Antineoplastic Effects of Decitabine, an Inhibitor of DNA Promoter Methylation, in Adrenocortical Carcinoma Cells

Department of Surgery and Helen Diller Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California-San Francisco, CA 94143-1674, USA.
Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill.: 1960) (Impact Factor: 4.93). 03/2010; 145(3):226-32. DOI: 10.1001/archsurg.2009.292
Source: PubMed


Decitabine recovers expression of silenced genes on chromosome 11q13 and has antineoplastic effects in adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) cells.
NCI-H295R cells were treated with decitabine (0.1-1.0 microM) over 5 days. Cells were evaluated at 24-hour intervals for the effects of decitabine on ACC cell proliferation, cortisol secretion, and cell invasion. Expression was quantified for 6 genes on 11q13 (DDB1, MRPL48, NDUFS8, PRDX5, SERPING1, and TM7SF2) that were previously shown to be underexpressed in ACC.
Academic research. Study Specimen Human ACC cell line.
Adrenocortical carcinoma cell proliferation, cortisol secretion, and cell invasion were measured using immunometric assays. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to measure gene expression relative to GAPDH.
Decitabine inhibited ACC cell proliferation by 39% to 47% at 5 days after treatment compared with control specimens (P < .001). The inhibitory effect was cytostatic, time dependent, and dose dependent. Decitabine decreased cortisol secretion by 56% to 58% at 5 days after treatment (P = .02) and inhibited cell invasion by 64% at 24 hours after treatment (P = .03). Of 6 downregulated genes on 11q13, decitabine recovered expression of NDUFS8 (OMIM 602141) (P < .001) and PRDX5 (OMIM 606583) (P = .006).
Decitabine exhibits antitumoral properties in ACC cells at clinically achievable doses and may be an effective adjuvant therapy in patients with advanced disease. Decitabine recovers expression of silenced genes on 11q13, which suggests a possible role of epigenetic gene silencing in adrenocortical carcinogenesis.

Download full-text


Available from: Gustavo G Fernandez-Ranvier, Jun 17, 2015
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Adrenocortical carcinoma is an aggressive, lethal malignancy of the adrenal cortex. The rarity of the disease has stymied therapeutic development. Recent work toward understanding the molecular pathogenesis of the disease has identified several potential new diagnostic and therapeutic targets. The molecular characterization of adrenocortical carcinoma has identified dysregulation of the Gap 2/mitosis transition and the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor signaling cascade as two major pathways for therapeutic development. These studies have also highlighted an unappreciated heterogeneity of the disease at the gene level that nevertheless seems to converge onto common cellular pathways. Additionally, the characterization of Wnt signaling through β-catenin in adrenal development, the demonstration of the involvement of BMP signaling in adrenocortical carcinoma growth regulation, and the discovery that ERCC1 expression levels can predict therapeutic response to platinum are just a few of the recent advances that promise to shed light on adrenocortical carcinoma biology. Short-term, therapeutic development should target the Gap 2/mitosis transition and the downstream signaling of the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor receptor. Long-term, additional characterization of patient samples, particularly at the sequence level, is required to fully understand adrenocortical carcinoma biology and apply that knowledge to clinical practice.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · Current opinion in oncology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare but aggressive malignancy with a poor prognosis. Complete surgical resection offers the only potential for cure; however, even after apparently successful excision, local or metastatic recurrence is frequent. Treatment options for advanced ACC are severely limited. Mitotane is the only recognized adrenolytic therapy available; however, response rates are modest and unpredictable whereas systemic toxicities are significant. Reported responses to conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy have also been disappointing, and the rarity of ACC had hampered the ability to undertake randomized clinical studies until the establishment of the First International Randomized Trial in Locally Advanced and Metastatic Adrenocortical Carcinoma. This yet-to-be reported study seeks to identify the most effective first- and second-line cytotoxic regimens. The past decade has also seen increasing research into the molecular pathogenesis of ACCs, with particular interest in the insulin-like growth factor signaling pathway. The widespread development of small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors in broader oncological practice is now allowing for the rational selection of targeted therapies to study in ACC. In this review, we discuss the currently available therapeutic options for patients with advanced ACC and detail the molecular rationale behind, and clinical evidence for, novel and emerging therapies.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2011 · The Oncologist
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Epigenetic drugs are promising add-ons to cancer treatment; still, adverse effects concerning tumour promotion have been reported occasionally. In this in vitro study, we investigated the effect of combination treatment of decitabine with anthracycline-based chemotherapy [5-fluorouracil plus epirubicine plus cyclophosphamide (FEC)] on viability and metastatic activity of breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 (estrogen receptor-negative) and MCF-7 (estrogen receptor-positive). The effect of decitabine and its combined treatment with FEC on viability of both cancer cell lines was assessed using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) cell survival assays. DNA methylation specific real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (Methylight®) was employed to document the methylation status of the metastasis-relevant urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-I (PAI-1) genes. Additionally, protein expression levels of uPA and PAI-1 were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Invasion capacity of cells was assayed using Matrigel® invasion assay. Decitabine lowered the viability of MCF-7 cells, although MDA-MB-231 cells were not affected. Decitabine did not augment FEC-mediated cytotoxicity in both cell lines. In MCF-7 cells, methylation of the uPA and PAI-1 gene promoter was significantly reduced by decitabine or decitabine plus FEC. Protein levels of uPA and PAI-1 were induced by all treatments. Decitabine significantly induced the invasion capacity of MCF-7 cells, whereas all of the drugs resulted in decreased invasion capacity of MDA-MB-231. Our results suggest differential effects of single-dose decitabine and its combination with FEC on the metastatic capacity and survival of breast cancer cell lines endowed with different metastatic behaviour.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2011 · Cell Biochemistry and Function
Show more