Article

Grapevine under deficit irrigation: hints from physiological and molecular data. Ann Bot

Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Technical University of Lisbon, Tapada da Ajuda 1349-017 Lisbon, Portugal.
Annals of Botany (Impact Factor: 3.65). 03/2010; 105(5):661-76. DOI: 10.1093/aob/mcq030
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background A large proportion of vineyards are located in regions with seasonal drought (e.g. Mediterranean-type climates) where soil
and atmospheric water deficits, together with high temperatures, exert large constraints on yield and quality. The increasing
demand for vineyard irrigation requires an improvement in the efficiency of water use. Deficit irrigation has emerged as a
potential strategy to allow crops to withstand mild water stress with little or no decreases of yield, and potentially a positive
impact on fruit quality. Understanding the physiological and molecular bases of grapevine responses to mild to moderate water
deficits is fundamental to optimize deficit irrigation management and identify the most suitable varieties to those conditions.

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Available from: Olfa Zarrouk, Jan 22, 2014
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    • "In many arid wine grape production areas irrigation is widely used to manage vine vigor and yield to induce desirable changes in berry composition for wine production (Chaves et al., 2010; Lovisolo et al., 2010). In red-skinned wine grape cultivars, a mild to moderate water stress in determined phenological periods has been found to increase water productivity and to improve fruit quality (Romero et al., 2010; Shellie, 2014). "
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    ABSTRACT: Precision irrigation management of wine grape requires a reliable method to easily quantify and monitor vine water status to allow effective manipulation of plant water stress in response to water demand, cultivar management and producer objective. Mild to moderate water stress is desirable in wine grape in determined phenological periods for controlling vine vigor and optimizing fruit yield and quality according to producer preferences and objectives. The traditional leaf temperature based crop water stress index (CWSI) for monitoring plant water status has not been widely used for irrigated crops in general partly because of the need to know well-watered and non-transpiring leaf temperatures under identical environmental conditions. In this study, leaf temperature of vines irrigated at rates of 35, 70 or 100% of estimated evapotranspiration demand (ETc) under warm, semiarid field conditions in southwestern Idaho USA was monitored from berry development through fruit harvest in 2013 and 2014. Neural network (NN) models were developed based on meteorological measurements to predict well-watered leaf temperature of wine grape cultivars ‘Syrah’ and ‘Malbec’ (Vitis vinifera L.). Input variables for the cultivar specific NN models with lowest mean squared error were 15-min average values for air temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation and wind speed collected within ±90 min of solar noon (13:00 and 15:00 MDT). Correlation coefficients between NN predicted and measured well-watered leaf temperature were 0.93 and 0.89 for ‘Syrah’ and ‘Malbec’, respectively. Mean squared error and mean average error for the NN models were 1.07 and 0.82 °C for ‘Syrah’ and 1.30, and 0.98 °C for ‘Malbec’, respectively. The NN models predicted well-watered leaf temperature with significantly less variability than traditional multiple linear regression using the same input variables. Non-transpiring leaf temperature was estimated as air temperature plus 15 °C based on maximum temperatures measured for vines irrigated at 35% (ETc). Daily mean CWSI calculated using NN estimated well-watered leaf temperatures between 13:00 and 15:00 MDT and air temperature plus 15 °C for non-transpiring leaf temperature consistently differentiated between deficit irrigation amounts, irrigation events, and rainfall. The methodology used to calculate a daily CWSI for wine grape in this study provided a daily indicator of vine water status that could be automated for use as a decision-support tool in a precision irrigation system.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2016 · Agricultural Water Management
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    • "Vitis vinifera is one of the most widely cultivated fruit crop with a great economic impact on the global industry (Chaves et al., 2010; Cramer et al., 2013). A large proportion of vineyards are located in regions with seasonal drought, where soil and atmospheric water deficits, together with high temperature exert important constraints on yield and quality (Chaves et al., 2010). In order to secure productivity, vineyards can be irrigated. "
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    ABSTRACT: The constitutive expression of a Vitis vinifera dehydrin (DHN) of the YSK2 type (VvDhn) allowed for a more vigorous growth in transgenic tobacco plants than in wild-type (WT). In vitro, a very distinct germination kinetics and root development profile was observed both under optimal and stress conditions (control, mannitol, NaCl). Transgenic lines outperformed WT in germination success and precocity and root length. Furthermore, transgenic lines were able to germinate under 300 mM mannitol. Adult tobacco plants expressing VvDhn also displayed improved tolerance to both drought and salt stresses. The VvDhn lines under these constraints were significantly better than WT in terms of biomass and leaf number. Moreover, higher capacities to recover from drought were revealed. However, the major effect the VvDhn over-expression was observed under non limiting conditions. VvDhn interfered with the development program leading to higher biomass production (leaf, shoot and root) and to the production of higher number of leaves. The VvDhn gene show great promise for grapevine genetic improvement to drought and salinity tolerance. VvDhn gene can be used to screen and/or design for new grapevine rootstocks that together with viticultural management programs has the potential to cope successfully with a more adverse and unpredictable climate, which is highly demand by community.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Agricultural Water Management
    • "For instance, general evidence exists for cvs. Grenache, Viognier, Tempranillo and Lambrusco (Chaves et al. 2010;Poni et al. 2009;Sousa et al. 2006) to respond as iso-or near-isohydric, whereas Shiraz, Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon and Riesling are categorized as aniso-or near-anisohydric (Chaves et al. 2010;Lovisolo et al. 2010;Schultz 2003). Thus, a challenging issue is whether the water tolerance strategy of a given scion predominates over the strategy induced by the rootstock, or vice versa. "
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    ABSTRACT: Testing of new rootstocks for drought tolerance targets traditionally rain-fed districts where supplemental irrigation is more frequently needed due to the pressures of global warming. A seasonal evaluation of gas exchange and water-use efficiency (WUE) of cv. Sangiovese grafted to the new drought-tolerant genotype M4 in a dry-down trial against the commercial SO4 stock is reported. The experiment was conducted in 2014 on twelve 2-year-old, non-fruiting potted Sangiovese grapevines grafted on M4 and SO4 stocks and assigned to SO4-WW (well-watered), SO4-WS (water-stressed), M4-WW and M4-WS treatments. Progressive water deficit was imposed by reducing water supply to 70, 50 and 30 % of whole-canopy demand derived from concurrent measurements of transpiration in WW. Unlike SO4, M4 showed slower stress progression, as highlighted by pre-dawn leaf water potential, and retained higher whole-canopy net CO2 exchange rates (NCER) and transpiration rates per unit of leaf area at all replenishment levels as well as exhibiting higher canopy WUE at both 50 and 30 % WW. Although single-leaf assessment was in partial disagreement with data recorded on the whole-canopy basis, robust data were acquired to confirm that the M4 stock performs better than SO4 at any water replenishment level in terms of higher NCER/leaf area and/or canopy WUE. Findings feed expectations that grafting Sangiovese to the M4 rootstock should result in a problem-solving tool for rain-fed areas subject to temporary summer drought.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Irrigation Science
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