Social disparities and cause-specific mortality during economic development

ArticleinSocial Science [?] Medicine 70(10):1550-7 · February 2010with1 Reads
DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2010.01.015 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
Social patterning of disease is pervasive and persistent. Disease patterns change with economic development and the attendant epidemiological transition. It is becoming evident that social patterns of disease are epidemiologically stage specific. In a population with a recent history of rapid economic development we examined social patterns of all-cause and cause-specific mortality over time to elucidate how economic development impacts disparities in health. We used concentration indices to provide a summary measure of disparities by income in potential years of life lost (PYLL) for the Hong Kong population from 1976 to 2006. For all-cause mortality and for each of the specific causes considered the concentration curve in 2006 dominated the 1976 concentration curve. The concentration index for all-cause PYLL was negligible in 1976, but increased over the period. PYLL attributable to injury and poisoning was fairly consistently associated with lower income, but PYLL attributable to cardiovascular diseases and cancer reversed from an association with higher income in 1976 to an association with lower income in 2006. Social disparities in health are not universal or homogeneous in origin. Attention should be focused on disease-specific causes of disparities, so that contextually specific prevention strategies can be implemented. This is of particular relevance to China and other emerging economies where there may be a window of opportunity to prevent disparities in cancer and cardiovascular diseases occurring.
    • "As developing countries undergo the epidemiological transition and socioeconomic development, the etiology of diseases also becomes increasingly similar to that of Western societies. It is the transition to Western lifestyle and the attendant increase in the risk of chronic diseases like diabetes and heart failure, both of which normally occur initially among the more affl uent, that may render the SES-health gradient in a society ambiguous (Schooling et al. 2010). 15 In what follows, a statistically signifi cant UCOD coeffi cient will be interpreted as evidence of a causal relationship between parental loss and educational outcome; whereas a statistically signifi cant difference between the UCOD and the ICOD coeffi cients will be interpreted as evidence that the ICOD parameter is subject to omitted variables bias. "
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