Critically ill infants and children with influenza A (H1N1) in pediatric intensive care units in Argentina
To determine the epidemiological features, course, and outcomes of critically ill pediatric patients with Influenza A (H1N1) virus. Prospective cohort of children in pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) due to Influenza A (H1N1) virus infection. Seventeen medical-surgical PICUs in tertiary care hospital in Argentina. All consecutive patients admitted to the PICUs with influenza A (H1N1) viral infection from 15 June to 31 July 2009. Of 437 patients with acute lower respiratory infection in PICUs, 147 (34%) were diagnosed with influenza A (H1N1) related to critical illness. The median age of these patients was 10 months (IQR 3-59). Invasive mechanical ventilation was used in 117 (84%) on admission. The rate of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was 80% (118 of 147 patients). Initial non-invasive ventilation failed in 19 of 22 attempts (86%). Mortality at 28 days was 39% (n = 57). Chronic complex conditions (CCCs), acute renal dysfunction (ARD) and ratio PaO(2)/FiO(2) at day 3 on MV were independently associated with a higher risk of mortality. The odds ratio (OR) for CCCs was 3.06, (CI 95% 1.36-6.84); OR for ARD, 3.38, (CI 95% 1.45-10.33); OR for PaO(2)/FiO(2), 4 (CI 95% 1.57-9.59). The administration of oseltamivir within 24 h after admission had a protective effect: OR 0.2 (CI 95% 0.07-0.54). In children with ARDS, H1N1 as an etiologic agent confers high mortality, and the presence of CCCs in such patients increases the risk of death.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: Respiratory viruses are increasingly recognized as significant etiologies of pneumonia among hospitalized patients. Advanced technologies using multiplex molecular assays and polymerase-chain reaction increase the ability to identify viral pathogens and may ultimately impact antibacterial use. Method: This was a single-center retrospective cohort study to evaluate the impact of antibacterials in viral pneumonia on clinical outcomes and subsequent multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO) infections/colonization. Patients admitted from March 2013 to November 2014 with positive respiratory viral panels (RVP) and radiographic findings of pneumonia were included. Patients transferred from an outside hospital or not still hospitalized 72 hours after the RVP report date were excluded. Patients were categorized based on exposure to systemic antibacterials: less than 3 days representing short-course therapy and 3 to 10 days being long-course therapy. Results: A total of 174 patients (long-course, n = 67; short-course, n = 28; mixed bacterial-viral infection, n = 79) were included with most being immunocompromised (56.3 %) with active malignancy the primary etiology (69.4 %). Rhinovirus/Enterovirus (23 %), Influenza (19 %), and Parainfluenza (15.5 %) were the viruses most commonly identified. A total of 13 different systemic antibacterials were used as empiric therapy in the 95 patients with pure viral infection for a total of 466 days-of-therapy. Vancomycin (50.7 %), cefepime (40.3 %), azithromycin (40.3 %), meropenem (23.9 %), and linezolid (20.9 %) were most frequently used. In-hospital mortality did not differ between patients with viral pneumonia in the short-course and long-course groups. Subsequent infection/colonization with a MDRO was more frequent in the long-course group compared to the short-course group (53.2 vs 21.1 %; P = 0.027). Conclusion: This study found that long-course antibacterial use in the setting of viral pneumonia had no impact on clinical outcomes but increased the incidence of subsequent MDRO infection/colonization.0Comments 0Citations
- "Interactions between viral and bacterial respiratory pathogens have been recognized dating back to the 1918 influenza pandemic  . Bacterial pneumonia is a wellrecognized serious complication of influenza infections and coinfections are commonplace2345678910. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza viruses, rhinoviruses, and adenoviruses have also been linked to bacterial coinfections in humans1112131415161718 . "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Patients suffering from an H1N1 infection mainly suffer from respiratory symptoms but may also develop symptoms in other organ systems, such as the kidneys. Case-diagnosis/treatment A 4 ½ year-old boy was admitted with relatively mild respiratory symptoms of H1N1 infection, but developed severe generalized proximal tubular dysfunction with sterile leucocyturia and a reversible rise in serum creatinine. He made a full recovery with supportive therapy. Conclusion Influenza H1N1 may be associated with acute tubulointerstitial nephritis.0Comments 2Citations
- "A recent study revealed an incidence of 34 % of acute kidney injury among 628 ICU patients with H1N1 infection . The data available for pediatric patients mostly relates to patients with underlying kidney disease and describes a wide range in incidence . There are two case reports on children with H1N1 infection who developed acute glomerulonephritis [3, 4]. "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is a paucity of data about the clinical characteristics that help identify patients at high risk of influenza infection upon ICU admission. We aimed to identify predictors of influenza infection in patients admitted to ICUs during the 2007/2008 and 2008/2009 influenza seasons and the second wave of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic as well as to identify populations with increased likelihood of seasonal and pandemic 2009 influenza (pH1N1) infection. Six Toronto acute care hospitals participated in active surveillance for laboratory-confirmed influenza requiring ICU admission during periods of influenza activity from 2007 to 2009. Nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained from patients who presented to our hospitals with acute respiratory or cardiac illness or febrile illness without a clear nonrespiratory aetiology. Predictors of influenza were assessed by multivariable logistic regression analysis and the likelihood of influenza in different populations was calculated. In 5,482 patients, 126 (2.3%) were found to have influenza. Admission temperature ≥38°C (odds ratio (OR) 4.7 for pH1N1, 2.3 for seasonal influenza) and admission diagnosis of pneumonia or respiratory infection (OR 7.3 for pH1N1, 4.2 for seasonal influenza) were independent predictors for influenza. During the peak weeks of influenza seasons, 17% of afebrile patients and 27% of febrile patients with pneumonia or respiratory infection had influenza. During the second wave of the 2009 pandemic, 26% of afebrile patients and 70% of febrile patients with pneumonia or respiratory infection had influenza. The findings of our study may assist clinicians in decision making regarding optimal management of adult patients admitted to ICUs during future influenza seasons. Influenza testing, empiric antiviral therapy and empiric infection control precautions should be considered in those patients who are admitted during influenza season with a diagnosis of pneumonia or respiratory infection and are either febrile or admitted during weeks of peak influenza activity.0Comments 8Citations
- "The 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic had a substantial effect on ICUs  in that pandemic 2009 influenza (pH1N1) infection was associated with severe hypoxemia , multisystem organ failure, requirements for prolonged mechanical ventilation and the need for rescue therapies2345. Many observational cohort studies, both from the 2009 pandemic and of seasonal influenza pre-pandemic, have found that antiviral therapy for influenza is associated with significantly improved outcomes, particularly when it is initiated within 48 hours of the onset of symptoms678 . "