Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict Gambling Behavior

Division on Addictions, Cambridge Health Alliance, 101 Station Landing, 2nd Floor, Medford, MA 02155, USA.
Psychology of Addictive Behaviors (Impact Factor: 2.75). 03/2010; 24(1):89-97. DOI: 10.1037/a0018452
Source: PubMed


Gambling is an important public health concern. To better understand gambling behavior, we conducted a classroom-based survey that assessed the role of the theory of planned behavior (TPB; i.e., intentions, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and attitudes) in past-year gambling and gambling frequency among college students. Results from this research support the utility of the TPB to explain gambling behavior in this population. Specifically, in TPB models to predict gambling behavior, friend and family subjective norms and perceived behavioral control predicted past-year gambling, and friend and family subjective norms, attitudes, and perceived behavioral control predicted gambling frequency. Intention to gamble mediated these relationships. These findings suggest that college-based responsible gambling efforts should consider targeting misperceptions of approval regarding gambling behavior (i.e., subjective norms), personal approval of gambling behavior (i.e., attitudes), and perceived behavioral control to better manage gambling behavior in various situations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

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    • "To understand gambling-related influences on a student requires several dimensions of a student's life to be examined, including the individual (Barnes, Welte, Hoffmann, & Tidwell, 2010; Ellenbogen, Jacobs, Derevensky, Gupta, & Paskus, 2008; Huang, Jacobs, & Derevensky 2010, 2011; King, Abrams, & Wilkinson, 2010; Martens et al., 2009; Seifert & Wulfert, 2011), the interpersonal (King et al., 2010) and the student's community and society as a whole (Foster, Neighbors, Rodriguez, Lazorwitz, & Gonzalez, 2014; Lee, 2013; Moore et al., 2013). A largest number of these studies have concentrated on student gamblers' motivations and psychiatric profiles (Atkinson, Sharp, Schmitz, & Yaroslavsky, 2012; Cummins, Nadorff, & Kelly, 2009; Ginley, Whelan, Meyers, Relyea, & Pearlson, 2014a; Ginley, Whelan, Relyea, Meyers, & Pearlson, 2014b; Ginley et al., 2015; Lee, 2013; Martin et al., 2010; Quinlan, Goldstein, & Stewart, 2014; Seifert & Wulfert, 2011; Thrasher, Andrew, & Mahony, 2011; Wu & Tang, 2012). For example, Quinlan et al. (2014) found that coping gambling motivations positively predicted if an individual would gamble alone, while social gambling motivations negatively predicted gambling alone and positively predicted gambling with friends. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Research has yet to disentangle and estimate the relative contributions of both contextual and individual characteristics to explain time and money expenditures on gambling. Methods: Data are drawn from the University Student Gambling Habit Survey (ENHJEU), a campus-stratified survey targeting full-time undergraduates enrolled at three universities in Montreal, Canada (N = 2139). Up to three gambling occasions were investigated per respondent, resulting in 1757 gambling occasions distributed among 916 students. Multilevel analyses were performed to estimate the variances in time and money expenditures that are derived at the individual level (level 2) and at the contextual level (level 1). Results: Regarding time expenditures, the intraclass correlation revealed that 58% of the estimated variance is between students, whereas 42% is between occasions. All contextual variables including alcohol use, days of the week, social context, group size and experience of play were significantly related to students' time spent gambling, with the exception of drug use. With respect to money expenditures, 56% of the estimated variance is between individuals, whereas 44% is explained by the gambling occasions. Money expenditures per occasion vary based on whether students were gambling on a weekday or during the weekend, how many people they were gambling with, and the general experience of play. Conclusions: Prevention strategies should focus on educational messages that provide tips and tricks for balancing leisure gambling time and daily responsibilities (e.g. studies). It is also important to deploy effective prevention tools to break isolation and loss of control in concentrated settings.
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    • "). As for perceived behavioural control, it corresponds to a person's perception of his/her personal resources (abilities, knowledge, etc.) and the factors that make it easier or more difficult to perform a particular behaviour (Ajzen, 2012; Ajzen & Madden, 1986; Martin et al., 2010 "
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    ABSTRACT: There are two aspects that distinguish the approaches used to conceptualize problem gambling in adolescence. The first aspect concerns the type of variables involved in conceptualizing the phenomenon: most approaches integrate variables of an individual nature in their modelling and give little consideration to social type variables. The second aspect concerns the distinction between determinism and interactionism: many of the approaches seem to follow a determinist line of thinking and few consider people as social actors in interaction with their environment. Consequently, this article aims to conceptually prepare the ground for later studies that will adopt a more sociological and interactionist approach. To do so, the theoretical perspectives that are most commonly used in conceptualizing the phenomenon will be analysed by way of the two above aspects. A new analysis perspective will then be presented, namely the general theory of rationality (GTR) by Raymond Boudon. The GTR proposes a theoretical reversal to other approaches by focusing on social actors and variables of a social nature rather than on a person's psychology. In this sense, the theory adopts a viewpoint that has not been greatly employed in the analysis of adolescent problem gambling.
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    • "The psychological importance of this study is the finding that the TPB can be used to explain intent to report a crime. The TPB model has been used to explain intention to engage in behaviors in regards to sex, exercise, shopping, eating habits, and gambling (Conner, Norman, & Bell, 2002;Hansen, 2008;Martin et al., 2010;Mausbach, Semple, Strathdee, & Patterson, 2009). These results expand the arenas which TPB model can be used. "

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