Viral Hepatitis

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Health Statistics 3311 Toledo Road, Hyattsville, Maryland 20782, USA.
NCHS data brief 03/2010; 27(27):1-8.
Source: PubMed


KEY FINDINGS: The prevalence of hepatitis A antibody, which is indicative of immunity to hepatitis A virus, increased among U.S. born persons aged 6-19, but decreased among persons aged 40 years and over. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among persons aged 6-19 has decreased in recent years. By 2003-2006, over 90% of children had received at least one dose of the recommended three-dose series of hepatitis B vaccine. Prevalence of infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) decreased among those at highest risk of infection including males and Mexican- American and non-Hispanic black populations. Despite this decrease, the prevalence of infection remains higher in the non-Hispanic black population. The peak prevalence of HCV infection has shifted over time from persons aged 30-39 years (3.9%) to those aged 40-49 years (4.3%).

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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus infection remains a leading cause of liver disease worldwide and is currently the principal reason for liver transplantation in the United States. Although the prevalence of hepatitis C has decreased, it remains the most common blood-borne infection, and simulation studies project rising disease burden that peaks in the next decade from hepatic complications in those with long-standing disease. Over the past few years, incidence rates have remained constant, emphasizing the need to understand more completely the natural history and epidemiology of acute disease to improve preventive and screening practices. Recent advances in knowledge about interactions between the virus and host genetics offer a glimpse into future genomic-based medical treatment. This review highlights current literature in hepatitis C epidemiology, focusing especially on preventable health care-related outbreaks, hepatitis B coinfection, and molecular epidemiology. KeywordsHepatitis C–Prevalence–Incidence–Epidemiology–Risk factors–Infection control–Injections–Equipment contamination–Substance abuse
    No preview · Article · Mar 2010 · Current Hepatitis Reports
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    ABSTRACT: In the United States, about 70% of 2.9-3.7 million people with hepatitis C (HCV) are unaware of their infection. Although universal screening might be a cost-effective way to identify infections, prevent morbidity, and reduce transmission, few efforts have been made to determine patient opinions about new approaches to screening. We surveyed 200 patients in August 2010 at five outpatient clinics of a major public urban medical center in Seattle, WA, with an 85.8% response rate. The sample was 55.3% women, median 47 years of age, and 56.3% white and 32.7% African or African-American; 9.5% and 2.5% reported testing positive for HCV and HIV, respectively. The vast majority of patients supported universal screening for HCV. When presented with three options for screening, 48% preferred universal testing without being informed that they were being tested or provided with negative results, 37% preferred testing with the chance to "opt-out" of being tested and without being provided with negative results, and 15% preferred testing based on clinician judgment. Results were similar for HIV screening. Patients support universal screening for HCV, even if that screening involves testing without prior consent or the routine provision of negative test results. Current screening guidelines and procedures should be reconsidered in light of patient priorities.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · BMC Infectious Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: Over the past 20 years, there has been a major increase in the safety of the blood supply, as demonstrated by declining rates of posttransfusion infection and reductions in estimated residual risk for such infections. Reliable estimates of residual risk have been possible within the American Red Cross system because of the availability of a large amount of reliable and consistent data on donations and infectious disease testing results. Among allogeneic blood donations, the prevalence rates of infection markers for hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus have decreased over time, although rates for markers of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human T-cell lymphotropic virus did not. The incidence (/100 000 person-years) of HIV and HCV among repeat donors showed apparent increases from 1.55 and 1.89 in 2000 through 2001 to 2.16 and 2.98 in 2007 through 2008. These observed fluctuations confirm the need for continuous monitoring and evaluation. The residual risk of HIV, HCV, and human T-cell lymphotropic virus among all allogeneic donations is currently below 1 per 1 million donations, and that of hepatitis B surface antigen is close to 1 per 300 000 donations.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2011 · Transfusion medicine reviews
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