Minimizing the risk of perioperative stroke by clampless off-pump bypass surgery: A retrospective observational analysis

Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, University Medical Center Regensburg, Germany.
Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery (Impact Factor: 1.03). 03/2010; 5(1):14. DOI: 10.1186/1749-8090-5-14
Source: PubMed


Stroke is a devastating complication after coronary artery bypass grafting, occurring in 1.4% to 4.3% of patients. A major cause of stroke is cerebral embolization of aortic atheromatous debris or calcified plaques. This report analyzes the incidence of stroke in patients treated according to the clampless concept, i.e. avoiding side-clamping of the aorta, by means of off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery (OPCAB) in combination with the HEARTSTRING device.
During a period of 43 months (2005-2008), 412 consecutive patients were treated with the above-mentioned method by one single surgeon. A minimum of one proximal aortal anastomosis was performed in each patient. Altogether, 542 proximal anastomosis were applied, each created by means of the HEARTSTRING device.
The mean age of patients was 67+9.7 years, the predicted mortality 5.2% (logistic EuroSCORE) and the observed mortality 1.9%. Histories of preoperative neurological disorders or cerebrovascular diseases were documented in 15% of patients. The overall incidence of postoperative stroke was 0.48% in contrast to 1.3% according to the stroke risk score.
In accordance to previously published data, our results show that avoiding aortic side-clamping during OPCAB reduces postoperative stroke rates. The HEARTSTRING device is a safe option for creating proximal aortic anastomosis.

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    • "Coronary shunts were inserted routinely whenever possible. Proximal anastomosis was completed in a disease-free aortic segment using the Heartstring device as previously described in detail [6]. In CCB procedures a two-stage cannula was used for venous drainage from the right atrium, whereas a 22F aortic cannula was employed for the distal ascending aorta. "
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    ABSTRACT: Postoperative Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is a common complication associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is accepted to contribute to the occurrence of AKI and is of particular importance as it can be avoided by using the off-pump technique. However the renoprotective properties of off-pump (CABG) are controversial. This analysis evaluates the impact of cardiopulmonary bypass on renal function. A matched-pair analysis of 1428 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting was conducted. The patients were stratified according to their preoperative renal function and to risk factors for postoperative AKI. The development of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) from before surgery until hospital discharge was analyzed. Incidence of AKI were analyzed. Furthermore the impact of CPB duration on postoperative GFR was assessed. The occurrence of AKI increases the risk of thirty-day mortality (odds ratio of 4.3). The postoperative GFR decreases significantly after coronary artery bypass grafting but does not differ between onpump and offpump CABG (60.2 +/- 24.5 vs 60.7 +/- 24.8; p = 0.54). No difference regarding the incidence (26.6% vs 25%) and severity of AKI between cardiopulmonary bypass and the off-pump technique could be found. Duration of cardiopulmonary bypass does not correlate with the decline in postoperative glomerular filtration rate (Pearson Product Moment Correlation; p > 0.050). Neither the mere use nor duration of cardiopulmonary bypass proofed to be a risk factor for developing postoperative AKI in CABG patients with a comparable preoperative risk profile for postoperative renal dysfunction. Furthermore, the severity of postoperative AKI is not affected by the use of cardiopulmonary bypass.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
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    • "Additional evidence that use of HEARTSTING to avoid aortic side-clamping during OPCAB reduces stroke comes from several reported series. Hilker et al. [30] performed 542 proximal anastomoses off-pump using the HEARTSTRING device in 412 consecutive patients. Previous neurological disorders or cerebrovascular diseases were documented in 15% of patients. "
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    ABSTRACT: Surgical revascularization remains the standard of care for many patients. Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB) without cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) has evolved during the past 20 years, and as such can significantly reduce the occurrence of neurological complications. While avoiding the aortic cross-clamping required in conventional on-pump techniques, OPCAB results in a lower incidence of stroke. However, clamp-related risk of stroke remains if partial or side-biting clamps are applied for proximal anastomoses. Others and we have demonstrated that no-touch 'anaortic' approaches avoiding any clamping during off-pump procedures via complete in situ grafting result in significantly reduced stroke rates when compared with partial clamping. Therefore, OPCAB in situ grafting has been proposed as the 'standard of care' to reduce neurological complications. However, this technique may not be applicable to for every patient as the use of free grafts (arterial or venous) requiring proximal anastomosis is often still necessary to achieve complete revascularization. In these situations, proximal anastomosis can be performed without a partial clamp by using the HEARTSTRING device, and over the last few years, considerable evidence has arisen supporting the impact of HEARTSTRING-enabled anastomosis to significantly minimize atheroembolism and neurological complications when compared with partial- or side-bite clamping. This paper provides a systematic overview and technical information about the combination of OPCAB and clampless strategies using the HEARTSTRING for proximal anastomosis to reduce stroke to levels reported for percutaneous coronary intervention.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
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    • "Predisposing/precipitating factors regarding the patient's medical condition and baseline characteristics include previous stroke, occlusive carotid artery disease, diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation, peripheral occlusive arteriopathy and low educational niveau [1-3,5]. Procedure-related conditions enhancing the danger for the development of these complications include urgent surgery, long duration of surgery, long duration of extracorporeal circulation, long aortic cross-clamp time and type of surgery (on-pump) [1-3,5,6]. "
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the controlling efficacy of ondasetron and haloperidol in regard to the postcardiotomy delirium. We included in this prospective, randomized, double-blinded study 80 patients who developed delirium after heart surgery with the application of heart lung-machine. The patients were divided into two, equally-sized groups, which on detection of delirium received ondasetron 8 mg iv or haloperidol 5 mg iv respectively. The statistical analysis compared the baseline and demographic characteristics of the two groups (age, gender, comorbidities, years of education, type of surgery etc.). Both ondasetron and haloperidol had very good delirium controlling effects, without statistically significant differences. DISCUSSION-CONCLUSIONS: Ondasetron and haloperidol are efficient agents as far as the treatment of postcardiotomy delirium is concerned. As, in addition, ondasetron bares milder side-effects, we believe this could be the agent of choice in patients developing postcardiotomy delirium in the future.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
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