Cs activity in soils below the canopy than in soils below canopy gaps. The available gaps used in our study may have been too small, and they may have been affected by an accumulation of litter and humus containing (137)Cs from the surrounding plots situated below neighbouring canopies.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2016
    • Cs enters the human food system (Vinichuk et al. 2010). Other forest fruits, especially berries that ripen throughout the year, should also be considered as a main source of high caesium mass activity (Zibold et al. 2001; Calmon et al. 2009).
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mountain forest ecosystem of Gorski Kotar is distant from any significant sources of environmental pollution, though recent findings have revealed that this region is among the most intense 137Cs contaminated area in Croatia. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate 137Cs and 40K load in three large predator species in the mountain forest ecosystem. Radionuclides mass activities were determined by the gamma-spectrometric method in the muscle tissue of brown bear (47), wolf (7), lynx (1) and golden jackal (2). The highest 137Cs mass activity was found in lynx (153 Bqkg-1), followed by brown bear (132 Bqkg-1), wolf (22.2 Bqkg-1), and golden jackal (2.48 Bqkg-1). Analysis of 63 samples of dietary items suggests that they are not all potentially dominant sources of 137Cs for wildlife. The most important source of radionuclides for the higher parts of the food-chain from the study area were found to be the mushroom species wood hedgehog (Hydnum repandum), with a transfer factor TF of 5.166, and blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) as a plant species (TF = 2.096). Food items of animal origin indicated higher mass activity of radionuclides and therefore are possible moderate bioindicators of environmental pollution. The results also revealed that possible unknown wild animal food sources are a caesium source in the study region, and further study is required to illuminate this issue.
    Article · Jan 2016
    • The purpose of this study was to measure and report the levels of Cs radionuclides in wild edible fungi and their substrates on the North American west coast after the Fukushima accident. Fungi are of particular interest because they can bioaccumulate heavy metals (Campos et al. 2009), including radionuclides (Vinichuk et al. 2010), and are consumed by humans (Pilz and Molina 2002). This bioaccumulation is often referred to as a " transfer factor " (Ehlken and Kirchner 2002), which is the radioisotope level detected in the mushroom tissue divided by that of its substrate.
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Wemeasured activity levels of radioisotopes cesium-134 (134Cs) and cesium-137 (137Cs) in wild edible fungi, mineral soil, and surface litter of the west coast of North America from southern California to northern Vancouver Island after the Fukushima nuclear accident. All activity measurements were below United States governmental limits for human health.137Cs activity increased to the north in mineral soils and fungal samples, whereas134Cs activity increased to the south in surface litter samples. Chanterelles (Cantharellus spp.) did not significantly bioconcentrate either radioisotope, but chanterelle activity levels were correlated with those of mineral soil. Activity levels demonstrated a high degree of variability, even in samples from the same site. In most cases, the level of137Cs activity was substantially higher than that of134Cs, suggesting that137Cs was present in the environment prior to the Fukushima release. © 2014, National Research Council of Canada. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014
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