Implications of Salt and Sodium Reduction on Microbial Food Safety

John Morrell Food Group, Cincinnati, OH, USA.
Critical reviews in food science and nutrition (Impact Factor: 5.18). 03/2010; 50(3):209-27. DOI: 10.1080/10408391003626207
Source: PubMed


Excess sodium consumption has been cited as a primary cause of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Salt (sodium chloride) is considered the main source of sodium in the human diet, and it is estimated that processed foods and restaurant foods contribute 80% of the daily intake of sodium in most of the Western world. However, ample research demonstrates the efficacy of sodium chloride against pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms in a variety of food systems. Notable examples of the utility and necessity of sodium chloride include the inhibition of growth and toxin production by Clostridium botulinum in processed meats and cheeses. Other sodium salts contributing to the overall sodium consumption are also very important in the prevention of spoilage and/or growth of microorganisms in foods. For example, sodium lactate and sodium diacetate are widely used in conjunction with sodium chloride to prevent the growth of Listeria monocytogenes and lactic acid bacteria in ready-to-eat meats. These and other examples underscore the necessity of sodium salts, particularly sodium chloride, for the production of safe, wholesome foods. Key literature on the antimicrobial properties of sodium chloride in foods is reviewed here to address the impact of salt and sodium reduction or replacement on microbiological food safety and quality.

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    • "e l s e v i e r . c o m / l o c a t e / i j f o o d m i c r o any efforts to reduce sodium in foods have to consider the effect it might have on food safety and shelf-life, which have been the subject of numerous reviews (Reddy and Marth, 1991; Sofos, 1983; Taormina, 2010). High-pressure processing (HPP), is a non-thermal food processing method that subjects foods, solid or liquid, commercially to pressures between 100 and 600 MPa. "
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    ABSTRACT: National and international health agencies have recommended a significant reduction in daily intake of sodium by reducing the amount of NaCl in foods, specifically processed meats. However, sodium reduction could increase the risk of survival and growth of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms on these products. Therefore, alternate processing technologies to improve safety of sodium reduced foods are necessary. This study examined the effects of three different salt types and concentrations on high-pressure inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes in pre-blended ground chicken formulations. Ground chicken formulated with three salt types (NaCl, KCl, CaCl2), at three concentrations (0, 1.5, 2.5%) and inoculated with a four strain cocktail of L. monocytogenes (10(8)CFUg(-1)) were subjected to four pressure treatments (0, 100, 300, 600MPa) and two durations (60, 180s) in an experiment with factorial design. Surviving cells were enumerated by plating on Oxford agar and analysed by factorial ANOVA. Pressure treatments at 100 or 300MPa did not significantly (P=0.19-050) reduce L. monocytogenes populations. Neither salt type nor concentration had a significant effect on L. monocytogenes populations at these pressure levels. At 600MPa, salt types, concentrations and duration of pressure treatment all had a significant effect on L. monocytogenes populations. Formulations with increasing concentrations of NaCl or KCl showed significantly lower reduction in L. monocytogenes, while increase in CaCl2 concentration resulted in a significantly higher L. monocytogenes reduction. For instance, increase in NaCl concentration from 0 to 1.5 or 2.5% resulted in a log reduction of 6.16, 2.49 and 1.29, respectively, when exposed to 600MPa for 60s. In the case of CaCl2, increase from 0 to 1.5 or 2.5% resulted in a log reduction of 6.16, 7.28 and 7.47, respectively. These results demonstrate that high-pressure processing is a viable process to improve microbial safety of sodium reduced poultry products.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · International Journal of Food Microbiology
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    • "In the case on Spain, in 2008 the Spanish Food Safety and Nutrition Agency (AESAN) started a salt reduction plan with certain specific goals enabling intake to go down from the current value of 9.7 g/day to an intake lower than 8.0 g/day by 2014. Salt reduction is not so easy to achieve in dry-cured meat products because salt has a preservative and antimicrobial effect as a consequence of the capacity of sodium chloride to reduce water activity achieving microbiological stability and extension of shelf life in meat products (Durack et al., 2008; Hutton, 2002; Taomina, 2010). It also has effects on the solubility of the myofibrillar meat proteins myosin and actin allowing gel formation and development of an optimum texture in these products (Desmond, 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this work was to study the yeast population during the manufacture of dry-cured "lacón" (a Spanish traditional meat product) and the effect of the salting time. For this study, six batches of "lacón" were manufactured with three different salting times (LS (3 days of salting), MS (4 days of salting) and HS (5 days of salting)). Yeast counts increased significantly (P < 0.001) during the whole process from 2.60 to 6.37 log cfu/g. An increased length of salting time did not affect yeast counts throughout the manufacture of dry-cured "lacón", although the highest yeast counts were obtained from LS batches. A total of 226 isolates were obtained from dry-cured "lacón" during drying-ripening stage, of which 151 were yeasts and were identified at the species level using molecular techniques. The total of 151 identified yeasts belonged to 4 different genera: Debaryomyces, Candida, Cryptococcus and Rhodotorula. Debaryomyces hansenii was the most abundant species isolated throughout the whole process as much in the interior as in the exterior of the pieces of three salt levels of "lacón" studied, while Candida zeylanoides was only isolated from the interior of MS and HS batches and from the exterior of LS and HS groups, but at lesser proportion than D. hansenii.
    Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Food Microbiology
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    • "Dietary sodium is a key contributor to the development of hypertension in humans, which can be a precursor to cardiovascular disease in at-risk individuals (Adrogué and Madias, 2007; Taormina, 2010). Cheese is a major contributor to sodium in the diet (Grocery Manufacturers Association, 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: The range of sodium chloride (salt)-to-moisture ratio is critical in producing high-quality cheese products. The salt-to-moisture ratio has numerous effects on cheese quality, including controlling water activity (a(w)). Therefore, when attempting to decrease the sodium content of natural cheese it is important to calculate the amount of replacement salts necessary to create the same a(w) as the full-sodium target (when using the same cheese making procedure). Most attempts to decrease sodium using replacement salts have used concentrations too low to create the equivalent a(w) due to the differences in the molecular weight of the replacers compared with salt. This could be because of the desire to minimize off-flavors inherent in the replacement salts, but it complicates the ability to conclude that the replacement salts are the cause of off-flavors such as bitter. The objective of this study was to develop a model system that could be used to measure a(w) directly, without manufacturing cheese, to allow cheese makers to determine the salt and salt replacer concentrations needed to achieve the equivalent a(w) for their existing full-sodium control formulas. All-purpose flour, salt, and salt replacers (potassium chloride, modified potassium chloride, magnesium chloride, and calcium chloride) were blended with butter and water at concentrations that approximated the solids, fat, and moisture contents of typical Cheddar cheese. Salt and salt replacers were applied to the model systems at concentrations predicted by Raoult's law. The a(w) of the model samples was measured on a water activity meter, and concentrations were adjusted using Raoult's law if they differed from those of the full-sodium model. Based on the results determined using the model system, stirred-curd pilot-scale batches of reduced- and full-sodium Cheddar cheese were manufactured in duplicate. Water activity, pH, and gross composition were measured and evaluated statistically by linear mixed model. The model system method accurately determined the concentrations of salt and salt replacer necessary to achieve the same a(w) as the full-sodium control in pilot-scale cheese using different replacement salts.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2011 · Journal of Dairy Science
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