Serrated Lesions of the Appendix A Morphologic and Immunohistochemical Appraisal
We performed a histologic and immunohistochemical assessment of 53 noninvasive appendiceal epithelial proliferations, appropriating terminology and using markers shown useful in differentiating serrated colorectal polyps. These were classified as hyperplastic polyp (HP), sessile serrated adenoma (SSA), mixed serrated and adenomatous lesion (MSAL), mucinous cystadenoma (MCA), or conventional adenoma (CAD). Immunohistochemical analysis for cytokeratin (CK) 20, Ki-67, MUC6, and beta-catenin was performed. Diagnoses were as follows: HP, 6; SSA, 12; HP vs SSA, 3; MSAL, 16; MCA, 14; and CAD, 2. All HPs showed expanded (beyond surface) CK20 and expanded or normal (base) Ki-67; 1 was MUC6+. Most SSAs and MSALs were CK20-expanded or expanded with random expression in deep crypts (Ex/I) and Ki-67-expanded, Ex/I (expanded with asymmetry), or normal. All SSAs and 8 of 16 MSALs were MUC6+. CADs were CK20-Ex/I, Ki-67-Ex, and MUC6-; 1 showed nuclear beta-catenin expression. Serrated appendiceal lesions can be categorized using colorectal terminology. MUC6 is associated with SSA morphologic features. Similar immunohistochemical patterns in SSA and MSAL suggest a link between these lesions.
Available from: Chouhei Sakakura
- "Regarding the IHC profile of SSL found in colon, the loss of hMLH-1 and MGMT was reported to play an important role in the serrated neoplasia carcinogenesis pathway , and colon carcinomas with high-level microsatellite instability (MSI) have been estimated to be in at least 20% of the right-sided colon carcinomas. On the other hand, although some IHC analysis of appendiceal adenocarcinoma has been reported [14, 17, 18], very few were investigating lesions containing SSL. "
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ABSTRACT: Although the definition of sessile serrated lesion (SSL) of colon is controversial and the risk of progression to malignancy is also under investigation at present, SSL is generally described as a polyp characterized by a serrated architecture. It is estimated to represent a feature of a new cancerization pathway, coined "serrated neoplasia pathway," particularly in right-sided colon adenocarcinomas. On the other hand, in appendix, the role of this pathway remains uncertain, probably because very few cases of appendiceal adenocarcinoma associated with SSL were reported, and furthermore, immunohistochemical examination was rarely carried out. We herein report an interesting case of invasive appendiceal mucinous adenocarcinoma exhibiting SSL, which was pathologically estimated as a potential precursor lesion, and performed representative immunohistochemistry for both the mucinous adenocarcinoma and SSL in the same specimen. To further elucidate the progression of the appendiceal carcinoma from SSL, both an adequate sectioning of the lesion and systematic immunohistochemical examination of a large number of appendiceal carcinoma cases containing adjacent SSL would be required.
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ABSTRACT: Appendiceal mucinous neoplasms are considered enigmatic tumors of unpredictable biologic potential. Their importance lies in their potential to spread to the peritoneum and viscera in the form of gelatinous mucin deposits. Extra-appendiceal spread of these tumors is the most common etiology of pseudomyxoma peritonei , which is a descriptive term encompassing a number of neoplastic and nonneoplastic peritoneal disorders. Many studies aimed at evaluating the biologic importance of appendiceal mucinous neoplasms and pseudomyxoma peritonei have employed inconsistent histologic criteria for their diagnosis and descriptive terminology for their classification. As a result, appendiceal mucinous neoplasms and associated peritoneal disease represents one of the most confusing and controversial areas in gastrointestinal pathology.
To summarize the literature regarding the biologic potential of appendiceal mucinous neoplasms and pseudomyxoma peritonei and to discuss the similarities and differences between proposed systems for their classification.
Literature review and case-derived material.
Many studies have contributed to an increased understanding of the natural progression of mucinous neoplasms of the appendix and peritoneum, and the adoption of a uniform reporting system, as advocated by the American Joint Committee on Cancer and the World Health Organization, will facilitate clear communication among pathologists and clinical colleagues.
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