Intake of fiber and nuts during adolescence and incidence of proliferative benign breast disease

Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 181 Longwood Avenue, 3rd Floor, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
Cancer Causes and Control (Impact Factor: 2.74). 03/2010; 21(7):1033-46. DOI: 10.1007/s10552-010-9532-7
Source: PubMed


We examined the association between adolescent fiber intake and proliferative BBD, a marker of increased breast cancer risk, in the Nurses' Health Study II.
Among 29,480 women who completed a high school diet questionnaire in 1998, 682 proliferative BBD cases were identified and confirmed by centralized pathology review between 1991 and 2001. Multivariate-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
Women in the highest quintile of adolescent fiber intake had a 25% lower risk of proliferative BBD (multivariate HR (95% CI): 0.75 (0.59, 0.96), p-trend = 0.01) than women in the lowest quintile. High school intake of nuts was also related to significantly reduced BBD risk. Women consuming >or=2 servings of nuts/week had a 36% lower risk (multivariate HR (95% CI): 0.64 (0.48, 0.85), p-trend < 0.01) than women consuming <1 serving/month. Results were essentially the same when the analysis was restricted to prospective cases (n = 142) diagnosed after return of the high school diet questionnaire.
These findings support the hypothesis that dietary intake of fiber and nuts during adolescence influences subsequent risk of breast disease and may suggest a viable means for breast cancer prevention.

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    • "A similar risk reduction (HR: .75, 95% CI: .59e.96) attributed to fiber was reported by Su et al. in an updated analysis of the NHS II data [32]. Although total fiber intake conferred a protective effect, there was little evidence of an association between eating fiber derived from produce (fruits and vegetables) and P-BBD [18,32]. "
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    ABSTRACT: It is well established that exposures during childhood and adolescence affect breast cancer risk much later in life. Recently, studies have begun to evaluate whether early life exposures might also impact the risk of developing benign breast disease (BBD). A diagnosis of proliferative BBD independent of other breast cancer risk factors also increases the subsequent risk of breast cancer; therefore, understanding how to decrease the incidence of BBD may have important implications for primary breast cancer prevention. We reviewed several studies from prospective cohort studies that have investigated the relationship between risk factors during childhood and adolescence, such as anthropometric and reproductive characteristics as well as diet and other behaviors, and subsequent risk of BBD. Higher intake of vegetable oils, nuts, vitamin E, and fiber and lower consumption of animal fat, red meat, and alcohol are associated with reduced risk of BBD. Childhood weight and adolescent body mass index are inversely associated with BBD risk, whereas a greater peak height velocity during adolescence is associated with a higher risk of BBD. There was no association between age of menarche and risk of BBD. Early life exposures and behaviors appear to impact BBD risk. The current body of evidence further supports the importance of a life-course approach to breast cancer prevention.
    Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Journal of Adolescent Health
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    • "High intakes of nuts and apples during adolescence also were associated with significantly reduced risk for BBD. Adolescents who consumed less than two servings of nuts per week had a 36% lower risk for BBD than adolescents who ate more than one serving per month [43]. However, an analysis of participants in the NHS II of diet during high school in 1998, at which time the participants were 34e53 years of age and observed for 7 years (1998e2005), during which time 455 invasive premenopausal breast cancer cases were diagnosed, showed that dietary fiber intake during adolescence was not significantly associated with premenopausal breast cancer development [33]. "
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    ABSTRACT: It is increasingly evident that diet during preadolescence and adolescence has important consequences for breast cancer during adulthood. However, only a few epidemiologic studies have been conducted on the relationship between diet during preadolescence and adolescence, and cancer during adulthood. This situation is partly because of methodological challenges such as the long latency period, the complexity of breast cancer, the lack of validated diet assessment tools, and the large number of subjects that must be followed, all of which increase costs. In addition, funding opportunities are few for such studies. Results from the small number of epidemiologic studies are inconsistent, but evidence is emerging that specific aspects of the diet during preadolescence and adolescence are important. For example, during preadolescence and adolescence, severe calorie restriction with poor food quality, high total fat intake, and alcohol intake tend to increase risk, whereas high soy intake decreases risk. Research on preadolescent and adolescent diet is a paradigm shift in breast cancer investigations. This research paradigm has the potential to produce transformative knowledge to inform breast cancer prevention strategies through dietary intervention during preadolescence and adolescence, rather than later in life, as is current practice, when it is perhaps less effective. Methodological challenges that have plagued the field might now be overcome by leveraging several existing large-scale cohort studies in the U.S. and around the world to investigate the role of diet during preadolescence and adolescence in risk for adult breast cancer.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2012 · Journal of Adolescent Health
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    • "Curcumin, a molecule derived from turmeric, has potential anti-cancer activity as well (Wilken et al. 2011). Curcumin inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in cancer cells via suppression of the AKT pathway (Wong et al. 2011, Sun et al. 2010, Duarte et al. 2010, Saini et al. 2011, Prakobwong et al. 2011, Zanotto-Filho et al. 2011, Sreekanth et al. 2011). Moreover, it decreases cell growth via inactivation of NF-κB, preventing DNA binding, nuclear translocation, and p65 phosphorylation. "

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