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L’effet d’éléments figuratifs sur le comportement de consommation : une illustration de l’influence du choix d’un plat dans un restaurant

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... Nous avons focalisé nos recherches sur l'influence de la présence de plantes dans l'environnement. Cette approche est a ` mettre en lien avec la théorie de l'amorçage (Berkowitz & Lepage, 1967) et également avec celle de l'influence des objets de l'environnement (Jacob, Guéguen & Boulbry, 2010). L'homme, depuis toujours, entretient un lien étroit avec la nature, comme nous le rappelle Manaker (1996). ...
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This questions review with 60 articles addresses the influence of plants on health, from a psychological standpoint. We have presented the results of our research in 4 main categories, following exposure levels, from complete immersion to plants representation. The results show that plants are indeed a health source for humans, seemingly irrespective of its intensity. Concerning the explanations of these results, this questions review states the 2 great explanative theories (biophilia and Attention Restorative Theory) and suggests new possible theoretical insights. This synthesis also proposes new researches to implement.
... Cues in our environment alter what we eat (e.g. Bell, Meiselman, Pierson, & Reeve, 1994; Jacob, Gueguen, & Boulbry, 2010) and the amount we eat (e.g. Harris, Bargh, & Brownell, 2009). ...
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In the context of a food purchasing environment filled with advertising and promotions, and an increased desire from policy makers to guide individuals towards choosing healthier foods, this study tests whether priming methods that use healthy food adverts to increase preference for healthier food generalize to a representative population. In two studies (Study 1 n= 143; Study 2 n=764), participants were randomly allocated to a prime condition, where they viewed fruit and vegetable advertisements, or a control condition, with no advertisements. A subsequent forced choice task assessed preference between fruits and other sweet snacks. Additional measures included current hunger and thirst, dietary restraint, age, gender, education and self-reported weight and height. In Study 1, hunger reduced preferences for fruits (OR (95% CI) = 0.38 (0.26 - 0.56), p < 0.0001), an effect countered by the prime (OR (95% CI) = 2.29 (1.33 - 3.96), p = 0.003). In Study 2, the effect of the prime did not generalize to a representative population. More educated participants, as used in Study 1, chose more fruit when hungry and primed (OR (95% CI) = 1.42 (1.13 - 1.79), p=0.003), while less educated participants' fruit choice was unaffected by hunger or the prime. This study provides preliminary evidence that the effects of adverts on healthy eating choices depend on key individual traits (education level) and states (hunger), do not generalize to a broader population and have the potential to increase health inequalities arising from food choice. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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Background The idea that behaviour can be influenced at population level by altering the environments within which people make choices (choice architecture) has gained traction in policy circles. However, empirical evidence to support this idea is limited, especially its application to changing health behaviour. We propose an evidence-based definition and typology of choice architecture interventions that have been implemented within small-scale micro-environments and evaluated for their effects on four key sets of health behaviours: diet, physical activity, alcohol and tobacco use. Discussion We argue that the limitations of the evidence base are due not simply to an absence of evidence, but also to a prior lack of definitional and conceptual clarity concerning applications of choice architecture to public health intervention. This has hampered the potential for systematic assessment of existing evidence. By seeking to address this issue, we demonstrate how our definition and typology have enabled systematic identification and preliminary mapping of a large body of available evidence for the effects of choice architecture interventions. We discuss key implications for further primary research, evidence synthesis and conceptual development to support the design and evaluation of such interventions. Summary This conceptual groundwork provides a foundation for future research to investigate the effectiveness of choice architecture interventions within micro-environments for changing health behaviour. The approach we used may also serve as a template for mapping other under-explored fields of enquiry.
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The effect of employees’ hair color on wages was experimentally tested in a tipping context. Waitresses in several restaurants were instructed to wear blond, red, brown or dark colored wigs. The effect of hair color on tipping according to patron's gender was measured. It was found that waitresses wearing blond wigs received more tips but only with male's patrons. Waitresses’ hair color had no effect on females’ tipping behavior.
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Descriptive menu labels have been found to have a positive effect on restaurant sales. In this experiment, we tested affective labels that would trigger happy memories of family, tradition and patriotism (e.g. ‘baked potatoes’ vs ‘Grandma’s home-made baked potatoes’). It was found that labels of this type were associated with greater sales. Indeed, labels with allusions to family were associated with higher sales than were those with allusions to tradition or patriotism. The importance of menu labels for managers is discussed.
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Several studies have shown that odors have an effect on human behavior. Consumer's behavior is also affected by odors. An experiment was carried out in a restaurant where lemon and lavender aromas were diffused and compared to a no-aroma control condition. Results showed that lavender—but not lemon aroma—increased the length of stay of customers and the amount of purchasing. The hypothesis that lavender produces a relaxing effect is offered to explain the results. r 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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In this article, we argue that consumer behavior is often strongly influenced by subtle environmental cues. Using grocery shopping as an example (or a "leitmotif," if you wish), we first argue that the traditional perspective on consumer choice based on conscious information processing leaves much variance to be explained. Instead, we propose that many choices are made unconsciously and are strongly affected by the environment. Our argument is based on research on the perception-behavior link and on automatic goal pursuit. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This field study investigated the extent to which stereotypically French and German music could influence supermarket customers' selections of French and German wines. Music with strong national associations should activate related knowledge and be linked with customers buying wine from the respective country. Over a 2-week period, French and German music was played on alternate days from an in-store display of French and German wines. French music led to French wines outselling German ones, whereas German music led to the opposite effect on sales of French wine. Responses to a questionnaire suggested that customers were unaware of these effects of music on their product choices. The results are discussed in terms of their theoretical implications for research on music and consumer behavior and their ethical implications for the use of in-store music. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Dans un premier temps, cet article signale la chaîne de restauration rapide McDonald's comme le révélateur d'une tendance alimentaire française allant vers la "facilitation", l'exotisme et le "réenchantement". En effet, l'évolution de la consommation alimentaire française semble de plus en plus profiter aux formes de restauration rapide, tels que McDonald's ou El Rancho alliant, à la ibis, rapidité, prix bas et valeurs de "réenchantement", même si cette notion peut faire l'objet, en l'espèce, de controverses. En termes d'organisation et de management, l'article analyse ensuile dans quelle mesure McDonald's recourt davantage au couple "intégration/agilité" qu'à une forme plus classique de franchisage définie par la seule "quasi-intégration", et ce, afin de s'adapter à l'environnement socio-économique difficile et aux exigences du consommateur. Enfin, l'article évoque les défis auxquels McDonald's aura sans doute à faire face ; en termes marketing : les exigences exacerbées des consommateurs, et en termes organisationnels : les comportements critiques des "affiliés" du fait du risque de saturation du marché et du caractère par trop dirigiste de la formule. First of all, this article points out that the popularity of the fast-food chain, McDonald's, in France shows a change in French eating tending towards "faci-litation", "exoticism" and "reenchantment". Indeed, these changing patterns of eating behavior seem increasingly to benefit forms of fast-food restaurants such as McDonald's or El Rancho which combine speed, low prices and values related to the notion of "reenchantment" - even if this notion is greatly questioned in this case -. The article then analyses, in terms of organization and of management, to what extent McDonald's resorts more to the "integration/agility system" than to a more classical form of franchising defined by the mere "quasi-integration" pattern. This being in order to adapt to the "turbulent" socio-economic environment and consumer demand. Finally, the article talks of the challenges which McDonald's will have to face in the near future : in marketing terms (more demanding consumers) as well as in organizational terms (the critical behavior of the affiliates because of the risk of saturation of the market and of the too closely controlled management).
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Two experiments investigated the moderation of behavioral mimicry effects as a function of the to-be-mimicked target. In each experiment participants completed an ice cream taste test in the presence of a confederate who was instructed to either eat a lot of ice cream (high consumption condition) or very little ice cream (low consumption condition). The extent to which participants mimicked the ice cream consumption of the confederate was recorded. In addition two confederates were employed; one of the confederates in each experiment had a visual stigma. In Experiment 1 the confederate was either obese or not. In Experiment 2 the confederate had, or did not have, a facial birthmark. Results showed mimicry of the confederate's ice cream consumption except for the obese confederate in Experiment 1. Stigmatization of the to-be-mimicked target does inhibit mimicry effects but only when the nature of the Stigmatization is linked to the critical task. Results are discussed in terms of non-conscious elicitation and inhibition of behavior. Implications for social interaction are also discussed.
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TESTED THE HYPOTHESIS THAT STIMULI COMMONLY ASSOCIATED WITH AGGRESSION CAN ELICIT AGGRESSIIVE RESPONSES FROM PEOPLE READY TO ACT AGGRESSIVELY. 100 MALE UNIVERSITY SS RECEIVED EITHER 1 OR 7 SHOCKS, SUPPOSEDLY FROM A PEER, AND WERE THEN GIVEN AN OPPORTUNITY TO SHOCK THIS PERSON. IN SOME CASES A RIFLE AND REVOLVER WERE NEAR THE SHOCK KEY. THESE WEAPONS WERE SAID TO BELONG, OR NOT TO BELONG, TO THE AVAILABLE TARGET PERSON. IN OTHER INSTANCES THERE WAS NOTHING NEAR THE KEY, WHILE FOR CONTROLS 2 BADMINTON RACQUETS WERE NEAR THE KEY. THE GREATEST NUMBER OF SHOCKS WAS GIVEN BY THE STRONGLY AROUSED SS (WHO HAD RECEIVED 7 SHOCKS) WHEN THEY WERE IN THE PRESENCE OF THE WEAPONS. THE GUNS HAD EVIDENTLY ELICITED STRONG AGGRESSIVE RESPONSES FROM THE AROUSED MEN. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)