Cystine 186-cystine 209 disulfide bond is not essential for the procoagulant activity of tissue factor or for its de-encryption

ArticleinBlood 115(21):4273-83 · March 2010with18 Reads
DOI: 10.1182/blood-2009-09-241356 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
Tissue factor (TF) on cell surfaces resides mostly in a cryptic state. It is not entirely clear how cryptic TF differs from procoagulantly active TF and how deencryption occurs. Here, we critically evaluated the importance of cystine 186-cystine 209 (Cys186-Cys209) bond formation for TF procoagulant activity and its de-encryption. Chinese hamster ovary cells transfected with TF(C186S), TF(C209S), or TF(C186S/C209S) expressed little procoagulant activity at the cell surface. TF monoclonal antibody and activated factor VII (FVIIa) binding studies showed that little TF protein was present at the cell surface in cells expressing mutant TF. Similar data were obtained in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) transduced to express TF(C186S), TF(C209S), or TF(C186S/C209S). Analysis of TF activity in HUVECs expressing similar levels of wild-type TF and TF(C186S/C209S) showed that TF mutant in the presence of saturating concentrations of FVIIa exhibited similar coagulant activity as that of wild-type TF. More importantly, treatment of HUVECs expressing TF(C186S/C209S) with HgCl(2) or ionomycin increased the cell-surface TF activity to the same extent as that of the wild-type TF. Our data provide clear evidence that TF lacking the Cys186-Cys209 bond is coagulantly active once it is complexed with FVIIa, and TF de-encryption does not require Cys186-Cys209 disulfide bond formation.
    • "TF mAbs (9C3 and 10H10) and FVIIa were labeled with 125 I using Iodo-Gen (Thermo Scientific , Rockford, IL, USA)-coated polypropylene tubes and Na 125 I (Perkin Elmer, Waltham, MA, USA) according to manufacturer's protocol and as described previously [23,24] . A saturating concentration of the radiolabeled TF mAb or FVIIa (10 nM) were added to the cells in buffer B (buffer A containing 1 mg/ml bovine serum albumin [BSA], 5 mM CaCl 2 and 1 mM MgCl 2 ) and incubated for 2 h on ice in the cold room. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS) on the outer leaflet of the cell membrane is thought to play a critical role in tissue factor (TF) decryption. Recent molecular dynamics simulation studies suggested that the TF ectodomain may directly interact with PS. To investigate the potential role of TF direct interaction with the cell surface phospholipids on basal TF activity and the enhanced TF activity following the decryption, one or all of the putative PS-interactive residues in the TF ectodomain were mutated and tested for their coagulant activity in cell systems. Out of the 9 selected TF mutants, five of them -TFS160A, TFS161A, TFS162A, TFK165A, and TFD180A- exhibited a similar TF coagulant activity to that of the wild-type TF. The specific activity of three mutants, TFK159A, TFS163A, and TFK166A, was reduced substantially. Mutation of the glycine residue at the position 164 markedly abrogated the TF coagulant activity, resulting in ~90% inhibition. Mutation of all nine lipid binding residues together did not further decrease the activity of TF compared to TFG164A. A similar fold increase in TF activity was observed in wild-type TF and all TF mutants following the treatment of THP-1 cells with either calcium ionomycin or HgCl2, two agents that are commonly used to decrypt TF. Overall, our data show that a few select TF residues that are implicated in interacting with PS contribute to the TF coagulant activity at the cell surface. However, our data also indicate that TF regions outside of the putative lipid binding region may also contribute to PS-dependent decryption of TF.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2016
    • "Lung homogenates were diluted 1:1 in buffer A (10 mM Hepes, 0.15 M NaCl, 4 mM KCl, 11 mM glucose, pH 7.5) containing 20 mM octyl b-D-glucopyranoside . TF activity in lung homogenates was measured by adding either mouse FVIIa (for wild-type) or human FVIIa (for low TF and HTF mice) (10 nM) and human FX (175 nM) and measuring FXa generation in a chromogenic assay as described earlier [39]. Isolation, culture and ex vivo M.tb infection of mouse macrophages Bone-marrow-derived macrophages and resident peritoneal macrophages were prepared from 6–8 week old wild-type, HTF and low TF mice as described [40]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic lung infectious disease characterized by severe inflammation and lung granulomatous lesion formation. Clinical manifestations of TB include hypercoagulable states and thrombotic complications. We previously showed that Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) infection induces tissue factor (TF) expression in macrophages in vitro. TF plays a key role in coagulation and inflammation. In the present study, we investigated the role of TF in M.tb-induced inflammatory responses, mycobacterial growth in the lung and dissemination to other organs. Wild-type C57BL/6 and transgenic mice expressing human TF, either very low levels (low TF) or near to the level of wild-type (HTF), in place of murine TF were infected with M.tb via aerosol exposure. Levels of TF expression, proinflammatory cytokines and thrombin-antithrombin complexes were measured post M.tb infection and mycobacterial burden in the tissue homogenates were evaluated. Our results showed that M.tb infection did not increase the overall TF expression in lungs. However, macrophages in the granulomatous lung lesions in all M.tb-infected mice, including low TF mice, showed increased levels of TF expression. Conspicuous fibrin deposition in the granuloma was detected in wild-type and HTF mice but not in low TF mice. M.tb infection significantly increased expression levels of cytokines IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1ß in lung tissues. However, no significant differences were found in proinflammatory cytokines among the three experimental groups. Mycobacterial burden in lungs and dissemination into spleen and liver were essentially similar in all three genotypes. Our data indicate, in contrast to that observed in acute bacterial infections, that TF-mediated coagulation and/or signaling does not appear to contribute to the host-defense in experimental tuberculosis.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014
    • "Confluent monolayers of HUVEC cultured in 100 mm dish were infected with control and TF adenovirus [34] (10 moi/cell). Two days post-infection, cells were washed with buffer A (10 mM Hepes, 0.15 M NaCl, 4 mM KCl, 11 mM glucose, pH 7.5), and then treated with calcium ionomycin (10 mM) in buffer B (buffer A containing 5 mM CaCl 2 and 1 mg/ml bovine serum albumin) for 20 min at 37uC. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies have suggested that antithrombin (AT) could act as a significant physiologic regulator of FVIIa. However, in vitro studies showed that AT could inhibit FVIIa effectively only when it was bound to tissue factor (TF). Circulating blood is known to contain only traces of TF, at best. FVIIa also binds endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR), but the role of EPCR on FVIIa inactivation by AT is unknown. The present study was designed to investigate the role of TF and EPCR in inactivation of FVIIa by AT in vivo. Low human TF mice (low TF, ∼1% expression of the mouse TF level) and high human TF mice (HTF, ∼100% of the mouse TF level) were injected with human rFVIIa (120 µg kg-1 body weight) via the tail vein. At varying time intervals following rFVIIa administration, blood was collected to measure FVIIa-AT complex and rFVIIa antigen levels in the plasma. Despite the large difference in TF expression in the mice, HTF mice generated only 40-50% more of FVIIa-AT complex as compared to low TF mice. Increasing the concentration of TF in vivo in HTF mice by LPS injection increased the levels of FVIIa-AT complexes by about 25%. No significant differences were found in FVIIa-AT levels among wild-type, EPCR-deficient, and EPCR-overexpressing mice. The levels of FVIIa-AT complex formed in vitro and ex vivo were much lower than that was found in vivo. In summary, our results suggest that traces of TF that may be present in circulating blood or extravascular TF that is transiently exposed during normal vessel damage contributes to inactivation of FVIIa by AT in circulation. However, TF's role in AT inactivation of FVIIa appears to be minor and other factor(s) present in plasma, on blood cells or vascular endothelium may play a predominant role in this process.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014
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