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Abstract

To examine the prevalence of drug-related sexual assaults, identify the frequency of assaults that occur following voluntary versus involuntary drug or alcohol consumption, and identify contextual correlates of drug-related assaults. College-student females (n = 314). Volunteers reported experiences with forcible and drug-related sexual assaults in the spring semester of 2004. Follow-up queries regarding the most severe drug-related assaults determined whether the assaults followed voluntary or involuntary alcohol or drug consumption. 29.6% (n = 93) of the respondents reported a drug-related sexual assault or rape; 5.4% (n = 17) reported a forcible sexual assault or rape. Voluntary incapacitation preceded 84.6% of drug-related assaults and involuntary incapacitation preceded 15.4% of drug-related assaults. The majority of drug-related assaults (96.1%) involved alcohol consumption prior to assault. Drug-related sexual assaults on college campuses are more frequent than are forcible assaults and are most frequently preceded by voluntary alcohol consumption.

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... The extant literature often does not differentiate between sexual assaults that occur when the victim voluntarily versus involuntarily consumes substances, including alcohol (Jansen & Theron, 2006;Walsh et al., 2016). In one study which did differentiate, Lawyer et al. (2010) found that among American college women who had been sexually assaulted, approximately 85% reported voluntary consumption of alcohol and/or drugs preceding their assault, while 15% of participants reported involuntary consumption. These findings clarify that substance use and intoxication are not in and of themselves responsible for sexual assault; rather, opportunistic and coercive predators take advantage of these conditions. ...
... We also assessed self-reported alcohol and drug consumption patterns. We applied the definitional and methodological framework established by Lawyer et al. (2010). We also explored several situational conditions under which sexual assault occurs; that is, the victim-perpetrator relationship and where the sexual assault occurred (e.g., on or off university campus, at a bar, etc.). ...
... We defined sexual assault as any nonconsensual sexual contact (i.e., fondling, kissing, petting, or penetrative sex acts such as vaginal, anal, or oral intercourse, as well as penetration by objects; see Koss et al., 2007;Lawyer et al., 2010) perpetrated through the use of threat, force, or the use of alcohol and/or drugs which rendered the victim incapable of providing consent. Specifically, forcible sexual assault is defined as unwanted sexual contact or intercourse occurring through force or threat of force in the absence of alcohol or drug influences on the victim. 1 Substance-facilitated sexual assault refers to unwanted sexual contact/intercourse occurring when the victim is too intoxicated or high from alcohol and/or drugs given without consent. ...
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This study examined the frequency of sexual assault experiences in a sample of university women to understand the conditions under which sexual assault occurs, and to compare alcohol and drug consumption patterns on the likelihood of experiencing sexual victimization. While patterns of victimization have been examined in American contexts, research on contemporary Canadian contexts is scant at present. We found that roughly 58% of the 377 university women in our sample attending one of three large Western Canadian universities in British Columbia reported having been sexually assaulted. These women reported a total of 528 incidents of sexualassault, with 56% of these involving substance-related non-penetrative sex acts; 312 incidents were substance-related and 216 involved forcible sexual assault. The likelihoodof sexual assault victimization was highest among participants who identified as a sexual minority, consumed marijuana, and reported greater severity of recent alcohol consumption. The present researchaims to inform sexual assault prevention and education efforts to reduce occurrences of victimization.
... A strong relation between sexual assault and the intake of alcohol and drugs has been seen in previous studies [7,8,[12][13][14][15][16][17]. On the 11 th of March 2020, Danish society was partially shut down due to the Covid-19 pandemic, resulting in mandatory closure of restaurants, bars and clubs, and restrictions on size of social gatherings. ...
... The categorization of the assailant relation varies greatly from study to study and many different definitions are used in the literature. Some studies differentiate between previous and current partners [14,23] while other studies merge them into one category [7,15,24]. The category "romantic relation" is also used and includes everything from a steady partner to a first date [15,24]. ...
... Some studies differentiate between previous and current partners [14,23] while other studies merge them into one category [7,15,24]. The category "romantic relation" is also used and includes everything from a steady partner to a first date [15,24]. The category "acquaintance" is sometimes divided into "recent acquaintance" (met same day) and "casual acquaintance" (had met previously) [7,14,23]. ...
Article
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To explore if the shutdown of Danish nightlife during the Covid-19 pandemic caused a decrease in the number of clinical forensic examinations of victims of sexual assault in Eastern Denmark. Secondarily, to investigate, if there was a change in criminological characteristics, e.g. scene and time of crime, relation to the perpetrator and the proportion of possible drug-facilitated sexual assaults. 130 case files from clinical forensic examinations of individuals of alleged sexual assault in the period 1st of April to 30th of June in both 2019 and 2020 were included. 67 and 63 examinations were performed in 2019 and 2020, respectively. 125 cases were female and five were male. Approximately 70% were 15–25 years of age. Pre- and post-lockdown victim profiles were similar regarding assailant relation, location of crime and time of assault. Voluntary intake of alcohol prior to the assault was registered with 46.3% in 2019 and 62% in 2020. The ratio of possible drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) was approximately 50% each year. The lockdown did not seem to change the overall number of examinations or the demographic and criminological characteristics of the sexual assault victims. No decrease in cases of possible DFSA was found despite the lockdown of nightlife venues.
... In parallel to the intersectional nature of the victimization by opportunistic DFSA (Fig. 2), attention must be paid to the difficulties faced by victims after suffering this type of sexual assault. In this sense, it is striking that women who suffer episodes of victimization by opportunistic DFSA experience a range of situations that make it difficult for them to self-acknowledge as victims of sexual violence, which influences their decisions about inability to communicate the violent episode suffered, not to report, and not to seek adequate help (135,136). As such, the lack of complaints characterizes sexual crimes (59,137,138). ...
... In Spain, assailants were recent acquaintances in 59% (28) and 36% (23) of the cases, and strangers in 15% (28) and 21% (23). In other countries, assaults perpetrated by recent acquaintances reached 62% (65), 24% (60), and 17% (136); a friend was involved in 45% (136) and 32% (60); the partner in 9% (136) and 3% (60,65); and a stranger in 30% (60), 15% (65) and 8% (136) of the cases. According to the study of Spanish convictions, 72% of cases involved assailants whom victims knew already before the assault (59). ...
... In Spain, assailants were recent acquaintances in 59% (28) and 36% (23) of the cases, and strangers in 15% (28) and 21% (23). In other countries, assaults perpetrated by recent acquaintances reached 62% (65), 24% (60), and 17% (136); a friend was involved in 45% (136) and 32% (60); the partner in 9% (136) and 3% (60,65); and a stranger in 30% (60), 15% (65) and 8% (136) of the cases. According to the study of Spanish convictions, 72% of cases involved assailants whom victims knew already before the assault (59). ...
Article
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The victimization of women by opportunistic drug-facilitated sexual assault in leisure contexts was studied in this work by applying a novel approximation. A multifocal analytical strategy based on an intersectional gender-sensitive approach was used to analyse the evidence coming from both forensic case studies and contextual studies about sexual interrelation and drug use. The process of victimization comprises social changes affecting consumption patterns and sexual interaction, intersecting in the hegemonic recreational nightlife model. However, victims experience a range of situations that make it difficult for them to self-acknowledge themselves as such. Widespread myths about the victimization process add to the social questioning faced by victims, stemming from gender-based double standards which condition the expected female behaviors regarding the use of drugs and sexual interaction. The victims usually experience amnesia, lack of injuries and emotional harm, which make difficult the self-acknowledgement as a victim of sexual assault and the reporting of the episode suffered. Consequently, it is an urgent public health need to implement a new viewpoint about the victimization of women by opportunistic drug-facilitated sexual assault in leisure contexts, able to increase awareness of the severity of this form of sexual violence. Society must recognize the existence of this problem within itself to help victims to acknowledge themselves as such, lodge a complaint and seek adequate help. The lack of this social support feeds the perpetuation of the victimization process, which exacerbates the risk of locking victims into spirals of cyclical re-victimization and favors both the underreporting as well as inadequate coping strategies. In addition to focusing on the need to increase awareness of the severity of female victimization by opportunistic drug-facilitated sexual assault in leisure contexts, other recommendations include the use of the term “take advantage”, the development of specific criminal approaches, and the in-depth knowledge of the phenomenon via victimization surveys. These steps are necessary for developing well-targeted and evidence-based preventive measures consistent-with-reality.
... Approximately 25-30% of college women report having experienced sexual victimization in association with problem drinking. 40,41 In other words, heavy drinking is found to be a risk factor for alcohol-involved sexual assault [40][41][42] and reports of IPV victimization. 43 Studies also suggest that engagement in substance use during adolescence increases the likelihood of heavy alcohol/drug use in young adulthood. ...
... Approximately 25-30% of college women report having experienced sexual victimization in association with problem drinking. 40,41 In other words, heavy drinking is found to be a risk factor for alcohol-involved sexual assault [40][41][42] and reports of IPV victimization. 43 Studies also suggest that engagement in substance use during adolescence increases the likelihood of heavy alcohol/drug use in young adulthood. ...
... These findings also coincide with previous studies that indicated that alcohol use can serve as a risk factor for experiencing IPV and SV. [40][41][42][43] These findings also suggest that heavy drinking during adolescence may hinder young adult women's college experiences during their first semester. Furthermore, alcohol use pre-college increased the likelihood for having sexual contact and for having sex without a condom during participants' first semester of college. ...
Article
Objective: Although numerous reports document college students' risk-taking behaviors, few examine these behaviors in a developmental context. The purpose of this study was to examine female freshmen college students' pre-college experiences and parenting influences on first semester experiences with alcohol misuse, sexual risk-taking, and adverse outcomes, including violence. Methods: We surveyed 229 female freshman residential college students at the end of their first semester in college. Results: Participants who drank frequently in high school were more likely to binge drink in college and regret doing something while drinking. Mother-daughter closeness and parental discussions of sexual risks, personal safety and danger avoidance were associated with a reduced likelihood of regretting doing something while drinking, experiencing sexual violence, and having sex without a condom. Parental provision of alcohol was associated with alcohol misuse. Conclusion: These findings provide a life course perspective on the development of risk behaviors and adverse outcomes during emerging adulthood.
... Introduction Lawyer, Resnick, Bakanic, Burkett and Kilpatrick (2010) define rape as sexual intercourse by a person with another person who is compelled to submit by force against his/her will or by threat of bodily injury, violence, verbal insistence, deception and other various manipulative measures. Rape refers to a type of sexual assault that usually involves sexual intercourse or any other form of sexual penetration that is carried out against an individual without that person's consent (Blondeel, De Vasconcelos, Garcia-Moreno, Stephenson, Temmermn & Toskin, 2018). ...
... The penetration is not only limited to the vagina, but the vulva, anus or oral penetration using a penis or an object or other parts of the body. In support of this definition, Lawyer et al. (2010) agreed that rape is a sexual intercourse by a person with another person who is compelled to submit by force against his/her will or by threat of bodily injury, violence, verbal insistence, deception and other various manipulative measures. In support of the shared citations, a male participant from the FGD quickly stepped in to highlight the following in verbatim: This created a heated discussion amongst the participants. ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to explore the community members’ perceptions on the nature of rape in the selected Mankweng policing areas of Limpopo Province, South Africa, namely: Mentz, Ga-Makanye and Ga-Thoka. The qualitative research approach was followed, coupled with the Q-methodology research design and exploratory research objective. About 30 participants were purposively sampled to form part of the Three (03) Focus Groups Discussions (FGDs), consisting of 10 targeted groups, this was aided by the review of seminal literature studies and theoretical [Differential Risk Model] applications on this subject. The inductive Thematic Content Analysis (TCA) was used as a data analysis method. From the consulted studies and empirical study findings, 03 major factors emerged to explain nature of rape existing in the selected study locations, demarcated as follows; 1) Historical context of rape, which include men that are raised in families with strong patriarchal structures and more likely to become violent and force themselves on women, as they feel superior to them, 2) Social context of rape, entailing gender inequality in South African societies where women possess limited powers and authorities, while men impose notions of masculinity, controlling and perceiving that they own women’s sexuality; and 3) Economic context of rape, explaining how poverty and unemployment are cited as some of contributing factors exposing women to socio-economic vulnerability, such as engaging in transactional sex. From the cited studies, 03 study themes emanated from the conducted empirical fieldworks (FGDs), namely: 1) Unlawful high prevalence of rape activities, 2) Rape committed against the will of potential victims, and 3) Rape involving physical intercourse or other forms of sexual penetrations carried out against any potential victim’s will. This study recommends that youth in the selected study locations should be trained and educated to become peer educators to learn more about the nature rape, it is hoped that this can enhance understanding of this phenomenon in their respective communities, while promoting gender equality in an attempt to urgently re-address the 03 existing characteristics of this scourge. Equally, the utilisation of biological evidence against rape cases can be touted as one of modern interventions to offer proper and successful investigation of this crime. This can be enhanced by improving by information exchange gathered through closer collaborations, interactions, intelligence and enforcement practices, while providing better understanding of the nature and extent of this scourge.
... DFSA is underreported because victims may not be aware that they were assaulted due to memory loss caused by the drug. While it is not known how many DFSA occurrences happen each year, the United States Department of Justice states that these occurrences are increasing as well as a study on the prevalence of DFSA on college campuses [10]. ...
... This was accomplished by increasing the time that the fiber spent in the headspace of the derivatization vial. Times of10,20,30,40, 50, and 60 min were tested. After the fiber was saturated with derivatization agent, it was moved to the sample vial, where the sample was vaporized by heating to 60℃. ...
Article
Total Vaporization Solid‐Phase Microextraction (TV‐SPME) relies on the same technique as standard SPME but completely vaporizes a sample extract, and analytes are sorbed directly from the vapor phase. On‐fiber derivatization may also be performed using TV‐SPME, where the fiber is first exposed to the headspace of a vial containing the derivatization agent, then exposed to a new vial containing the sample. ɣ‐Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and ɣ‐butyrolactone (GBL) are drugs of concern in that they may be used in drug facilitated sexual assault by surreptitiously spiking them into a victim's beverage. These drugs cause sedation, memory loss, and are difficult to detect in biological samples. One challenge in their analysis is that they can interconvert in aqueous samples, which was demonstrated in samples allowed to stand at room temperature for long periods. A volume study of GBL in water was performed with volumes ranging from 1 to 10,000 µl to compare the efficacy of TV‐SPME, headspace SPME, and immersion SPME. Lastly, water, beer, wine, liquor, and mixed drinks were spiked with either GHB or GBL with realistic concentrations (mg/ml) and microliter quantities were analyzed using a TV‐SPME Gas Chromatography‐Mass Spectrometry method. The GBL volume study demonstrated an increased sensitivity in GBL detection when TV‐SPME was utilized. Additionally, GHB and GBL were identified in various beverages at realistic concentrations. Overall, TV‐SPME is beneficial because it requires no sample preparation and uses smaller sample volumes than immersion and headspace SPME.
... This implies that female adolescents are not ignorant of what is happening around them. Several reports have documented that environments such as schools, colleges, homes, and bars to mention a few are favorable environments for sexual abuse and rape and that rape can occur to anyone and anywhere (Krivoshey et al., 2013 andLawyer et al., 2010). The overall knowledge of respondents revealed that a good number of them (55.6%) had a good knowledge of rape and the various negative consequences of rape. ...
... Likewise in 10 of the 15 settings studied, over 5% of women reported that their first sexual experience was forced and likewise more than 14% reported forced first sex in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Peru province and Tanzania (Garcia-Moreno, 2005). This study corresponds with studies that suggest environments such as schools, colleges, homes, and bars to mention a few are favorable environments for sexual abuse and rape and that rape can occur to anyone and anywhere (Krivoshey et al., 2013 andLawyer et al., 2010). ...
Article
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Rape is a major public health issue particularly among secondary school students in Nigeria but not much have been done to investigate the knowledge and perception of rape among in school female adolescents. The cross-sectional study assessed the knowledge and perception of 295 in-school female adolescents in Ose Local Government, Ondo state, Nigeria using a validated interviewer administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square were used to analyze the data at 5% level of significance. Mean age of the respondents were 14.2+1.9 yr and 54.2% of the respondents knew that rape is a forceful sexual intercourse without consent of one's partner, 34.2% did not know what age a girl can be raped and 6.1% of the respondents reported to have been raped. Majority (73.9%) of the respondents perceived that wearing of indecent dresses can lead to rape, 94.6% perceived that rape can lead to HIV/STI and 92.9% perceived that effort to rape prevention is a waste of time. Health education strategies such as public enlightenment through mass media, rape awareness campaign and life building skills are needed to address knowledge about rape and improve perception on rape.
... Likewise, the DFSA phenomenon mainly affects the youth community. The vast majority of victims are young women assaulted in leisure nightlife contexts, and numerous studies relate this form of sexual violence to college campuses and high school [25][26][27][28]. As the main actors within these settings, students and professors become potential decision-makers for implementing forensic intelligence-led processes focused on preventing DFSA. ...
... At this point, beyond raising awareness about the problem, these resources also empowered young students as new social awareness agents. Similarly, since young people are more affected by DFSA [26][27][28], awareness and mobilizing them contributed to shaping active prevention agents. Moreover, because university campuses are significantly affected by DFSA, from a strategic viewpoint, it was a proper context for starting an intervention within the educational system to prevent this phenomenon. ...
Article
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This work explores the potentially broader contribution of forensic science to preventive public health through the proactive view promoted by forensic intelligence. For that purpose, a new working framework is applied as a strategic tool that channelizes forensic intelligence in a more understandable and didactic way for decision-makers, guiding preventive crime processes. Concretely, the implementation of this operational framework focuses on preventing drug-facilitated sexual assaults in the nightlife context. Through a two-stage research scheme, the working framework is used as a study tool for understanding this violent phenomenon and as a strategic thinking and action platform for overcoming it. Forensic intelligence-guided actions significantly enhanced institutional and direct support facing this specific form of sexual violence. Awareness messages targeting potential assailants, witnesses, and victims reached more than half a thousand students from the university and pre-university education through a preventive intervention within the educational system. Moreover, the inter-professional dialogue between forensic science and other health, security, and education disciplines shows the broader proactive role of forensic science beyond the traditional retroactive view limited to courtrooms and intelligence-led policing. This study demonstrates as forensic intelligence becomes applicable for civilians, who participate as decision-makers in intelligence-led preventive processes, anticipating the need for intervention by police and judicial authorities.
... When the perpetrator uses the victim's impairment as his primary strategy, her impairment is usually due to alcohol, and typically, he is also intoxicated Davis et al., 2012;Littleton et al., 2009;Testa et al., 2003). As compared to other sexual assaults, those that occur when victims are impaired or incapacitated by alcohol are more likely to involve perpetrators who are acquaintances rather than steady partners, are more likely to occur after time spent together at a party or bar, and are less likely to involve perpetrators with whom the victim previously had consensual sex (Lawyer et al., 2010;Littleton et al., 2009;Testa et al., 2003). ...
... However, based on perpetrators' self-reports, the victim's incapacitation is the second most commonly endorsed tactic, with verbal coercion the most frequently endorsed and physical force the least frequently endorsed Lyndon et al., 2007;Tyler et al., 1998;Zinzow and Thompson, 2015). Alcohol-or drug-facilitated rapes in which the perpetrator intentionally impairs the woman are less commonly reported by victims than incapacitated rapes in which the perpetrator takes advantage of an impaired woman (Krebs et al., 2009;Lawyer et al., 2010;McCauley et al., 2009McCauley et al., , 2010. ...
Article
Background Alcohol administration studies are crucial because causal questions about alcohol's role in human behavior can only be answered through experimental research that randomly assigns participants to drink conditions. The primary goal of this review is to catalogue the characteristics of experimental analogues used in alcohol administration research to assess men's sexual aggression proclivity and evaluate the extent to which they represent the scope of alcohol‐involved sexual aggression. Although this review focuses on sexual aggression analogues, the identified methodological issues are relevant to a wide range of alcohol administration studies. Methods Online databases were searched for published studies that randomly assigned participants to drink conditions and assessed participants' sexual aggression proclivity with an experimental analogue. Characteristics of the analogues were coded by both authors. Results Seventeen studies were identified that used 12 unique experimental analogues. All of the analogues depicted a completed or potential sexual assault in an apartment between a male perpetrator and female victim who did not know each other well. This information was presented in written (n = 7), audio (n = 1), video (n = 3), or virtual simulation (n = 1) format. Sexual aggression proclivity was measured through participants' self‐reports (n = 10) and behavioral responses (n = 2). Perpetrators primarily used physical force which the woman verbally and physically resisted. Only one analogue depicted behavioral signs of the woman's alcohol impairment; none included signs of the man's alcohol impairment. Conclusions These analogues were designed to address important theoretical questions; however, they do not represent the full range of alcohol‐involved sexual assaults. This hampers the development of evidence‐based prevention and treatment programs because we do not know if these findings generalize to other types of sexual assaults (e.g., with incapacitated victims, within serious relationships, with sexual and other gender minorities). Funding agencies need to support more alcohol administration research in order to provide a strong foundation for the development of effective interventions.
... To date, less research has focused on the relationship between drug use (i.e., marijuana, stimulants, depressants, etc.) and sex (Shorey, Moore, McNulty, & Stuart, 2016;Skalski, Gunn, Caswell, Maisto, & Metrik, 2017). It seems likely that if students tend to use alcohol to facilitate social and sexual interactions, they may use drugs in a similar way (Bellis et al., 2008;Hirsch et al., 2018;Lawyer, Resnick, Bakanic, Burkett, & Kilpatrick, 2010). For example, students may use drugs to get comfortable enough to have sex or to let their guards down in social settings, which leads to sex (Kiene, Barta, Tennen, & Armeli, 2009). ...
... While there is evidence that these sexist stereotypes are shifting, there is also evidence of their endurance (Armstrong, England, & Fogarty, 2012;Khan, Hirsch, Wamboldt, & Mellins, 2018;Krahé, 2016). Of note, research shows substance use also heightens risk through similar mechanisms (Bellis et al., 2008;Lawyer et al., 2010;Shorey et al., 2016;Skalski et al., 2017). ...
Article
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This article examined substance use and sexual behavior by conducting an analysis of college students’ reported behaviors using a daily diary approach. By isolating particular sexual events across a 2-month period, we examined situational predictors of engagement in sex and of negative sexual experiences (coerced sex and/or sex that lacks perceived control) for college men and women. Data come from the daily diary sub-study of the Sexual Health Initiative to Foster Transformation. These data include 60 days of daily responses from 420 undergraduates at one New York City institution. This was a relatively diverse sample comprised of 49% women, 28% identifying as non-heterosexual, 60% non-white, and a roughly equal number of college freshman, sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Analyses examined the effects of alcohol use, binge drinking, marijuana use, and other drug use on sexual experiences. Between-person and within-person substance uses were related to an increased likelihood of having at least one sexual encounter during the study period. After adjusting for each participants’ average substance use, both the number of alcoholic drinks consumed (AOR 1.13 (1.05–1.21)) and binge drinking scores (AOR 2.04 (1.10–3.79)) increased the likelihood of negative sex. Interaction analyses showed that compared to men, women were more likely to use alcohol and marijuana prior to sexual encounters. Given that sex and substance use are co-occurring, current prevention approaches should be paired with strategies that attempt to prevent negative sexual experiences, including sexual assault, more directly. These include consent education, bystander training, augmentation of sexual refusal skills, and structural change. Efforts promoting increased sex positivity might also help make all students, and women in particular, less likely to use substances in order to facilitate sex.
... Present findings highlight that alcohol was involved in most sexual assaults among SGM individuals, which is consistent with research with non-SGM students (Lawyer et al., 2010). Most SGM people who experienced a sexual assault when themselves and the perpetrator were using alcohol disclosed their sexual assault. ...
... Although not evaluated in the current study, SGM students sexually assaulted by family members or current partners may be reluctant to disclose to others (who are most commonly peers and family members) given that perpetrators may have relationships with potential disclosure recipients, highlighting the complexity of sexual assault disclosure processes among SGM students that warrant future research. Finally, findings regarding the context of sexual assault shows the alarming prevalence of alcohol use during sexual assault, consistent with prior research among heterosexual, cisgender students (Lawyer et al., 2010). alcohol during the assault has been shown to be a potential barrier to disclosure to formal resources among college students (Wolitzky-Taylor et al., 2011). ...
Article
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PurposeThe purpose of this descriptive study was to examine the context and disclosure of sexual assault among sexual and gender minority (SGM) individuals.Method Survey responses from SGM college students completing the 2020–2021 Healthy Minds Study who reported a sexual assault (N = 73) were included.ResultsDescriptive analyses revealed most sexual assaults occurred on campus (63.0%), involved alcohol (64.4%), and were perpetrated by a man (91.7%) who was a friend (27.4%), acquaintance (24.7%), or stranger (21.9%). Further, most participants (78.1%) had disclosed their sexual assault, and no differences in rates of disclosure were seen as a function of sexual orientation or gender identity. Participants commonly disclosed to a friend (68.5%), roommate (27.4%), or romantic partner (21.9%). Fewer participants disclosed if assaulted by a family member, casual or first date, or current romantic partner, compared to assaults perpetrated by strangers, acquaintances, co-workers, or a friend. Finally, most participants who used alcohol (70.0%) during the assault or were sexually assaulted through physical force (66.7%), disclosed.Conclusion Findings indicate most SGM survivors of sexual assault disclose to an informal support system, highlighting a need for additional research on the potential utility of peer education approaches for responding to sexual assault disclosure on campuses. Given the role of alcohol in sexual assault experiences reported in this sample, future research may benefit from utilizing intensive longitudinal designs to examine the temporal relationship between alcohol use and sexual assault in order to better inform intervention and prevention efforts that concurrently focus on alcohol use and sexual assault.
... Alcohol is linked to over 70,000 sexual assaults each year, with approximately 1 in 4 women experiencing an alcohol-related sexual assault during their years in college (Hingson, 2010b;Lawyer, Resnick, Bakanic, Burkett, & Kilpatrick, 2010;White & Hingson, 2013). Among college men who have perpetrated sexual aggressive acts, including sexual assault, 74% report consuming alcohol just prior to the acts (Koss, Dinero, Seibel, & Cox, 1988). ...
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Inaccessible living environments are problematic for some US Veterans, due to injuries sustained in service or attributed to aging, but can be addressed through home modification (HM) afforded by the Home Improvements and Structural Alterations (HISA) program. The retrospective national assessment of HISA, considering a 50% expected increase in Veterans enrollees over a 10-year time span (2013–23) and a 48% increase in dementia patients by 2033, demonstrates the need for attention to major shifts in HM health services demand. Utilizing data from the National Prosthetics Patient Database and the VA National Medical Outpatient Database, the analyses provide key information to support functional independence in the home by providing data about the HISA program. These include filling a data gap (e.g., Veteran demographic and clinical characteristics, modifications cost comparisons, and regional patterns of HISA utilization) for medically prescribed HM and assess underutilization of HM health services.
... Many assaults involving alcohol occur when an intoxicated person is targeted for assault at a social gathering (e.g., a party; Armstrong et al., 2006;Lorenz & Ullman, 2016). In such situations, potential victims 1 may be too incapacitated to provide affirmative consent; in other cases, potential victims may be given alcohol to encourage incapacitation (Lawyer et al., 2010). ...
Article
Between 50% and 70% of campus sexual assaults (SA) involve alcohol and campuses frequently promote bystander intervention strategies to prevent SA in student party contexts. This systematic review evaluates the measurement and outcomes of quantitative studies on how alcohol affects campus SA bystander outcomes. Using four search strategies and rigorous systematic review methods, we conducted a review of 36 studies. We included studies published after 2,000 conducted with college students in the United States, its territories, and Canada which contained information on alcohol use and SA bystander outcomes (behaviors and upstream proxies). Only a third of included studies measured bystander behavior directly, the majority measured upstream proxies (e.g., intentions, self-efficacy). Most studies considered the influence of victim intoxication on bystander outcomes. No studies assessed the pharmacological or physiological effects of alcohol on bystander outcomes. A single study examined hypothetical bystander responses when intoxicated, one-third examined bystander?s typical alcohol use in relation to bystander outcomes. Many findings are contradictory, including fundamental details such as how often students encounter SA involving alcohol or whether bystanders? alcohol use predicts outcomes. Findings suggest that students are less likely help intoxicated victims compared to sober victims, but there are clear moderating factors. Perpetrator intoxication was not studied in relation to bystander behavior and did not influence any upstream proxies. Evaluations of interventions on alcohol and bystander topics are promising yet more research is required. This review illuminates key gaps in the literature, including the need for validated measures and scenarios, event-level studies, and alcohol administration trials.
... Sexual assault is a generalized problem at high school and university [106][107][108]. The majority of rapes of women on college campuses occur when the victim is too intoxicated to resist [71], thus suggesting that DFSA is more frequent than forcible sexual assaults [108,109]. A study observed that one in seven women experienced incapacitated rape during the first year in college [108], whereas another reported that 11% of women had been sexually assaulted while incapacitated since entering college [107]. ...
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An innovative approach towards the holistic and multidisciplinary study of the victimization of women by drug-facilitated sexual assault has been developed. This phenomenon constitutes a significant problem given the narrowing of the gender gap in drug use over the last few decades and the widespread presence of psychoactive substances worldwide. As violence against women and drug misuse intersect in this phenomenon, this intersectional nature emphasizes the need for a novel approach that enables us to go beyond the studies carried out to date. Consequently, a multidimensional strategy incorporating a gender-sensitive approach has been implemented. The study was aligned with approaches recommended by international authorities concerning sustainable development, thus meeting current global challenges. Furthermore, the study was structured based on an ecological model divided into multiple influence levels and integrating the triangular theory of violence. As a result, a new ecological working framework was built as a multilevel platform useful for understanding and preventing the victimization of women by drug-facilitated sexual assault.
... Additionally, pre-existing substance use disorders in this population of DFSA complainants (9.8%) were approximately double the 12-month prevalence rate of 5.1% reported in the wider Australian population [34]. These results are consistent with previous findings which reported that DFSA complainants self-reported a greater overall frequency of using drugs or alcohol prior to sexual assault occurring [12,35,36]. Du Mont and colleagues also found that complainants of DFSA were more likely to have consumed over-the-counter medications and illicit drugs in the 72 h preceding the suspected DFSA than other complainants of sexual assault [12], which is consistent with research that suggests that individuals with poor mental health are more prone to consuming drugs and alcohol at excessive levels [17,[19][20][21][22][23]. ...
Article
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In order to better understand risk factors associated with drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA), this study examined complainant-specific and contextual factors, as well as the toxicological profile of DFSA in Victoria, Australia. Clinical files and toxicological analysis results collected by the Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine (VIFM) for all cases of alleged DFSA in Victoria that occurred between 1st January 2011 – 31st December 2013 were reviewed. Two hundred and four cases of alleged DFSA were identified; complainants were predominately female (93%), and their median age was 26 years (range = 18–54). Self-reported premorbid depression (21.1%) and drug and alcohol abuse (9.8%) were four and two times higher than 12-month prevalence rates in Australia, respectively. All assailants were male, half were known to the complainant and half of alleged assaults occurred in private residences. Most (93.6%) complainants reported voluntary consumption of psychoactive substances prior to the alleged DFSA. Alcohol was the most commonly self-reported substance consumed (n = 164; 64%) and concomitant use of alcohol, prescription and illicit drugs was also commonly self-reported (24%). There were 14 cases that produced a positive toxicology result where the complainant did not report voluntary consumption, which suggests these drugs may have been used covertly to facilitate sexual assault. The results of this study indicate that Females in their mid-20's who exhibit higher rates of mental health concerns represent a sub-group of the Australian population with increased vulnerability to DFSA, which typically occurs in a familiar setting in the context of voluntary alcohol and other substance use.
... Alcohol use is the most consistent contextual variable associated with SA among college students (Abbey, 2002;Adams-Curtis & Forbes, 2004;Lawyer, Resnick, Bakanic, Burkett, & Kilpatrick, 2010). Although much of the research on the connection between alcohol and SA views alcohol consumption as a factor that increases individual students' risk for victimization or perpetration, a small body of research frames alcohol as a cultural or institutional context that shapes student drinking behaviors (e.g., Mohler-Kuo, Dowdall, Koss, & Weschler, 2004;Testa & Cleveland, 2017). ...
Article
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Objective: Sexual assault and intimate partner violence are problems on college campuses, yet few studies have examined campus-level factors that may be associated with their prevalence. This study examines campus-level factors that influence rates of sexual assault and intimate partner violence among college students. Method: Data are from 474 campuses that participated in the National College Health Assessment survey between 2011 and 2015. We used linear regression models to assess the impact of campus-level variables on campus rates of sexual assault and intimate partner violence. Results: Significant campus-level predictors of sexual assault rates included rates of binge drinking, proportions of sexual minority students, lower student mean age, and higher proportions of students reporting experiences of discrimination. The strongest campus-level predictors of intimate partner violence rates included greater average number of sexual partners, lower rates of binge drinking, older student mean age, and lower proportions of full-time students. Conclusions: Campus-level factors associated with rates of sexual assault and intimate partner violence provide intervention targets for college administrators and student support staff. Colleges should address both individual and college-level factors in their efforts to prevent and reduce sexual assault and intimate partner violence. K E Y W O R D S : rape, sexual abuse, domestic violence, university, college
... Après une agression sexuelle, une femme peut se tourner vers l'alcool pour gérer les difficultés psychologiques liées au trauma, se mettant ainsi à nouveau à risque de subir de nouvelles agressions, constituant un cercle vicieux sans fin (George et al., 2014). L'alcool paraît donc être à la fois un facteur de risque d'agressions sexuelles, et une conséquence de ces agressions (Kaysen et al., 2006;Lawyer et al., 2010). Des résultats similaires ont été trouvés pour la consommation de marijuana, suggérant que ce n'est pas la nature de la substance qui augmente le risque, mais la situation (Martino et al., 2004;Lorenz et Ullman, 2016). ...
Thesis
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L'affirmation de soi est une capacité essentielle au bon développement et à l'épanouissement de chacun. Qu'elle en soit cause ou conséquence, les femmes victimes de violences sexuelles font preuve d'une très faible capacité à s'affirmer. Or, ceci est directement lié à un risque plus élevé de subir de nouvelles agressions sexuelles, plus fréquentes et plus graves. Ainsi, les violences sexuelles enferment leurs victimes dans un cercle vicieux de victimisations répétées, engendrant et aggravant de multiples troubles psychologiques et physiques pouvant aller jusqu'à la mort par suicide ou par meurtre. Bien que le sujet des violences sexuelles envers les femmes soit un problème mondial et fasse l'objet de recherches depuis 50 ans, très peu de programmes préventifs ou thérapeutiques spécifiques à la prise en charge des victimes ont été mis en place à grande échelle, et très peu de professionnels en France y sont actuellement formés. Ici, nous explorons les perspectives thérapeutiques et préventives de la participation de femmes victimes de violences sexuelles à un groupe d'affirmation de soi spécifique à leur situation, en complément à leur psychothérapie individuelle. A travers l'étude de 4 cas cliniques, nous observons comment le développement de la capacité à s'affirmer permet l'adoption d'un nouvel état d'esprit et permet de faire avancer la thérapie en facilitant le processus de rétablissement.
... The item, "I made my partner have sex without a condom," was adapted to "I refused to use the safe sex methods that [partner name] requested to use (e.g., a condom, dental dam, etc.)" to better reflect the variety of safe sex methods that may be appropriate for SGM-AFAB. Given evidence that drug/alcohol-incapacitated sexual assault is one of the most prevalent forms of sexual assault-describing up to 70% of sexual assaults (Krebs, Lindquist, Warner, Fisher, & Martin, 2009;Lawyer, Resnick, Bakanic, Burkett, & Kilpatrick, 2010), we added the item "My partner had sex with me when I was unable to consent because I was so drunk, high, or passed out" and a parallel perpetration item to broaden the range of sexual IPV tactics captured to include this form of sexual assault. ...
Article
Measures of intimate partner violence (IPV) have largely been developed and validated in heterosexual, cisgender samples, with little attention to whether these measures are culturally appropriate for sexual and gender minority (SGM) populations. However, rates of IPV are two to three times higher among SGM than heterosexual populations, highlighting the importance of culturally appropriate measures of IPV for SGM populations. In this article, after reviewing key problems with the use of existing IPV measures with SGM samples, we describe the development of a toolkit of new and adapted measures of IPV for use with SGM assigned female at birth (SGM-AFAB) populations, including an adapted version of the Conflict Tactics Scale–Revised, an adapted measure of coercive control, and the newly developed SGM-Specific IPV Tactics Measure. Using data from a sample of 352 SGM-AFAB individuals, we then test the psychometric properties of these three measures, including their factor structures, internal reliability, and convergent/divergent validity. Results provide initial evidence of the reliability and validity of each measure. Together, these three measures comprise a culturally appropriate and psychometrically validated measurement toolkit for studying a broad range of IPV tactics among SGM-AFAB that will help build a foundation for more in-depth research into IPV in SGM populations.
... Research has found that, among college women, 85% of drug-related assaults involved voluntary incapacitation prior to the assault (Lawyer et al., 2010). Women have been found to use protective strategies when engaging in substance use in an effort to avoid sexual assault (Hust & Rodgers, 2018;Palmer et al., 2010). ...
Article
Recreational marijuana continues to be legalized in U.S. states, with popular media discussing connections between cannabis and the facilitation of sexual activity. We conducted two surveys with adolescents and college students in Washington state to examine the role of viewing social media and pro-marijuana content on sex-related marijuana expectancies and intentions to use. In Study 1, among adolescents (N = 350), we found connections between social media use, exposure to pro-marijuana content, and sex-related marijuana expectancies, with boys' sex-related marijuana expectancies predicting intentions to use marijuana. In Study 2, we expanded this research to college students (N = 966), with the addition of frequency of marijuana use as an outcome. For men, sex-related marijuana expectancies were negatively associated with marijuana use. Sex-related marijuana expectancies were not associated with intentions to use or use of marijuana among adolescent girls and college women. Our findings highlight how social media use is associated with increased exposure to pro-marijuana content for adolescents and college students, and how such content is associated with sex-related marijuana expectancies. The mixed relationships in our data between sex-related marijuana expectancies and intentions and use highlight potential gender and developmental differences.
... Sexual violence persists as a major concern among institutions of higher education, and bystander-based prevention models continue to be relied-upon initiatives to address this issue (Orchowski et al., 2020). The relationship between alcohol consumption and risk for victimization and perpetration of sexual violence is well-documented (Abbey, 2002), with studies suggesting over 60% of sexual assaults involve alcohol use by either the perpetrator, victim, or both (Lawyer et al., 2010;Littleton et al., 2009). There is also potential for students' alcohol consumption to interact with their experiences as witnesses to these acts (Fleming & Wiersma-Mosley, 2015). ...
Poster
Research indicates that people who engage in heavy episodic drinking (HED) report less intention to intervene (Orchowski et al., 2016) and intervention behavior (Leone & Parrott, 2019) to prevent sexual violence. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) posits that attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control (PBC) predict behavioral intention (Ajzen, 1991). But do these relations depend on HED? Undergraduate students (N = 348) completed a modified Sexual Assault Bystander Behavior Questionnaire (Hoxmeier et al., 2017) and the Daily Drinking Questionnaire (Collins et al., 1985). A multiple regression analysis tested if HED moderates the relation between subjective norms, attitudes, or PBC and bystander intention to intervene. The regression model was significant, F(7, 321) = 36.74, p < .001, R2 = .44. Attitude, subjective norms and PBC positively predicted bystander intention to intervene (p ≤ .01). Interactions involving HED were not significant, indicating that HED does not moderate the relations between attitudes, subjective norms, or PBC and bystander intention. These findings support the utility of the TPB for predicting bystander intention to intervene in sexual assault situations; however, they do not support previous research examining how HED influences bystanders’ intention to engage in prosocial actions.
... 15 A systematic review 6 indicates incapacitation is often used as the sole method of perpetration, suggesting that perpetrators do not resort to other additional methods (i.e., physical force, verbal coercion, threats of physical harm, and other tactics). Research suggests that although only a minority of incapacitated sexual assault incidents are perpetrated with involuntary drug or alcohol consumption, 16 the social and physical risk environment of parties on college campuses often facilitate heavy drinking among survivors and perpetrators that results in incapacitated sexual assault. ...
Article
Background: Research has documented multilevel risk factors associated with experiencing incapacitated sexual assault among undergraduate women. Less is known about multilevel risk factors associated with nonincapacitated sexual assault. This study examines and compares the different settings, coercion methods, and relationships in which incapacitated and nonincapacitated sexual assaults occur among undergraduate women. Materials and methods: Our sample included 253 undergraduate women who reported experiencing sexual assault during college on a population-based survey of randomly selected students at two colleges in New York City in 2016 (N = 1671, response rate = 67%). We examined event-level data on their most significant sexual assault incident since entering college. Using multivariable statistical analysis, we identified situational contexts associated with incapacitated and nonincapacitated assault incidents adjusting for binge drinking, illicit drug use, and other confounding sociodemographic and psychosocial variables. Results: Almost half (47%) of women who experienced sexual assault reported being incapacitated due to alcohol or drugs during the most significant incident. Being at a party before the event and "acquaintance" perpetrators were associated with incapacitated sexual assault after adjusting for binge drinking and other confounders. Meeting a perpetrator through an Internet dating app or indicating the perpetrator was an intimate partner were each associated with nonincapacitated assault incidents. Perpetrator use of physical force and verbal coercion were also associated with nonincapacitated assault incident. Conclusions: The different situational contexts associated with incapacitated and nonincapacitated sexual assaults have important implications for the design of prevention strategies that will effectively target the diverse risk environments in which campus sexual assault occurs.
... 10 Although some perpetrators may covertly administer drugs as a rape tactic, few SV incidents result from having one's drink spiked with drugs such as Rohypnol ("roofies"). [11][12][13][14] Most college rapes are committed when the victim is incapacitated from voluntary alcohol intoxication. 15 College students express disproportionate fears of drink spiking, 16,17 which lead them to engage in behaviors designed to prevent drugging. ...
Article
Objective This study assessed whether college women who bring their own alcohol to parties (BYOB) are less vulnerable to sexual victimization (SV). Participants: Participants were 652 female freshmen (M age = 18.04 years) at a large, public university. Methods: Women were recruited by email to complete online surveys of their drinking-related behaviors and sexual experiences in September (T1) and November (T2) of their first college semester. Results: Approximately 47% of our sample reported BYOB. Women who reported BYOB more frequently at T1 were more likely to report SV at T2 when accounting for risk factors, including prior SV, heavy episodic drinking, and hookups. Specifically, BYOB predicted contact and rape, but not coercion. Conclusions: Findings suggested BYOB does not prevent college SV, but rather may increase risk. We encourage college health professionals and researchers to target BYOB to better understand this common behavior and help students recognize potential for associated harm.
... Esto ocurre en las agresiones sexuales facilitadas por las drogas (DFSA) (Advisory Council of the Misuse of Drugs, 2007). Se trata de una forma interseccional de violencia sexual (Prego-Meleiro, Montalvo, Quintela-Jorge y García-Ruiz, 2020b) particularmente común en contextos recreativos (Folgar, Rivera, Sierra y Vallejo-Medina, 2015;Lawyer, Resnick, Bakanic, Burkett y Kilpatrick, 2010;Resnick, Walsh, Schumacher, Kilpatrick y Acierno, 2012), ya que en estas situaciones convergen víctimas potenciales, y agresores motivados en la ausencia de tutores capaces (Mustaine y Tewksbury, 2002). En España, las fiestas y los festivales son considerados como los principales contextos en los que se ocurren agresiones sexuales contra las mujeres (Government Delegation against Gender Violence, 2018). ...
Article
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Sexual violence, including drug-facilitated sexual assaults, is a serious issue that is becoming increasingly common in leisure nightlife contexts. This study provides information about the attitudes and perceptions of Spanish youths towards sexual violence within that setting. The participants were recruited by a snowball sampling scheme. A bivariate analysis was performed to identify possible sociodemographic and nightlife recreational habit factors related to gender. The statistical significance of the differences between the studied variables was assessed using the chi-squared and Fisher’s exact tests. Women perceived a low level of personal security, as well as the existence of social perceptions penalizing female more than male drug use, and blaming women for the sexual violence they suffer. Women also recognised less explicit violent behaviours as violence significantly more than men did. Men were more willing to have sexual intercourse with someone unable to express consent because of drugs. In addition, they believed more strongly that sexual assaults take place because of the victim’s use of alcohol or other drugs. In a leisure nightlife context, women are prone to perceive a lack of social support for themselves and the feeling of impunity for the perpetrators. Furthermore, numerous misconceptions surround drugfacilitated sexual assaults, with the majority of respondents believing that assaults happen after the surreptitious administration of substances to the victim by an unknown assailant. Moreover, the involvement of alcohol was underestimated. Our findings are useful for designing prevention efforts, demystifying the drug-facilitated sexual assaults and enhancing social support for victims.
... While different substances are associated with DFSA, ethyl alcohol is most commonly used [25]. Around three quarters (72%) of sexual assaults occur when the victim-usually a woman-is intoxicated and so unable to control or stop what is happening [26,27]. ...
Article
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(1) Background: Sexual violence (SV) has become common in universities for reasons related to unwanted social/peer pressures regarding alcohol/drug use and sexual activities. Objectives: To identify perceptions of SV and alcohol use and estimate prevalence among nursing students in Catalonia, Spain. (2) Methods: Observational descriptive cross-sectional study of a convenience sample of nursing students attending public universities. (3) Results: We recruited 686 students (86.11% women), who reported as follows: 68.7% had consumed alcohol, 65.6% had been drunk at least once in the previous year, 62.65% had experienced blackouts and 25.55% had felt pressured to consume alcohol. Drunkenness and blackouts were related (p < 0.000). Of the 15.6% of respondents who had experienced SV, 47.7% experienced SV while under the influence of alcohol and were insufficiently alert to stop what was happening, while 3.06% reported rape. SV was more likely to be experienced by women (OR: 2.770; CI 95%: 1.229–6.242; p = 0.014), individuals reporting a drunk episode in the previous year (OR: 2.839; 95% CI: 1.551–5.197; p = 0.001) and individuals pressured to consume alcohol (OR: 2.091; 95% CI: 1.332–3.281; p = 0.001). (4) Conclusions: Nursing instructors need to raise student awareness of both the effects of alcohol use and SV, so as to equip these future health professionals with the knowledge and skills necessary to deal with SV among young people.
... Of the men who used forcible tactics, 88% also used incapacitation (Zinzow & Thompson, 2015). Further, retrospective research of college women's reports indicates that alcohol-facilitated sexual aggression is more common than forcible sexual aggression (Lawyer et al., 2010). Intoxicated women may be at a greater risk for sexual aggression victimization because men perceive them as more sexual (Abbey et al., 2000;George et al., 1995) and they are less able to resist sexual advances (Stoner et al., 2007). ...
Article
Background Although research has established an association between alcohol use and sexual assault, few studies have examined how characteristics of the perpetrator may influence sexual aggression depending upon whether alcohol is consumed by the perpetrator and/or the victim. As such, this laboratory-based investigation was designed to disentangle the effects of individual differences in masculine gender role stress and sexual aggression perpetration as a function of (1) men’s acute alcohol intoxication and (2) whether a woman was consuming alcohol or not. Method A community sample of 156 men presented to two laboratory sessions, during which they completed a self-report measure of masculine gender role stress (Session 1) and completed a modified version of the sexual imposition paradigm after consuming an alcoholic or non-alcohol beverage (Session 2). In this paradigm, participants and a male friend were told that an ostensible female participant had consumed or not consumed alcohol. They were also told that she did not wish to view sexual content. Participants were then provided the opportunity to make the female confederate view a sexually or non-sexually explicit film. Sexual aggression was operationalized by selection of the sexually explicit film. Results A hierarchical logistic regression showed that men higher in masculine gender role stress who were (1) intoxicated were more likely than sober men to select the sexually explicit film when the woman was intoxicated, and (2) intoxicated, men were less likely than sober men to select the sexually explicit film when the woman was sober. Conclusions Findings suggest that sexual aggression perpetration is most likely among higher masculine gender role stress men when there is concordance in drinking (i.e., either the man and woman were both drinking or were both not drinking).
... Alcohol flows quite freely on college campuses, but drugs (both recreational and prescription, both legal and illegal) are exchanged in dorm rooms and classrooms, either as a way to escape from all the stress or to boost academic performance, but without concern for the underlying risk of developing an addiction (UNODC, 2018). Studies in USA universities by Krebs et al. (2007), Muehlen et al. (2017, Lawyer et al. (2010), andChampion et al. (2021) indicate that approximately one in five university women report experiencing some form of sexual assault during their university careers. However, such studies have examined the situational and contextual factors surrounding victimization, contributing to this evidence, but without linking it to the drug culture and substance use in universities. ...
Article
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The culture of drug abuse and substance use among university students has become a global concern, considering the continued consumption of these illegal drugs and substances. Despite this understanding and worrying state of affairs, limited evidence on the health outcomes and how to curb the menace. It is on this basis that our paper applies an emic perspective in understanding the trends, dynamics and socio-health outcomes of drug abuse and substance use among university students. It is on this basis that our paper applies an emic perspective in understanding the trends, dynamics and socio-health outcomes of drug abuse and substance use among university students. The study employed a descriptive research design and was anchored on the social comparison theory. Data was collected through KoBo Collect tool and administered to 250 second year and third year university students. Ten (10) interviews were conducted with university students’ leaders. The data was analysed qualitatively and quantitatively. The study found out that drug and substance use culture at university is a norm to students. From the multiple responses, the respondents indicated that their parents ensured that they had the resources they needed to study and live comfortably at 84.6% and 78.9% respectively, but without putting into consideration effective strategies for monitoring their children’s activities while on campus. Most (76.3%) of the respondents indicated that drug abuse had effects to individuals, 64.0% to the society and (44.7%). The study recommends the need to adopt interventions aimed at promoting student’s well-being in the university setting, while protecting them from accessing illegal drugs and substances that are harmful to their health and wellbeing. It is also paramount to involve local structures, such as the Nyumba Kumi initiative to track the sources of illegal drugs and substances to students on campus and in the neighborhoods, to ensure their prevention and control.
... Keywords sexual assault, prevention, situational factors, bystander intention, drinking behavior Sexual violence persists as a major concern among institutions of higher education, and bystander-based prevention models continue to be relied-upon initiatives to address this issue (DeGue et al., 2014;Orchowski et al., 2020). Considering that many sexual assaults occur in environments where alcohol is present (e.g., parties and bars) and over 60% of sexual assaults involve alcohol use (Abbey, 2002;Lawyer et al., 2010), there is potential for students' alcohol consumption to interact with their experiences as witnesses to these acts (Fleming & Wiersma-Mosley, 2015). Recent evidence demonstrates a relationship between drinking behavior and diminished bystander intentions (Orchowski et al., 2016), and in some cases, observed intervention behavior (Leone & Parrott, 2019). ...
Article
Research indicates that people who engage in heavy episodic drinking (HED) report less intention to intervene and intervention behavior to prevent sexual violence. Researchers have also found gender differences across bystander intention, bystander confidence, and intervention behavior. However, research in this area could benefit from use of an evidence-based health behavior theory. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) posits that personal attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control (PBC) predict behavioral intention. Substantial evidence supports the utility of the TPB for predicting behavioral intention in a variety of health-related behaviors, yet few researchers have applied this theory when predicting bystander intention to prevent sexual violence. Undergraduate students ( N = 395) from a southern university (77% female; 70% White, Non-Hispanic) completed a modified Sexual Assault Bystander Behavior Questionnaire and the Daily Drinking Questionnaire. Our findings did not reveal significant differences in attitudes, subjective norms, PBC, nor intention based on HED; however, there were significant differences based on gender, with women indicating more positive attitudes and supportive subjective norms regarding bystander intervention. Multiple regression analysis indicated that theoretical antecedents of intention positively predicted bystander intention, however, the relations were not moderated by prior engagement in HED. These findings support the utility of the TPB for predicting bystander intention to intervene; however, they do not support previous research examining how HED influences bystanders’ intention to engage in prosocial actions.
... Given that substances must be involved for a sexual assault to meet criteria for IR, and the most common substance involved in IR is alcohol (Lawyer et al., 2010;Scott-Ham & Burton, 2005), it follows that alcohol use is commonly associated with risk for IR (Testa & Livingston, 2018). Prospective research among college students indicates that heavy drinking is a risk factor preceding IR (Kaysen et al., 2006), and heavy drinking tends to further escalate after IR (Kaysen et al., 2006;Norris et al., 2019). ...
Article
Background: Incapacitated rape (IR) is common in college and has been linked to heavier post-assault drinking and consequences, including blackouts. Following IR, college students may adjust their drinking in ways that are meant to increase perceived safety, such as enhancing situational control over one's drinks through prepartying, or drinking before going out to a main social event. It is also possible that prepartying may influence risk related to IR. However, it is unclear whether or how prepartying and IR may be associated. Methods: To address these gaps, we sought to examine prepartying as both a risk factor and consequence of IR, including the reasons for prepartying. Across two studies (Study 1 N = 1,074; Study 2 N = 1,753) of college women and men, we examined associations between IR and prepartying motives, alcohol consumption, and alcohol-related blackouts. Results: Within the cross-sectional Study 1, negative binomial regressions revealed that having a history of IR was associated with more alcohol consumption and blackouts when prepartying. Within a multivariate model, past-year IR was associated with preparty motives related to interpersonal enhancement, intimate pursuit, and barriers to consumption, but not situational control. Within the prospective Study 2, a path model revealed that preparty drinking was a prospective predictor of IR in the following year, but past-year IR did not predict subsequent prepartying. Conclusions: Findings revealed a robust link between recent history of IR and prepartying regardless of gender. Prepartying was found to be a prospective risk factor for subsequent IR. Although more research is needed, addressing prepartying in alcohol interventions may be indicated to improve prevention of negative outcomes, including sexual assault.
... Almost half of college women who experience SV report drinking prior to the unwanted sexual experience (Lawyer et al., 2010). These rates are even higher among rape survivors with estimates as high as 72% of college women reporting intoxication at the time of rape (Mohler-Kuo et al., 2004). ...
Article
Full-text available
The current study examined two cognitive appraisals—labeling (identifying an unwanted sexual experience as sexual violence) and self-blame—as potential mechanisms between survivor alcohol use before sexual violence and three help-seeking barriers (minimization, negative treatment, and social-emotional barriers) among non-service-seeking sexual violence survivors. Participants were 141 undergraduate women who completed self-report measures. Three parallel mediation models were tested. Survivors who were drinking were more likely to label their victimization as sexual violence and, in turn, perceived fewer minimization and greater social-emotional barriers. Further, survivors who were drinking blamed themselves more and, in turn, perceived greater negative treatment and social-emotional barriers.
... Approximately 5% of the women reported that the rape or sexual battery involved physical force or threat of physical force. These statistics are similar to that of Lawyer, Resnick, Bakanic, Burkett, and Kilpatrick (2010) who found that approximately 30% of a sample of 314 undergraduate women who indicated being sexually assaulted reported incapacitation during the assault; 85% of these women indicated that the intoxication was voluntary and 15% indicated involuntary drug-related sexual assault. Again, 5% of the women indicated that physical force was involved. ...
... The aim of this scientific inquiry was to summarize the literature published on alcohol and sexual assault among college students, assess the scientific rigor of all relevant studies, and identify remaining gaps in the literature. A variety of noteworthy themes were gleaned from the 23 articles reviewed, but none was more prevalent than the finding that women who consume alcohol were more likely than abstainers to experience sexual assault, a result reported in ten articles (Benson et al., 2007;Franklin, 2016;Messman-Moore et al., 2015;Corbin et al., 2001;Ford, 2017;Howard, Griffin & Boekeloo, 2008;Jozkowski & Wiersma, 2015;Lawyer et al., 2010;Monks et al., 2010). While drugs and alcohol are undoubtedly linked to sexual assault, university officials must ensure that any prevention efforts address the perpetration of sexual assault instead of focusing too heavily on decisions that can help individuals avoid victimization. ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to assess the extant literature on the relationship between alcohol and sexual assault among college students. A literature search was conducted using the following databases: PubMed, Education Resources Information Center (ERIC), PsycINFO, JSTOR, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL). Key search terms included sexual assault, alcohol, and college students. A total of 23 articles met inclusion criteria, the plurality (47.8%) of which were cross-sectional and featured convenience samples (43.5%). All studies were conducted at public higher education institutions in the United States. The most salient crosscutting themes included perceived low risk for sexual assault among female college students, higher likelihood of severe sexual assault among women who consumed more alcohol, and general information about polysubstance use and sexual assault risk. Methodological shortcomings included an overreliance on convenience sampling, lack of reporting of where samples were obtained, and single-site data collection. Given the large number of studies that found women who consume alcohol are more likely than their nondrinking counterparts to experience sexual assault, public health educators must continue to prioritize female college students who drink. However, interventions should target potential perpetrators rather than focusing solely on how victims can avoid risky situations. Future research should include diverse, random samples across multiple institutions topromote greater generalizability of findings.
Article
Sexual assault constitutes a severely traumatic experience that impacts the lives of far too many victims each year. The underlying behaviors of the offenders are often associated with psychological, physical, and social distress and the use of psychotropic substances was found in a good number of cases. A descriptive and retrospective review of sexual assault cases has been undertaken to identify trends in the toxicology findings in Drug Facilitated Sexual Assault (DFSA) in Santiago de Compostela over the past 12 years. During this period, a total of 69 cases were referred to the Forensic Toxicology Service as sexual assault cases. The sex and age distribution of the cases showed that females between the ages of 14-65 years constituted the group most frequently submitted to sexual assault, with a peak of 55.1% in the 18-30-year age group. Alcohol consumption was positive in 77.1% of positive cases determined, followed by drugs (34.4%) and illicit drugs (26.2%). Our results showed a high percentage of alcohol consumption in sexual assault cases.
Article
Excessive alcohol use among college students is associated with a host of deleterious physical, mental, and academic outcomes. Social Networking Sites (SNS) are thought to influence norms around alcohol consumption, leading to increased college student drinking. We utilized a sample of 330 college students to investigate the effects of Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, and Snapchat on college student drinking behavior. Only Snapchat use was associated with college student drinking even while controlling for confounders such as the amount of time spent on SNS. Interventions attempting to lower college student drinking should focus on Snapchat to have the most effective platform.
Article
Rape myth acceptance (RMA), perceived barriers, and self-efficacy were examined as predictors of likelihood to report different types of rape to law enforcement among 409 undergraduates. Participants had lower likelihood to report incapacitated compared to physically forced rape. Men had lower reporting likelihood than women for rape perpetrated by the same and opposite sex and were more likely to perceive several barriers. RMA and perceived barriers predicted a lower likelihood to report several types of rape. Among men, higher self-efficacy predicted increased reporting likelihood. Targeting RMA and decreasing perceived barriers is imperative to increase college students’ likelihood to report rape to local and campus law enforcement.
Article
In the present study, the authors tested a sequential mediation model whereby binegativity was associated with sexual coercion through drinking-to-cope motives and alcohol use. Data were examined from 224 self-identified bisexual women (M age = 22.79, SD = 3.44) who took part in an online survey. Participants reported binegativity, alcohol use, drinking-to-cope motivations, and sexual coercion experiences for the previous 30 days. A total of 48.0% of the sample (n = 108) experienced sexual coercion in the past 30 days. Sequential mediation indicated more experiences of binegativity were associated with greater drinking-to-cope motives, which in turn, related to greater alcohol frequency and greater likelihood of sexual coercion. Alcohol quantity was not a significant mediator. Results suggest the importance of studying the impact of binegativity on bisexual women, as well as developing prevention programs that consider how this form of discrimination may contribute to drinking-to-cope motives, more frequent alcohol use, and increased risk for sexual coercion.
Article
Researchers and policy makers are devoting considerable attention to the development and evaluation of sexual violence prevention programming for college campuses. Although several programs have been developed over the last decade, questions remain about whether programs can be effectively implemented across diverse campuses and whether individual-level factors like alcohol use moderate program effectiveness. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the impact of a brief, sexual violence prevention program—The Men’s Program—on two diverse campuses. A secondary aim was to evaluate the moderating effects of heavy alcohol use on program effectiveness. Participants were 114 male college students attending a presentation of The Men’s Program on one of two campuses. Outcomes, including rape myth acceptance, bystander willingness to help, and bystander behavior, were assessed pre- and post-intervention and 1 month after completing the program. Campus-specific effects did not account for a significant amount of variance in any of these outcomes. Statistically significant reductions in rape myth acceptance (d =.32) and increases in willingness to intervene as a bystander (d =.40) were observed from pre-intervention to 1-month follow-up, although no significant changes in overall bystander behavior were observed. Across time, however, heavy drinking students were more likely to report engaging in bystander behaviors than non-heavy drinking students. Results suggest that programs can be easily implemented across different campuses and may do well to specifically emphasize effective intervention strategies relevant to social situations encountered by heavy drinking students.
Article
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Conference: The Addictions Newsletter; Division 50 (Society of Addiction Psychology) of the American Psychological AssociationVolume: Fall/Winter (pp. 23-25)
Article
Background Sexual assault remains a highly prevalent crime worldwide and has the potential to cause a number of short and longer-term health sequelae. Complainants of recent sexual assault may undergo forensic and/or medical examinations for medical treatment or evidence collection, or both. However, the frequency and severity of acute health concerns requiring medical intervention in these patients at the time of examination is not well understood and has implications for their clinical care and safety. Aims & objectives To examine the frequency and severity of acute concomitant health concerns at the time of forensic examination following an allegation of recent sexual assault in post-pubertal (age >13 years) individuals, through a review of existing literature. Concomitant health concerns considered in this review include ano-genital and extra-genital injury, and acute substance intoxication. Methods Four online databases (PubMed, Ovid Medline, CINAHL, Embase) were systematically searched with key terms regarding the topics of sexual assault, forensic examination, injury and intoxication. Articles were assessed for relevance based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results Discussion Of 562 titles, 53 full-text publications met the inclusion criteria. Frequency of ano-genital and extra-genital injury was highly variable across studies, and severity was inconsistently assessed and rarely reported. Medical treatment or transfer to acute care settings was more commonly required for extra-genital injuries. Non-fatal strangulation (NFS) was found to represent an increasingly frequent feature of sexual assault cases. NFS complainants often exhibit signs and symptoms of potentially lethal complications requiring urgent review in acute care settings. Substance use around the time of sexual assault was commonly reported by patients and detected in toxicological screens, and could have significant implications on patient and staff safety at the time of examination. Conclusion The findings of this review highlight the clinical significance of acute concomitant health concerns following an allegation of recent sexual assault. Ano-genital and extra-genital injury, NFS and both voluntary and involuntary substance use may be more frequent and severe than previously understood. Further investigation into the assessment and management of these acute health needs is required to elucidate their clinical significance and inform evidence-based care for complainants of sexual assault.
Article
The authors examine the prevalence and characteristics of sexual violence victimization - rape and being made to penetrate [MTP] (men only) - involving substances (alcohol or other drugs). Although it has been well-documented that perpetrators commit sexual violence against individuals who are using alcohol or drugs, more research is needed to describe the problem at a national level. Data are from the 2010-2012 National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey, a nationally representative random-digit-dial telephone survey of English- and Spanish-speaking adults in the United States (n = 41,174). Findings reveal that among victims of physically forced rape, 26.2 % of female and 30.0 % of male victims reported substance use; 44.5 % of male MTP victims reported substance use. The majority of forced rape and MTP victims reported the perpetrator was using alcohol or drugs. Among victims of alcohol/drug-facilitated rape, 29.7 % of female and 32.4 % of male victims reported involuntary use of substances, mostly drugs; 84.0 % of female and 82.6 % of male victims reported voluntary use. Among male victims of alcohol/drug-facilitated MTP, 14.6 % reported involuntary and 85.4 % reported voluntary use of substances. Female and male victims reported that the majority of intimate partner, acquaintance, and stranger perpetrators were using substances during the victimization. These findings suggest the importance of prevention efforts at the individual and community levels to reduce substance-involved sexual violence perpetration and risk reduction programs to reduce the likelihood of voluntary substance-facilitated sexual violence victimization.
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The use of recreational substances in drug- facilitated sexual assaults (DFSA) have drawn attention during last few decades and become significant problem worldwide. Public un-awareness in context to DFSA is restricted, therefore early recognition and management of such crucial cases became problems for non-forensic doctors and on-spot investigators. Although forensic laboratories are using conventional chromatographic and spectroscopic methods for DFSA drug detection, but expertise requirement in result analysis and time consuming detection method always calls for rapid and on-spot sensing platform. Therefore, research laboratories and industries have focused on developing sensors for sensitive DFSA associated drug detection. In this systematic review, we are summarizing previous technological advancement in sensor development for on-spot DFSA drug detection and futuristic potential approaches for rapid analytical methods. Our study focuses on sensing principle of DFSA drugs, namely Rohypnol® (flunitrazepam), Gamma Hydroxy Butyrate (GHB) and ketamine followed by potential limitations for real life implementations of the sensors. In summary, we are targeting more studies and development of on-spot sensor based analytical techniques to stop criminal activities and public awareness regarding DFSA. To the best of our knowledge, till now no effort has been made to summarize the developed sensor for DFSA associated drugs detection. We believe this review will motivate the scientific community to make additional effort in this emerging interdisciplinary field for DFSA associated drugs detection.
Article
It has been well documented that alcohol use is a risk factor for sexual assault. However, few studies have examined how alcohol use is associated with sexual coercion experiences. Furthermore, off-campus parties and bars are drinking locations where alcohol use is high among college students. It is important to determine other risk factors, such as the drinking location, that may affect alcohol use and sexual coercion. The current study examined whether alcohol use (drinks per week and binge drinking) mediated the association between drinking location frequency (off-campus party and bar/restaurant) and experiencing sexual coercion in the past 30 days. Participants were N = 295 young adult ( M age = 21.17 years, SD = 2.70) undergraduate women who reported drinking at least once in the past 30 days and completed an online survey. Results revealed that 88 (29.8%) participants experienced sexual coercion in the past 30 days. Participants who experienced sexual coercion in the past 30 days reported greater drinks per week, were more likely to binge drink, and reported drinking more frequently at off-campus parties than those who had not experienced sexual coercion. Drinks per week significantly mediated the relationship between drinking location frequency (off-campus party and bar/restaurant) and sexual coercion. Specifically, more frequent drinking at off-campus parties and bars/restaurants was associated with greater drinks per week, which in turn was related to experiencing sexual coercion in the past 30 days. Binge drinking significantly mediated the association between frequency of drinking at a bar/restaurant and sexual coercion, but not off-campus drinking frequency. Findings suggest that college student alcohol interventions that target harm reduction should consider including information about how the drinking location may intersect with alcohol use to increase risk for sexual coercion.
Article
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Objective: Personalized normative feedback (PNF) interventions are effective at reducing hazardous drinking in college. However, little is known about who is most receptive to PNF. College women with a history of alcohol-related incapacitated rape (IR) are at elevated risk for hazardous drinking, but it is unclear what impact intervention messaging may have on this group and how their outcomes compare to those without past IR. To address this gap, this study involved secondary data analysis of a large web-based clinical trial. Method: Heavy drinking college women (N = 1,188) were randomized into PNF (n = 895) or control conditions (n = 293). Postintervention, women reported their reactions to intervention messaging. Hazardous drinking outcomes (typical drinking, heavy episodic drinking [HED], peak estimated blood alcohol content [eBAC], blackout frequency) were assessed at baseline and 12 months. Results: Past IR was reported by 16.3% (n = 194) of women. Women with a history of IR reported more baseline hazardous drinking and greater readiness to change than women without IR. For those who received PNF, history of IR related to greater perceived impact of the intervention, but no difference in satisfaction with the message. After controlling for baseline drinking, regressions revealed the effect of PNF was moderated by IR for frequency of HED at 12 months. Simple main effects revealed PNF was associated with lower levels of hazardous drinking at follow-up among women with past IR. Conclusions: This initial investigation suggests PNF is a low resource and easily disseminated intervention that can have a positive impact on college women with past IR. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
Objectives. To assess differences by gender of sexual partner in the association between sexual assault and alcohol use among women seeking care in college health centers. Methods. This longitudinal study comprised 1578 women aged 18 to 24 years visiting 28 college health centers in Pennsylvania and West Virginia from 2015 to 2018. We used multilevel logistic regression and negative binomial regression, testing for interactions of gender of sexual partners, sexual assault, and prevalence and frequency of alcohol use and binge drinking. Results. Sexual assault was reported by 87.3% of women who had sex with women or with women and men (WSWM), 68.2% of women who had sex with men only (WSM), and 47.5% of women with no penetrative sexual partners. The relative associations between sexual assault and alcohol outcomes were smaller for WSWM (prevalence: odds ratios from 0.04 to 0.06; frequency: incidence rate ratios [IRRs] from 0.24 to 0.43) and larger for women who had no penetrative sexual partners (IRRs from 1.55 to 2.63), compared with WSM. Conclusions. Alcohol use patterns among women who have experienced sexual assault differ by gender of sexual partners. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print April 16, 2020: e1–e7. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2020.305586)
Article
Identifying potential mechanisms underlying the association between posttraumatic stress (PTS) and problematic alcohol use is an important target among college women who have experienced sexual assault. This study examined the role of posttraumatic cognitions in this association among college women (N = 530) who experienced either an alcohol‐involved assault or non–alcohol‐involved assault, using baseline assessment data from a larger study examining cognitive and emotional risk factors for problem drinking. Conditional path analysis was used to examine the indirect effects of posttraumatic cognitions on the association between PTSS and alcohol use consequences, with assault type as a moderator. The findings revealed a significant indirect path from PTS to alcohol use consequences through posttraumatic cognitions, B = 0.21, SE = 0.04, p < .001, 95% CI [0.13, 0.29], β = .16, R2 = .32. Exploratory analyses revealed a significant conditional indirect effect through self‐blame cognitions, R2 = .31, whereby the indirect effect of self‐blame on the association between posttraumatic stress and alcohol consequences was present among participants who experienced alcohol‐involved assault, B = 0.10, SE = 0.03, p < .001, 95% CI [0.06, 0.16], β = .07, but not among those who experienced a non–alcohol‐involved assault, B = 0.03, SE = 0.03, p = 0.32, 95% CI [−0.02, 0.08], β = .02. Posttraumatic cognitions are a potential mechanism underlying the link between posttraumatic stress and alcohol consequences. Addressing posttraumatic cognitions, particularly those related to self‐blame, may be an important target for interventions promoting healthy recovery following alcohol‐involved assault.
Article
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Since rape myths were codified in 1980 (Burt, 1980), scholars have shown that individuals who endorse rape myths perceive victims as less credible and more responsible for rape and perpetrators as less responsible. Studies also show that rape myths hinder successful adjudication of rape cases by influencing juries’ assessments of perpetrator guilt (Dinos et al., 2015). While most of this research focuses on sexual assaults involving adult victims, some scholars have found that victims as young as 12 are blamed for rape. If rape myths influence the perceptions of sex offenses even when victims are children, then defense attorneys in child sexual abuse (CSA) cases may be motivated to highlight rape myth in CSA trials. In the current study, we conducted a content analysis of the cross-examinations of 122 children, aged 6 to 17, alleging CSA to determine if and how defense attorneys question children about rape myths. We looked for questions about force and resistance, motives to lie, victim precipitation, and character issues (e.g., habitual drug use). We found that defense attorneys commonly reference rape myths in CSA trials. Ten percent of all defense attorneys’ lines of questioning referenced a rape myth, and attorneys asked 77% of children at least one rape myth line of questioning. Whether or not attorneys asked about different myths and the content of these questions varied by children’s age. Our findings indicate that defense attorneys use rape myths strategically to undermine children’s credibility in CSA trials, but they adapt (adult) rape myths in ways that are plausible in the CSA context. Policies formed to prevent the prejudicial impact of rape myths at sexual assault trials involving adults (e.g., rape shield laws) may not adequately prevent their impact in CSA trials. Prosecutors, therefore, should address rape myths at CSA trials.
Article
Objective: College women report high rates of sexual assault. Research focused on women's risk factors for sexual assault remains necessary to assist women in reducing their risk. Previous work has shown alcohol use and cannabis use to be associated with sexual assault. The current study examined whether individual difference variables moderated women's risk for sexual assault during occasions of alcohol use and cannabis use using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Method: Participants were 18- to 24-year-old first-year undergraduate women (N = 101) who were unmarried and interested in dating men, consumed three or more alcoholic drinks on one occasion in the month before baseline, and engaged in sexual intercourse at least once. Baseline individual difference variables included sex-related alcohol expectancies, alcohol problems, decision skills, and sexual attitudes. EMA reports, collected three times per day over 42 days, included items regarding alcohol and cannabis use and sexual assault experiences. Results: Among women who experienced sexual assault during the EMA period (n = 40), those with higher sexual risk expectancies had a higher probability of sexual assault during occasions when they were using alcohol or cannabis. Conclusions: Several modifiable risk factors for sexual assault and individual differences factors may exacerbate risk. Ecological momentary interventions may be useful to reduce sexual assault risk for women with high sexual risk expectancies who use alcohol or cannabis.
Article
Objective This study examined rates and predictors of peer recommendation of resources after disclosure of actual and hypothetical unwanted sexual experiences. Participants: Private university students without a history of college sexual assault were recruited in 2 groups. One was a group of peers who had received an assault disclosure (N = 122) and one was a group of peers who had never received an assault disclosure (N = 166). Methods: Participants responded to an anonymous online survey and reported on their history of receiving disclosures and related measures such as rape myth beliefs, attitudes toward help-seeking, and social norms. Results: Actual and hypothetical disclosure recipients had similar rates of awareness and helpfulness of resources for sexual assault but different levels of recommendation of resources. Perceived helpfulness, awareness of resources, and social norms emerged as key predictors of recommendations. Conclusions: In addition to prevention programing, training and education are needed for potential disclosure recipients.
Article
Rape has always been a thorny issue in out postmodern society and South Africa has been confirmed to be the rape capital of the world. Our current society has overlooked, normalised, and made rape invisible due to our societal norms relating gender and culture connotations. The objective of the study was to explore the perceptions of community members on contributing factors to rape in the selected areas of Mankweng. This qualitative study employed the ‘Qualitative’ [Q]-methodology research design, supported by the exploratory research design for the explorations of community members’ perceptions on contributing factors to rape in selected areas of Mankweng. About Thirty (30) participants were purposively selected to form part of the Focus Group Discussions (FGDs). The findings of this study showcased that the contributory factors to rape incidences in the Mankweng policing areas can be categorised under these Three (03) themes: 1) Structural, 2) Socio-cultural, and; 3) Economic factors. These factors increase chances of women being raped. Therefore, primary preventative interventions should be more focused on re-building women’s status in societies and implementing programmes to educate them about rape and the National government and Non-Governmental Programmes (NPOs) should aim at promoting both social and economic empowerment of young women, focusing on financing their intended projects to encourage their independency and avoid over reliance to man. The monthly programmes and awareness campaigns should be hosted to educate community members about the contributory factors to rape and related consequences thereof, as well as effective preventative measures.
Chapter
Numerous sexual assault prevention efforts for boys and men have been developed by researchers and practitioners from different disciplines, as well as federal, state, and community organizations. For these sexual assault prevention programs to be successful they must be grounded in a sound understanding of what causes a behavior (i.e., etiology) as well as a sound theory of what can change that behavior (i.e., mechanism of change, behavior change theory, theory of change) in addition to knowledge of environmental and other factors. This chapter therefore reviews knowledge of perpetrator etiology, which can be used to refine and strengthen existing prevention approaches. Some of the individual drivers of sexual aggression discussed in prominent theories include deviant cognitions, an impersonal sexual orientation, impulsivity, narcissism, perceived peer support for sexual aggression, adherence to traditional masculine norms, and ascription to rape myths. Some theories of sexual aggressive behavior also attend to the notion that whether proclivity to engage in sexual aggression is acted upon can depend on environmental disinhibiting triggers or releasers in the environment, such as alcohol use, the presence of peers who are perceived as supportive of sexual aggression, or—alternatively—a lack of bystanders with the potential to intervene. Given that sexual assault prevention efforts which address individual-level drivers of sexual aggression are only one part of a comprehensive prevention approach, approaches which attend to predisposing factors for sexual aggression among boys and men must also attend to risk and protective factors that influence the expression of sexual aggression across the social ecology.
Article
Objective: Most studies on agreeing to unwanted sex have assessed sexual encounters between people who have had sex before. Thus, we examined instances of sexual compliance with a novel sexual partner. Participants: A probability sample of college students at a university in the Midwest United States (N = 7,112). Methods: Participants completed an online survey based on measures from the National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior. Results: Only 2.5% (n = 179) agreed to unwanted sexual activity at their most recent sexual encounter. People who were sexually compliant with a novel sexual partner frequently did so due to their own alcohol intoxication. Further, sexual compliance with novel sexual partners was less frequently associated with affectionate sexual behaviors or orgasm. Conclusions: Our initial findings regarding the effect of sexual precedent on sexual compliance warrant further research on instances when people agree to sex they don’t want with novel partners.
Article
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Four nested, theoretically specified, increasingly complex models were tested representing cognitive mediation of rapes effects on mental, physical, and social health. Data were cross-sectional (N = 253 rape survivors). Outcomes were standardized assessments of social maladjustment, physical, and psychological symptoms, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), The best-fitting model was not fully cognitively mediated. Personological and rape characteristics influenced the level of self-blame experienced and the intensity of maladaptive beliefs about self and others. Self-blame and maladaptive beliefs predicted psychological distress, which strongly influenced all health outcomes. Self-ratings of rape memory characteristics contributed little to predicting postrape distress, The model accounted for 56% of the variance in general distress, including 91% of psychological symptom severity; 54% of PTSD symptoms; 65% of social maladjustment; and 17% of physical symptoms. Longitudinal replication is planned.
Article
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This study examines the use of coercive sexual strategies by men and the outcomes of these behaviour for women. Using a sample of 541 college undergraduates, data were gathered from men on their use of three types of coercive sexual strategies and from women on their experiences with these same forms of behaviors. For women, there is a positive association between being sexually active, having sexually permissive attitudes, drinking alcohol and being a victim of certain types of sexual coercive strategies. For men, sexually permissive attitudes and attitudes toward rape are found to be significant predictors of their use of verbal coercion. Furthermore, being a fraternity member is associated with the use of verbal coercion and physical force and being a sorority member is associated with being a victim of alcohol/drug coercion and physical force. Reports from both men and women give a more comprehensive interpretation of the specific mechanisms through which different coercive strategies are played out.
Article
Full-text available
Four nested, theoretically specified, increasingly complex models were tested representing cognitive mediation of rape's effects on mental, physical, and social health. Data were cross-sectional (N = 253 rape survivors). Outcomes were standardized assessments of social maladjustment, physical, and psychological symptoms, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The best-fitting model was not fully cognitively mediated. Personological and rape characteristics influenced the level of self-blame experienced and the intensity of maladaptive beliefs about self and others. Self-blame and maladaptive beliefs predicted psychological distress, which strongly influenced all health outcomes. Self-ratings of rape memory characteristics contributed little to predicting postrape distress. The model accounted for 56% of the variance in general distress, including 91% of psychological symptom severity; 54% of PTSD symptoms; 65% of social maladjustment; and 17% of physical symptoms. Longitudinal replication is planned.
Article
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Although women's substance use is believed to contribute to rape vulnerability, few studies have examined, separately from forcible rape, rape that occurs due to incapacitation. The current study examines the prevalence of completed forcible and incapacitated rape in a representative community sample of young women, identifies the predictors of these two forms of rape and compares characteristics of forcible and incapacitated rape incidents. Women, ages 18-30 (N = 1,014), were recruited from households in the Buffalo, NY, area, by means of random-digit-dialing. They completed computer-assisted measures, including the Sexual Experiences Survey and a face-to-face interview regarding sexual assault experiences occurring since age 14. Lifetime prevalence of incapacitated rape was nearly identical to prevalence of forcible rape, with about 1 in 10 women reporting each type of rape since age 14. In multivariate analysis, age and childhood sexual abuse predicted forcible but not incapacitated rape, whereas adolescent alcohol and drug use predicted incapacitated but not forcible rape. Incapacitated rape incidents differed from forcible rape incidents on several contextual variables, including relationship to perpetrator, activities preceding the assault and victim injury. Findings suggest that forcible rape and incapacitated rape may be different forms of sexual assault, with different distal and proximal correlates. Distinguishing these two forms may facilitate understanding of the role of women's alcohol and drug use in sexual assault.
Article
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The rapid growth of the Internet provides a wealth of new research opportunities for psychologists. Internet data collection methods, with a focus on self-report questionnaires from self-selected samples, are evaluated and compared with traditional paper-and-pencil methods. Six preconceptions about Internet samples and data quality are evaluated by comparing a new large Internet sample (N = 361,703) with a set of 510 published traditional samples. Internet samples are shown to be relatively diverse with respect to gender, socioeconomic status, geographic region, and age. Moreover, Internet findings generalize across presentation formats, are not adversely affected by nonserious or repeat responders, and are consistent with findings from traditional methods. It is concluded that Internet methods can contribute to many areas of psychology.
Article
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The current study was designed to examine the impact of perpetrator and victim substance use on the sexual assault outcomes of penetration and victim injury. Women, ages 18-30 (n = 1,014), were recruited from households using random digit dialing. They completed computer-assisted measures, including the Sexual Experiences Survey (Koss et al., 1987). Women who reported sexual assault since age 14 (n = 359) were interviewed face-to-face regarding their most recent sexual assault incident. As hypothesized, high levels of perpetrator intoxication decreased the likelihood of penetration occurring. When the victim was highly intoxicated however, penetration was more likely. Victim injury was more likely in assaults involving penetration. Higher levels of perpetrator intoxication in assaults involving a sober victim were also associated with greater odds of victim injury. Perpetrator intoxication effects are consistent with the presumption that intoxication at high levels impairs male sexual function but increases male physical aggression. Victim intoxication increases vulnerability to penetration but does not reduce odds of injury.
Article
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The term "date rape drug" has traditionally been applied by the media to powerful sedatives, such as gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and flunitrazepam (Rohypnol), which can render a person unconscious and hence unable to resist and/or recall an assault. However, some law enforcement agents and others have recently obtained convictions by arguing that the empathy-generating and sensual effects of MDMA, and an occasional increase in disinhibition and sexual desire linked with methamphetamine use, remove a person's ability to give a reasoned consent, turning the person into "a helpless slave" to their own sexual desires and those of the alleged perpetrator. The argument holds that the victim becomes part of the assault because they may appear to be cooperating and colluding with activity which they would not have consented to without taking these drugs. This interpretation of the term "date rape" has been fed by data that sometimes finds MDMA and amphetamines in samples taken from sexual assault victims, and hence these prosecutions sometimes rely on expert testimony from toxicologists, pathologists and police officers rather than psychologists and psychiatrists who are expert in the human effects of these drugs. Some of those in the latter group have dismissed claims that MDMA is an aphrodisiac or a date rape drug as myths propagated by the media. In this article, these arguments and their respective strengths and weaknesses will be examined to assist professionals and others who may become involved in these cases.
Article
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The purpose of this study was to document the prevalence and describe the characteristics of alcohol-related sexual assault among middle and high school students. A Web-based, self-administered survey was used to collect data on 7th- through 12th-grade students (n = 1,037) in a large metropolitan area in the Midwest. A modified version of the Sexual Experiences Survey was used to ask students about their sexual victimization experiences so as to examine the involvement of alcohol within specific assault events. The sample was equally distributed by biological gender and ethnicity (white vs black) and was, on average (SD), 14 (2) years of age. Findings from the study indicate that alcohol was involved in approximately 12%-20% of the assault cases, depending on age and gender of the respondent. For females, the presence of alcohol during assault differed significantly based on the location at which the assault occurred, ranging from 6% (at the survivor's home) to 29% (at parties or someone else's home). Furthermore, alcohol-related assault among females was more likely to involve physical force than non-alcohol-related assault. Results are discussed in light of the risk factors of alcohol-related assault among adolescents as well as the nature of social contexts that fosters alcohol-related sexual assault among both adolescents and college students.
Article
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Heavy alcohol use is widespread among college students, particularly in those social situations where the risk of rape rises. Few studies have provided information on rapes of college women that occur when they are intoxicated. The purpose of the present study was to present prevalence data for rape under the condition of intoxication when the victim is unable to consent and to identify college and individual-level risk factors associated with that condition. The study utilizes data from 119 schools participating in three Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study surveys. The analytic sample of randomly selected students includes 8,567 women in the 1997 survey, 8,425 in the 1999 survey, and 6,988 in the 2001 survey. Roughly one in 20 (4.7%) women reported being raped. Nearly three quarters (72%) of the victims experienced rape while intoxicated. Women who were under 21, were white, resided in sorority houses, used illicit drugs, drank heavily in high school and attended colleges with high rates of heavy episodic drinking were at higher risk of rape while intoxicated. The high proportion of rapes found to occur when women were intoxicated indicates the need for alcohol prevention programs on campuses that address sexual assault, both to educate men about what constitutes rape and to advise women of risky situations. The findings that some campus environments are associated with higher levels of both drinking and rape will help target rape prevention programs at colleges.
Article
This investigation tested a program to reduce women's risk for sexual revictimization. Participants were 66 women with histories of sexual victimization as adolescents or adults who were randomly assigned to a preventive intervention group or a no-treatment control group. They completed initial measures assessing history of sexual assault, self-efficacy, and psychological functioning, returning approximately 2 months later for follow-up assessment using the same measures. Results suggest that the prevention program may be effective in reducing the incidence of sexual assault revictimization in this population. In addition, participants in the intervention group displayed significant improvement in psychological adjustment and self-reported self-efficacy.
Article
The use of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) to facilitate sexual assault is increasing on campuses nationwide. This article provides college counselors with an overview of the use of GHB in campus sexual assault, outlines suggestions for crisis intervention, and discusses the challenges of counseling survivors of drug-facilitated sexual assault.
Article
One of the most prominent features of the current college campus environment is the casual sex practice of the hookup. Hookups are defined as a sexual encounter between two people who are brief acquaintances or strangers, usually lasting only one night without the expectation of developing a relationship (Paul, McManus, & Hayes, 2000). Although there is a vast literature on college students' casual sexual attitudes and behavior, there is little attention to (a) subjective or experiential elements of and (b) the heterogeneity of casual sexual experiences. The goal of this study was to explore the varied phenomenology or experiential reality of college students' casual sexual hookup experiences. A structured questionnaire soliciting open responses regarding college students' views of a typical hookup and reports of their best and worst hookup experiences was administered to 187 college students. Responses were microanalytically content analyzed and globally thematically analyzed. College students' accounts of hookup experiences included behavioral, situational, cognitive, and emotional elements. As expected, although there was relative uniformity in college students' descriptions of a typical hookup, there was wide variation in college students' descriptions of their best and worst hookup experiences. Moreover, whereas there were few differences between males' and females' descriptions of what transpired, there were some sex differences in descriptions of what was felt after actual casual sexual experiences and in interpretations of why experiences were good or bad.
Article
Published studies of rape avoidance are reviewed to evaluate the scientific basis for rape avoidance advice. The results are evaluated in light of conceptual and methodological limitations of this literature, and specific recommendations for future research are provided. Consistent evidence suggests the effectiveness of forceful resistance strategies for avoiding rape; however, few studies have analyzed resistance within the social and situational contexts of rape to provide situation-specific information about rape avoidance. Larger, representative community studies are needed in which a broader range of situational factors, resistance strategies, and assault outcomes are assessed. Interactions of contextual factors such as pre-assault alcohol use and the victim-offender relationship with offense behaviors should be tested, and data on the sequential ordering of offender attack and victim resistance should be analyzed to enhance prediction of the probability of completed rape and physical injury to victims.
Article
Building on previous research which identified alcohol as the drug of choice for facilitating sexual assaults, this paper analysed 93 rape cases reported to the police in which the victim was under the influence of drugs/alcohol when the assault occurred. The aim was to explore what substances victims consumed to become incapacitated and who induced the state of incapacity. The degree of pre-planning suggests that the offender could be described as opportunistic or predatory. Findings demonstrated that the majority of rapes (coming to police notice) in which alcohol or drugs are implicated, are circumstances where the victim has self-intoxicated through alcohol consumption. There were relatively few cases in which drugs had been administered surreptitiously. The analyses successfully identified differences between rapes that occur when the victim is intoxicated or drugged according to how she consumed that alcohol/drug and what kind of alcohol/drugs she had consumed. The concept of negotiative space is offered as a potential theoretical explanation. The findings are discussed in the light of this and recommendations for crime prevention are made.
Article
The National Women's Study, a 2-year, three-wave longitudinal investigation, employed a national probability sample of 3,006 adult women to: (a) identify separate risk factors for rape and physical assault, and (b) identify separate risk factors associated with post-rape posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and post-physical assault PTSD. This investigation differed from previous studies in that it prospectively examined risk factors at the multivariate, as opposed to univariate level. Overall, past victimization, young age, and a diagnosis of active PTSD increased women's risk of being raped. By contrast, past victimization, minority ethnic status, active depression, and drug use were associated with increased risk of being physically assaulted. Risk factors for PTSD following rape included a history of depression, alcohol abuse, or experienced injury during the rape. However, risk factors for PTSD following physical assault included only a history of depression and lower education.
Article
Overview of the status of research on sexual violence against women with an emphasis on prevention. The consensus of current research on rape prevalence and incidence, vulnerability and risk factors, and the content and efficacy of college-based preventive interventions is described. The chapter concludes with suggestions for improving studies of rape prevalence, prevention education, and evaluation efforts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This article reviews the descriptive literature on sexual revictimization and the evidence for the theoretical models that have been formulated to explain this phenomenon. Also, a speculative account of sexual revictimization is presented. The proposed model emphasizes individuals' attempts to influence or control the quality, frequency, intensity, or duration of fear and arousal associated with a history of uncontrollable and unpredictable childhood sexual abuse through the use of antecedent or responsefocused emotion regulation processes. The various forms of emotion regulation may produce symptoms or behaviors that may signal vulnerability to sexual predators, result in impairment of the ability to properly process danger cues, and impede successful defensive behavior. Implications of the proposed model and future directions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The coping strategies that a victim of a rape engages in can have a strong impact on the development and persistence of psychological symptoms. Research provides evidence that victims who rely heavily on avoidance strategies, such as suppression, are less likely to recover successfully than those who rely less heavily on these strategies. The present study utilized structural path analysis to identify predictors of avoidance coping following rape and examined factors in the assault itself (e.g., force, alcohol use), sequelae of the assault (e.g., self-blame, loss of self-worth), and social support as potential direct and indirect predictors of avoidance coping. From a sample of 1,253 university women, the responses of 216 women who endorsed an experience of rape were examined. Results suggested that sequelae of the assault such as feelings of self-blame and negative reactions received from others are potentially important predictors of avoidance coping. Implications of the results for future rape recovery research are discussed.
Article
The current study was designed to evaluate the impact of First Year Campus Acquaintance Rape Education (FYCARE), a mandatory program for first year undergraduates. First, questionnaires were administered to 48 FYCARE participants assessed immediately following workshop participation, 76 FYCARE participants sampled through the unrelated context of introductory psychology courses, and 67 students sampled through introductory psychology who had not yet attended their scheduled FYCARE workshop. Second, ostensibly unrelated telephone surveys were conducted with 93 students who participated in FYCARE 4 to 6 months earlier and 77 first year students who had not yet attended their scheduled workshop. Results indicated a positive impact of participation on attitudes and judgments of a hypothetical scenario, but only when assessed immediately following workshop participation. In contrast, increases in knowledge were maintained for a period of up to 7 weeks, and phone survey responses revealed an increase in the level of support for rape prevention efforts 4 to 6 months following program participation. Finally, superior outcomes were observed among students involved in more than one educational program, thus highlighting the need for repeated intervention.
Article
This article reviews field studies examining two central questions regarding the link between alcohol and sexual assault. First, evidence is reviewed to evaluate whether there is a distal relationship between alcohol and risk of sexual assault victimization. Specifically, studies are examined to determine whether drinking may affect the risk of being victimized and how victimization may contribute to subsequent drinking. Second, evidence for a proximal role of drinking prior to a sexual assault victimization incident (by either victim and/or offender) is examined to determine alcohol's role in rape and injury outcomes to victims. Critical theoretical and methodological issues in these two types of studies are discussed with regard to the extant literature. Paralleling the two areas of research reviewed, two theoretical models are proposed to guide future research on (1) the global associations of drinking and sexual assault risk across the life span (macrolevel model) and (2) the role of drinking in the outcomes of actual sexual assault incidents (microlevel model). Suggestions are made for future research and intervention in this area.
Article
This review examines whether women's alcohol consumption increases her likelihood of sexual victimization. Three types of studies are reviewed: (a) global association studies, that examine the correlation between typical alcohol consumption and sexual victimization; (b) event-based studies, that examine alcohol consumption at the time of victimization; and (c) studies that focus on specific mechanisms by which women's alcohol consumption may contribute to sexual assault, for example, by leading to cognitive impairment on the part of the woman or by influencing the perceptions of potential male perpetrators. The literature suggests that alcohol and sexual victimization are linked, however, the specific mechanism by which they are associated and the strength of the relationship remain unclear. Good quality survey and laboratory research that employs prospective and within-subject designs would greatly increase our understanding of alcohol's role in sexual assault. Such methodologically sound studies will be extremely important for informing development of prevention and education programs for both females and males.
Article
Because of inadequacies in the methods used to measure sexual assault, national crime statistics, criminal victimization studies, convictions, or incarceration rates fail to reflect the true scope of rape. Studies that have avoided the limitations of these methods have revealed very high rates of overt rape and lesser degrees of sexual aggression. The goal of the present study was to extend previous work to a national basis. The Sexual Experiences Survey was administered to a national sample of 6,159 women and men enrolled in 32 institutions representative of the diversity of higher education settings across the United States. Women's reports of experiencing and men's reports of perpetrating rape, attempted rape, sexual coercion, and sexual contact were obtained, including both the rates of prevalence since age 14 and of incidence during the previous year. The findings support published assertions of high rates of rape and other forms of sexual aggression among large normal populations. Although the results are limited in generalizability to postsecondary students, this group represents 26% of all persons aged 18–24 in the United States.
Article
In a first experiment, subjects verbalizing the stream of consciousness for a 5-min period were asked to try not to think of a white bear, but to ring a bell in case they did. As indicated both by mentions and by bell rings, they were unable to suppress the thought as instructed. On being asked after this suppression task to think about the white bear for a 5-min period, these subjects showed significantly more tokens of thought about the bear than did subjects who were asked to think about a white bear from the outset. These observations suggest that attempted thought suppression has paradoxical effects as a self-control strategy, perhaps even producing the very obsession or preoccupation that it is directed against. A second experiment replicated these findings and showed that subjects given a specific thought to use as a distracter during suppression were less likely to exhibit later preoccupation with the thought to be suppressed.
Article
Rape of men by other men is a widely neglected yet increasingly recognized form of sexual assault. Information on same-sex rape involving men is frequently absent in campus rape education and prevention programming because the general public and popular culture have traditionally viewed rape in a context of violence against women. Available medical and psychological literature indicates the need for expanded prevention, treatment, and research dealing with men who rape other men. Several initiatives in the areas of curriculum infusion, support, services, training, and public policy for addressing same-sex rape of men in campus communities are offered.
Article
This study analyzed data from the 1995 National College Health Risk Behavior Survey (NCHRBS) to assess the prevalence of lifetime rape among female college students and to examine the association between rape and health-risk behaviors. The NCHRBS used a mail questionnaire to assess health-risk behaviors among a nationally representative sample of undergraduate students. Twenty percent of female students reported ever having been forced to have sexual intercourse, most often during adolescence. When analyses controlled for demographic characteristics, female students who had ever been raped were significantly more likely than those who had not to report a wide range of health-risk behaviors. These results highlight a need to improve rape prevention and treatment programs for female adolescents.
Article
To describe gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), flunitrazepam, and ketamine and their purported uses to facilitate acquaintance rape. Patient presentation characteristics, treatment regimens, processes to detect the presence of the medications by toxicology screening, and methods to avoid exposure are discussed. MEDLINE search from 1985 to 1998; additional references found within the articles; information obtained from the Internet. Clinical trials, reviews, and press releases concerning the use of GHB, flunitrazepam, and ketamine to facilitate acquaintance rape. Trials and reviews describing clinical effects, adverse effects, pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics, and usage trends were evaluated. Literature judged to be pertinent by the author was included in the discussion. DATA EXTRACTION/DATA SYNTHESIS: Reports of the use of GHB, flunitrazepam, and ketamine in acquaintance rape appear in the medical literature and lay press. Many health care professionals may not be familiar with these medications, and information about caring for patients under their influence is limited. Victims lose their ability to ward off attackers, develop amnesia, and are unreliable witnesses. Because symptoms caused by these agents mimic those of alcohol, not all victims are screened for their presence. Legislative efforts to further limit the use of or access to GHB, flunitrazepam, and ketamine have been initiated at the state and federal levels. Pharmacists should know the symptoms of exposure to the three agents; they should understand treatment regimens, methods to detect the presence of these and other drugs that may have been used in a sexual assault, and techniques individuals can use to avoid becoming victims of drug-assisted acquaintance rape. Because of their extensive drug knowledge and frequent access to patients, pharmacists are uniquely positioned to educate patients and other health care professionals about the dangers of acquaintance rape drugs and methods to reduce their risk of becoming victims.
Article
The National Women's Study, a 2-year, three-wave longitudinal investigation, employed a national probability sample of 3,006 adult women to: (a) identify separate risk factors for rape and physical assault, and (b) identify separate risk factors associated with post-rape posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and post-physical assault PTSD. This investigation differed from previous studies in that it prospectively examined risk factors at the multivariate, as opposed to univariate level. Overall, past victimization, young age, and a diagnosis of active PTSD increased women's risk of being raped. By contrast, past victimization, minority ethnic status, active depression, and drug use were associated with increased risk of being physically assaulted. Risk factors for PTSD following rape included a history of depression, alcohol abuse, or experienced injury during the rape. However, risk factors for PTSD following physical assault included only a history of depression and lower education.
Article
This investigation tested a program to reduce women's risk for sexual revictimization. Participants were 66 women with histories of sexual victimization as adolescents or adults who were randomly assigned to a preventive intervention group or a no-treatment control group. They completed initial measures assessing history of sexual assault, self-efficacy, and psychological functioning, returning approximately 2 months later for follow-up assessment using the same measures. Results suggest that the prevention program may be effective in reducing the incidence of sexual assault revictimization in this population. In addition, participants in the intervention group displayed significant improvement in psychological adjustment and self-reported self-efficacy.
Article
This article summarizes research on the role of alcohol in college students' sexual assault experiences. Sexual assault is extremely common among college students. At least half of these sexual assaults involve alcohol consumption by the perpetrator, the victim or both. Two research literatures were reviewed: the sexual assault literature and the literature that examines alcohol's effects on aggressive and sexual behavior. Research suggests that alcohol consumption by the perpetrator and/or the victim increases the likelihood of acquaintance sexual assault occurring through multiple pathways. Alcohol's psychological, cognitive and motor effects contribute to sexual assault. Although existing research addresses some important questions, there are many gaps. Methodological limitations of past research are noted, and suggestions are made for future research. In addition, recommendations are made for college prevention programs and policy initiatives.
Article
This study examined timing of alcohol-related sexual assaults (incapacitated rape) in relation to both alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences. The sample was drawn from a randomly selected pool of college students across three campuses (n=1238) followed over a three year time period. 91% of students never experienced an incapacitated rape, 2% reported an incapacitated rape prior to the first assessment point (n=30), and 6% reported one over the course of the study (n=76). Results indicated that incapacitated rape was associated with higher alcohol use and more negative consequences in the years prior to the assault. Incapacitated rape was also associated with higher alcohol use and more negative consequences during the year in which the rape took place and subsequent years, with highest rates measured for the year of the rape. These results suggest alcohol use can function as both risk factor and consequence of sexual victimization.
From prevalence to prevention: closing the gap between what we know about rape and what we do. Sourcebook on Violence Against Women
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Drug-Facilitated, Incapacitated, and Forcible Rape: A National Study
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