Article

Md and Anuar N, Pollution control technologies for the treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) through end-of-pipe processes

Chemical and Sustainable Process Engineering Research Group, School of Engineering, Monash University, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway, 46150, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia. wu.ta.yeong@eng
Journal of Environmental Management (Impact Factor: 2.72). 03/2010; 91(7):1467-90. DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2010.02.008
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Palm oil production is one of the major industries in Malaysia and this country ranks one of the largest productions in the world. In Malaysia, the total production of crude palm oil in 2008 was 17,734,441 tonnes. However, the production of this amount of crude palm oil results in even larger amounts of palm oil mill effluent (POME). In the year 2008 alone, at least 44 million tonnes of POME was generated in Malaysia. Currently, the ponding system is the most common treatment method for POME but other processes such as aerobic and anaerobic digestion, physicochemical treatment and membrane filtration may also provide the palm oil industries with possible insights into the improvement of POME treatment processes. Generally, open ponding offers low capital and operating costs but this conventional method is becoming less attractive because the methane produced is wasted to the atmosphere and the system can not be certified for Carbon Emission Reduction trading. On the other hand, anaerobic digestion of POME provides the fastest payback of investment because the treatment enables biogas recovery for heat generation and treated effluent for land application. Lastly, it is proposed herewith that wastewater management based on the promotion of cleaner production and environmentally sound biotechnologies should be prioritized and included as a part of the POME management in Malaysia for attaining sustainable development. This paper thus discusses and compares state-of-the-art POME treatment methods as well as their individual performances.

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Available from: Jamaliah Md Jahim
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    • "In 2013 and 2014, Malaysia produced 19,216,459 tonnes and 19,666,953 tonnes of the crude palm oil (CPO) respectively [1]. A huge quantity of palm oil mill effluent (POME) which contains high concentrations of Chemical oxygen demand (COD) (45,500-65,000 mg L À1 ), biological oxygen demand (BOD) (21,500-28,500 mg L À1 ), total nitrogen (TN) (500-800 mg L À1 ), total phosphorus (TP) (94-131 mg L À1 ), oil and grease (OG) (1077-7582 mg L À1 ) and total solid (TS) (33,790-37,230 mg L À1 ), is generated with the production of CPO [2]. It is estimated that approximately 2.5-3.75 tonnes of POME is emitted for every tonne of CPO produced [3]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, Palm oil mill effluent (POME) nutrients removal by microalgae and its biomass growth have been explored. A novel green microalgal strain was isolated from POME of Sime Darby East Palm Oil Mill in Malaysia and was identified as Chlamydomonas sp and subsequently named Chlamydomonas sp UKM 6. This strain was cultivated in media with different volume ratios of POME and distilled water. The result showed Chlamydomonas sp UKM 6 that grew in the media with 25%, 16.7% and 12.5% POME exhibited high maximum specific growth rates of 0.715 day-1, 1.047 day-1 and 1.353 day-1, and biomass production of 0.634 ± 0.042 g L-1, 0.917 ± 0.026 g L-1 and 0.716 ± 0.045 g L-1, respectively. The ranges of removal efficiency of COD, TN, NH4+-N and TP from media of different ratios of POME were 8.59-29.13%, 43.5-72.97%, 58.58-100% and 38.15-63.53%, respectively. The results indicate the potential of microalgae for biomass production and POME nutrients removal.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · International Journal of Hydrogen Energy
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    • "However, the drawbacks of anaerobic treatment are long hydraulic retention times (HRT) and long start-up period [7]. As for example, anaerobic pond method required HRT of 40 days to remove 97.8% of COD content in POME [8] while high rate system such as closed tank digester still required 10 days of HRT [9]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Keywords: Palm oil mill effluent Fenton process Nano zero valent iron CODUltrasound Current practice which utilized aerobic process to treat anaerobically treated palm oil mill effluent (AT–POME) still required much time due to the long hydraulic retention time (HRT) and start–up time. This experiment study the characteristics of AT–POME and the removal of organic pollutants from the solution by an aerated heterogeneous sono–Fenton process. Nano zero valent iron (nZVI) dispersed by vigorous aeration and low frequency ultrasound (24 kHz) were used in the treatment process. The effect of flow rate, power input, ultrasonic duration and reaction time on chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal from AT–POME was investigated and optimized. Results show that AT–POME contain 4568 mg/L of COD. Model predicted that approximately 93% of the COD content could be removed from AT–POME at optimum condition of the treatment process. The degradation data show that the COD removal from AT– POME via aerated heterogeneous sono–Fenton process experienced a biphasic behaviour and it well fitted with second–order kinetic model. The overall results indicate that aerated heterogeneous sono–Fenton process is a promising way to accelerate the removal of COD from AT–POME, thus could save the overall treatment time for raw palm oil mill effluent (POME).
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Advances in Environmental Biology
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    • "Conventional facultative lagoons and open digesting tanks are the most commonly employed designs to treat POME. Although these processes require relatively little capital investment and operational energy, they require longer retention times usually in range of 20∼60 days and extensive land area [2] [3] [4] [5]. Additionally, enormous quantities of undigested suspended solids (SS) would gradually settle down at the bottom and occupy bulk of the lagoon area. "
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    ABSTRACT: Large volumes of untreated palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose threat to aquatic environment due to the presence of very high organic content. The present investigation involved two pilot-scale anaerobic expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors, continuously operated for 1 year to treat POME. Setting HRT at 9.8 d, the anaerobic EGSB reactors reduced COD from 71179 mg/L to 12341 mg/L and recycled half of sludge by a dissolved air flotation (DAF). The average effluent COD was 3587 mg/L with the consistent COD removal efficiency of 94.89%. Adding cationic polymer (PAM) dose of 30 mg/L to DAF unit and recycling its half of sludge caused granulation of anaerobic sludge. Bacilli and small coccid bacteria were the dominant microbial species of the reactor. The reactor produced 27.65 m(3) of biogas per m(3) of POME which was utilized for electricity generation.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015
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Questions & Answers about this publication

  • Rodrigo Fernando dos Santos Salazar added an answer in Wastewater Analysis:
    Under what conditions should you store olive mill wastewater before use?
    I recovered olive mill wastewater for microbiological analyzes and biological treatment.
    Rodrigo Fernando dos Santos Salazar
    Dear Saiba Ali,
    It will depend of Aw in your wastewater. You maintain your wastewater in cool chambers at 4 ºC wether use them in a few days / weeks.

    If you want more information I sugest this article for purpose of yours.

    P.E. Poh, M.F. Chong. Development of anaerobic digestion methods for palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment (Review). Biosource Technology, v. 100, n. 1, 1-9, 2009
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      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: Palm oil production is one of the major industries in Malaysia and this country ranks one of the largest productions in the world. In Malaysia, the total production of crude palm oil in 2008 was 17,734,441 tonnes. However, the production of this amount of crude palm oil results in even larger amounts of palm oil mill effluent (POME). In the year 2008 alone, at least 44 million tonnes of POME was generated in Malaysia. Currently, the ponding system is the most common treatment method for POME but other processes such as aerobic and anaerobic digestion, physicochemical treatment and membrane filtration may also provide the palm oil industries with possible insights into the improvement of POME treatment processes. Generally, open ponding offers low capital and operating costs but this conventional method is becoming less attractive because the methane produced is wasted to the atmosphere and the system can not be certified for Carbon Emission Reduction trading. On the other hand, anaerobic digestion of POME provides the fastest payback of investment because the treatment enables biogas recovery for heat generation and treated effluent for land application. Lastly, it is proposed herewith that wastewater management based on the promotion of cleaner production and environmentally sound biotechnologies should be prioritized and included as a part of the POME management in Malaysia for attaining sustainable development. This paper thus discusses and compares state-of-the-art POME treatment methods as well as their individual performances.
      Full-text · Article · Mar 2010 · Journal of Environmental Management