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Abstract

Medicinal plants are the nature′s gift to human being to have disease-free healthy life. It plays a vital role to preserve our health. India is one of the most medico-culturally diverse countries in the world where the medicinal plant sector is part of a time-honoured tradition that is respected even today. Medicinal plants are believed to be much safer and proved elixir in the treatment of various ailments. In our country, more than 2000 medicinal plants have been recognized. Passiflora incarnata (Passifloraceae; passion flower Family) is an important medicinal plant of tropical and subtropical India. Its medicinal usage has been reported in the traditional systems of medicine such as Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani. P. incarnata has been described as a passion flower and has been used extensively for treatment of some diseases like as anxiety, insomnia, convulsion, sexual dysfunction, cough and cancer. The present article including the detailed exploration of phyto-pharmacological properties of P. incarnata is an attempt to provide a direction for further research.
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... A relatively large berry called passionfruit develops that is green or yellowish-green in colour. Berries contain many dark brown 'dimpled' seed (Patel et al. 2009). ...
... Its medicinal usage has been reported in the traditional systems of medicine such as Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani. P. incarnata has been described as a passion flower and has been used extensively for treatment of some diseases like as anxiety, insomnia, convulsion, sexual dysfunction, cough and cancer (Patel et al. 2009). ...
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It is about the collection of information on plants and their uses in different aspects of India.
... Thus, the search for new therapeutic alternatives is very relevant, and, in this context, therapy research based on the use of plants has increased worldwide (Hou et al., 2020;Kim and Song, 2012;Kim et al., 2017;Rahbardar and Hosseinzadeh, 2020). In this sense, there is consistent evidence of the effectiveness of several plants in the treatment of psychiatric disorders (Sarris, 2018), highlighting the genus Passiflora (Aman et al., 2016;da Cunha et al., 2021;Dantas et al., 2017;Giovannini and Howes, 2017;Janda et al., 2020;Kim et al., 2019), especially Passiflora incarnata, used to treat insomnia and anxiety (Kim et al., 2019;Miroddi et al., 2013;Patel et al., 2009;Schäfer et al., 2021). The anxiolytic activity seems to be due to flavonoids, which would act on the GABAergic system (Fonseca et al., 2020). ...
... In other study Men aged 21-56 years received Maca in one of two doses: 1500 mg or 3000 mg or placebo. An improvement in sexual desire was observed without change in the serum testosterone levels with Maca since 8 weeks of treatment ( Unani extensively for treatment of some diseases like as anxiety, insomnia, convulsion, sexual dysfunction, cough and cancer (Patel et al., 2009). The aphrodisiac properties of plants have been studied in male mice. ...
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The management options available for the treatment of infertility in males include the use of drugs and variety of surgical procedures (Purvis and Christiansen, 2008). In fact only 5% of males, suffering from hormonal imbalance are helped by these medications. Testosterone supplements are offered frequently to patients who have secondary erectile dysfunction or hormonal deficiency. The main drugs used in hormonal disorders are Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), recombinant Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and GnRH for hypogonadotropic, hypogonadism, bromocryptine for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and prednisolone in Immunologic disease. (PDF) Indian Medicinal Plants: Therapeutic Alternatives for Fertility Enhancement.
... , K. 3 187 (2017) bir bitki olan Passiflora, Violes Passifloraceae almakta ve Tropik Amerika, Asya, Avustralya da [12]. ...
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Bitki gelişimi sırasında, yapraklar boyut, şekil ve geometrik boyutlardaki farklılıklar dahil olmak üzere çeşitli ontogenetik değişikliklere uğramışdır. Morfolojik özelliklerin derinlemesine bir incelemesi uyarlanabilir özelliklere göre türlerde ve popülasyonlarda farklılıklar gösterdi. Passiflora cinsinin P. edulis türü büyüdükçe ve geliştikçe heteroblastik-önemli değişikliklere uğrar ve genç olgun vejetatif fazlar arasında morfolojik bir ayrım gösterir. Azerbaycanda tanıtılan en umut verici türlerden biri olan ex situ ve in situ koşullarda yetiştirilen Passiflora edulis L.'nin yapraklarının morfolojik polimorfizmi matematiksel olarak incelenmiş ve analiz edilmiştir. Yaprak alanı ex situ koşullar altında 145.9 cm2 ve in situ koşullar altında 115,5 cm2'ye ulaştı; Ex situ koşullar altında yaprağın çevresi 378.49 cm iken, in situ koşullar altında yetiştirilen bitkilerde bu parametre 366.5 cm idi. Ex situ koşullarda yetiştirilen örneklerde yaprakların morfolojik özellikleri in situ koşullara göre daha yüksek bulunmuştur. Ancak, in situ koşullarda geliştirilen bitkilerde yaprak çevresine ek olarak diğer morfolojik özelliklerde gözlenen çeşitlilik ve varyasyon katsayısı ex situ yetiştirilenlere göre daha yüksek bulunmuştur. Bu in situ koşullara kıyasla ex situ koşullar altında abiyotik faktörlerin daha yüksek stabilitesine atfedilir. Yüksek varyans P. edulis türlerinin yüksek uyarlanabilirliğini göstermişdir.
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Hypertension is a cardiovascular disorder that is currently a major problem in both less developed and developed countries, noted as the fourth major contributor resulting in premature death (Talha et al. 2011). It affects all humans irrespective of age, with high blood pressure levels recorded as above 140/90 mmHg, known as “a silent killer,” a noncommunicable disease, and a major contributor to mortality (Maghrani et al. 2005; Gavras 2009; Seeger et al. 2013). Nearly 57% of the deaths are due to strokes and 24% due to coronary artery disease. Nearly 970 million people globally show hypertension (Mucumbitsi et al. 2017). In Asia, 33% of all adults above 45 years of age and 18% of all adults are affected by hypertension. In some countries, every third person at the age of 40 years is suffering from hypertension (Saleem et al. 2010).
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Background: Stress is a natural response of the body, induced by factors of a physical (hunger, thirst, and infection) and/or psychological (perceived threat, anxiety, or concern) nature. Chronic, long-term stress may cause problems with sleep, concentration, and memory, as well as affective disorders. The passionflower (Passiflora incarnata) is a perennial plant with documented therapeutic properties. The literature data suggest that the passionflower itself, as well as its preparations, helps reduce stress and can therefore be helpful in the treatment of insomnia, anxiety, and depression. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate Passiflora incarnata in terms of its neuropsychiatric effects. Methods: The scientific databases PubMed, ClinTrials.gov, and Embase were searched up to 22 October 2019. The search identified randomized clinical trials describing the effects of Passiflora incarnata in neuropsychiatric disorders. Results: The systematic review included nine clinical trials. The duration of the studies included in the analysis varied widely, from one day up to 30 days. Study participants were no less than 18 years old. In each of the papers, the effects of passionflower were measured by using a number of different tests and scales. The majority of studies reported reduced anxiety levels following the administration of Passiflora incarnata preparations, with the effect less evident in people with mild anxiety symptoms. No adverse effects, including memory loss or collapse of psychometric functions, were observed. Conclusion: Passiflora incarnata may be helpful in treating some symptoms in neuropsychiatric patients.
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Background: Flavonoids are one of the main classes of biologically active substances providing the pharmacotherapeutic effect of passionflower (Passiflora incarnata L.) preparations. In this article studies on the standardization of Passiflora incarnata L. dry extract (PDE) by flavonoids are presented. The aim of this work was to study the composition and content of flavonoids in PDE with the help of precise modern physicochemical methods. Materials and methods: PDE was prepared from crude herbal drug – P. incarnata herb of Russian origin. Reverse phase HPLC-UV analysis was performed with Agilent 1100 liquid chromatograph. Chromatographic column was Atlantis C18 (250 mm × 4.6 mm × 5 μm); analytical wavelength – 350 nm; mobile phase – 0.01% formic acid solution and methanol: acetonitrile (25:75); column temperature – 35 ° C; analysis time – 90 min; flow rate of the mobile phase – 0.8 ml/min in gradient elution mode. Commercially available samples of flavonoids were used for identification and quantitative determination. Results: 20 compounds of flavonoid structure are presented in the PDE. 9 flavonoid compounds have been identified, they are: isovitexin, vitexin, rutoside, hyperoside, luteolin, kaempferol, kaempferitrin, orientin, and isoorientin. The content of vitexin is 0,867 ± 0,011%, the total flavonoids content in terms of vitexin is 3,762 ± 0,049%. Conclusion: The obtained data will be used to create regulatory documentation for drugs based on PDE.
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P. incarnata is addressed by several names like maypop, purple passionflower, true passionflower, wild apricot and wild passion vine and is a member of family Passifloraceae. P. incarnata is common to the southeast United States. The dried herb is used in medicine and collected after some of the berries have matured.
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Objective: Clonidine-based therapies have been utilized as the main protocol for opiate detoxification for several years. However, detoxification with clonidine has its limitations, including lack of efficacy for mental symptoms. Accumulating evidence shows the efficacy of Passiflora incarnata extract in the management of anxiety. In our continuing study of traditional medicines, which have neurotropic effects, this plant had an anxiolytic effect, which may be used as an adjuvant agent in the detoxification of opiates by clonidine. We present the results of a double-blind randomized controlled trial of clonidine plus passiflora extract vs. clonidine plus placebo in the outpatient detoxification of 65 opiates addicts. Methods: A total of 65 opiates addicts were assigned randomly to treatment with passiflora extract plus clonidine tablet or clonidine tablet plus placebo drop during a 14-day double-blind clinical trial. All patients met the DSM IV criteria for opioid dependence. The fixed daily dose was 60 drops of passiflora extract and a maximum daily dose of 0.8 mg of clonidine administered in three divided doses. The severity of the opiate withdrawal syndrome was measured on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 7 and 14 using the Short Opiate Withdrawal Scale (SOWS). Conclusion: Both protocols were equally effective in treating the physical symptoms of withdrawal syndromes. However, the passiflora plus clonidine group showed a significant superiority over clonidine alone in the management of mental symptoms. These results suggested that passiflora extract may be an effective adjuvant agent in the management of opiate withdrawal. However, a larger study to confirm our results is warranted.
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Objective: Passionflower (Passiflora incarnata) is a folk remedy for anxiety. A double-blind randomized trial compared the efficacy of Passiflora incarnata extract with oxazepam in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. Methods: The study was performed on 36 out-patients diagnosed with GAD using DSM IV criteria. Patients were allocated in a random fashion: 18 to the Passiflora extract 45 drops/day plus placebo tablet group, and 18 to oxazepam 30 mg/day plus placebo drops for a 4-week trial. Results: Passiflora extract and oxazepam were effective in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. No significant difference was observed between the two protocols at the end of trial. Oxazepam showed a rapid onset of action. On the other hand, significantly more problems relating to impairment of job performance were encountered with subjects on oxazepam. Conclusion: The results suggest that Passiflora extract is an effective drug for the management of generalized anxiety disorder, and the low incidence of impairment of job performance with Passiflora extract compared to oxazepam is an advantage. A large-scale trial is justified.
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> “Any Stigma will do to beat a Dogma.” Philip Guedalla (1889–1944) Historian and irreverent biographer To be invited to deliver a presidential address is a great honour signifying, firstly, the support of peers in being elected to the presidency and, secondly, the impending conclusion of this responsibility. It is, in accordance with tradition, the single occasion on which the opinion of the president is not questioned, when he can even discuss the taboo subjects of sex, religion, and politics without fear of contradiction. I intend to make full use of this opportunity. Presidential addresses come in a number of guises. Some look to the events of the distant or more recent past, while others are more firmly rooted in the present and explore an area of clinical practice or personal expertise. Each is, to some extent, autobiographical. My intention today is to combine something of each of these approaches in my vision for genitourinary (GU) medicine at the start of the 21st century. The inspiration for my presidential address came from an excellent essay1 published in the Lancet in 1999 by Christopher Whitty, an infectious diseases specialist working at the University of Malawi. I would strongly recommend this as required reading for both established clinicians and their students. He was reflecting that Africa is currently facing a sexually transmitted infection (STI) epidemic even more catastrophic than was the introduction of syphilis to Europe in the late 15th century. Now, as then, reactions to the crisis were frequently hysterical. He argues that a public health strategy based upon stigmatising individuals with sexually transmitted infections is not only unhelpful but also inevitably counterproductive. I was a student and young doctor in the late 1960s and early 1970s, at a time when student rebellion, the Vietnam war, riots for peace, and flower …
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The newly reported benzoflavone moiety from the plant Passiflora incarnata Linneaus has been evaluated in light of traditional reports on the use of P. incarnata in breaking down cannabis addiction. In the modern or allopathic system of therapeutics, there has been no suitable remedy to combat the severe withdrawal effects of various cannabis products, including marihuana, marijuana, bhang, hashish, ganja, etc., the world-wide consumption of which has attained alarming proportions especially among the younger generation. Mice were given a 10-mg-kg−1 twice-daily dose of δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (δ9-THC) by mouth for six days to make them dependent upon cannabinoids. Concurrently, other groups of mice were administered δ9-THC along with a 10- or 20-mg-kg−1 twice-daily dose of the benzoflavone moiety from P. incarnata orally for 6 days. Upon measuring locomotor activity during the treatment regimen, it was noticed that the mice receiving the P. incarnata extract and δ9-THC together developed significantly less tolerance and dependence, relative to the mice receiving δ9-THC alone. Upon administration of SR-141716A, a selective cannabinoid-receptor antagonist (10 mg kg−1, p.o.) to all the groups of mice on the 7th day, an artificial withdrawal was produced due to an abrupt decline of δ9-THC levels in mouse brain. However, the typical withdrawal effects like paw tremors and head shakes were significantly less in the mice given δ9-THC + P. incarnata benzoflavone moiety for 6 days. Upon administration of 20 mg kg−1 of the P. incarnata benzoflavone moiety to mice showing severe symptoms of withdrawal due to administration of SR-141716A, there was a marked attenuation of withdrawal effects, thereby suggesting the usefulness of the benzoflavone moiety in δ9-THC withdrawal. Thus, the benzoflavone moiety of P. incarnata, when administered concurrently with δ9-THC, prevented the development of tolerance and dependence of cannabinoids in mice. Even an acute administration of the benzoflavone moiety (20 mg kg−1, p.o.) significantly blocked the expression of withdrawal effects in δ9-THC-dependent mice.
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A benzoflavone moiety (BZF) has recently been reported to be liable for many of the biological effects of the plant Passiflora incarnata Linneaus. In light of various reports mentioning the usefulness of P. incarnata in tobacco addiction, studies have been performed using four doses (1, 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) of the bioactive BZF moiety isolated from the aerial parts of P. incarnata. In a 7-day experimental regimen, mice (n = 5) were given nicotine hydrogen tartrate (2 mg/kg), and combinations of nicotine with four doses of BZF (NnP-1, NnP-5, NnP-10 and NnP-20) q.i.d. by the s.c. route. At the end of the 7 days of treatment, naloxone was given to the mice from all groups to induce a nicotine withdrawal syndrome. The mice that had been treated with 10 and 20 mg/kg dose of BZF concurrently with nicotine showed a significantly fewer number of withdrawal jumps relative to the group treated with nicotine alone (Nn group). Separately, in a 14-day treatment regimen, mice (n = 10; for the N group, n = 12) were administered nicotine (2 mg/kg) and combinations of nicotine with four doses of BZF (NP-1, NP-5, NP-10, NP-20 groups) q.i.d. by the s.c. route. Spontaneous physical and behavioural signs of nicotine dependence were observed 3 hours after cessation of treatments on the 14th day. Mice administered with combinations of nicotine and 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg doses of BZF (i.e. NP-5, NP10 and NP-20 groups), exhibited less intensity and severity of withdrawal effects compared to the mice treated with nicotine alone. Those mice treated with the two highest doses of BZF,in combination with nicotine (NP-10 and NP-20), showed significantly fewer nicotine-abstinence withdrawal jumps and normal ambulatory behaviour. BZF treatment prevented weight loss and resulted in normal performance in the swimming endurance test, which may be a measure of stress and/or depression. Similarly, acute administration of a single 20 mg/kg dose of BZF prevented some of the nicotine-withdrawal effects; lower doses were almost inert. These studies, although preliminary, suggest that the BZF may have value in treating nicotine addiction.
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Passiflora incarnata Linn. has been used to cure anxiety and insomnia since time immemorial. Despite the worldwide use of P. incarnata, the pharmacological work on this plant had been inadequate, inconclusive and wage as the earlier reports were unable to infer the mode of action of the plant as well as the phytoconstituents responsible for the much acclaimed anxiolytic and sedative effects of P. incarnata. An attempt has been made to isolate and identify the bioactive phytomoiety of P. incarnata by resorting to bioactivity directed fractionation and chromatographic procedures. A fraction derived from the methanol extract of P. incarnata has been observed to exhibit significant anxiolytic activity at a dose of 10 mg/kg in mice using elevated plus-maze model of anxiety. This fraction comprises mainly two components which are visible as blue and turquoise colored fluorescent spots at 366 nm of the UV light. The possibility of a phytoconstituent having benzoflavone nucleus as the basic moiety being responsible for the bioactivity of P. incarnata is highly anticipated.
Article
A benzoflavone moiety has been reported recently to be responsible for the multifarious CNS effects of Passiflora incarnata Linneaus. In the light of the established usefulness of the benzoflavone moiety in counteracting the withdrawal effects of substances like morphine, cannabinoids and nicotine by the authors, the bioactive benzoflavone moiety (BZF) has been tested in mice treated with an addictive dose (2 g/kg, bid for 6 days) of ethyl alcohol, in order to evaluate its effectiveness in countering alcohol dependence. In a 7-day regimen, different groups of mice were administered vehicle, alcohol and alcohol+three doses (10, 20 and 50 mg/kg of the benzoflavone moiety) of P. incarnata; all treatments (chronic) being administered orally, twice daily for 6 days. Similarly, three other groups of mice were rendered addicts upon alcohol by administration of the addictive dose (2 g/kg, bid for 6 days) of ethyl alcohol, and a single acute administration of 10, 20 and 50 mg/kg dose of benzoflavone moiety was given on the 7th day. In both, chronic and acute administrations, the benzoflavone moiety prevented significantly the expression of withdrawal effects of alcohol as there was a significant decrease in anxiety oriented behavior in mice that received benzoflavone moiety of P. incarnata. The chronic administration of P. incarnata with alcohol had better preventive effects than the single acute treatment with P. incarnata in alcohol-dependent mice.
Article
The newly reported benzoflavone moiety from the plant Passiflora incarnata Linneaus has been evaluated in light of traditional reports on the use of P. incarnata in breaking down cannabis addiction. In the modern or allopathic system of therapeutics, there has been no suitable remedy to combat the severe withdrawal effects of various cannabis products, including marihuana, marijuana, bhang, hashish, ganja, etc., the world-wide consumption of which has attained alarming proportions especially among the younger generation. Mice were given a 10-mg-kg(-1) twice-daily dose of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC) by mouth for six days to make them dependent upon cannabinoids. Concurrently, other groups of mice were administered delta9-THC along with a 10- or 20-mg-kg(-1) twice-daily dose of the benzoflavone moiety from P. incarnata orally for 6 days. Upon measuring locomotor activity during the treatment regimen, it was noticed that the mice receiving the P. incarnata extract and delta9-THC together developed significantly less tolerance and dependence, relative to the mice receiving delta9-THC alone. Upon administration of SR-141716A, a selective cannabinoid-receptor antagonist (10 mg kg(-1), p.o.) to all the groups of mice on the 7th day, an artificial withdrawal was produced due to an abrupt decline of delta9-THC levels in mouse brain. However, the typical withdrawal effects like paw tremors and head shakes were significantly less in the mice given delta9-THC+P. incarnata benzoflavone moiety for 6 days. Upon administration of 20 mg kg(-1) of the P. incarnata benzoflavone moiety to mice showing severe symptoms of withdrawal due to administration of SR-141716A, there was a marked attenuation of withdrawal effects, thereby suggesting the usefulness of the benzoflavone moiety in delta9-THC withdrawal. Thus, the benzoflavone moiety of P. incarnata, when administered concurrently with delta9-THC, prevented the development of tolerance and dependence of cannabinoids in mice. Even an acute administration of the benzoflavone moiety (20 mg kg(-1), p.o.) significantly blocked the expression of withdrawal effects in delta9-THC-dependent mice.