Risk factors for indigenous Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli infections in The Netherlands: a case-control study

Epidemiology and Surveillance Unit, Netherlands Centre for Infectious Disease Control, National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands. :
Epidemiology and Infection (Impact Factor: 2.54). 03/2010; 138(10):1391-404. DOI: 10.1017/S095026881000052X
Source: PubMed


A case-control study comprising 1315 Campylobacter jejuni cases, 121 Campylobacter coli cases and 3409 frequency-matched controls was conducted in The Netherlands in 2002-2003. Risk factors for both C. jejuni and C. coli enteritis were consumption of undercooked meat and barbecued meat, ownership of cats and use of proton pump inhibitors. Consumption of chicken was a predominant risk factor for C. jejuni enteritis, but many additional risk factors were identified. Unique risk factors for C. coli infections were consumption of game and tripe, and swimming. Contact with farm animals and persons with gastroenteritis were predominant risk factors for C. jejuni enteritis in young children (0-4 years). Important risk factors for the elderly (>or=60 years) were eating in a restaurant, use of proton pump inhibitors and having a chronic intestinal illness. Consumption of chicken in spring, steak tartare in autumn and winter and barbecued meat in rural areas showed strong associations with C. jejuni infections. This study illustrates that important differences in risk factors exist for different Campylobacter spp. and these may differ dependent on age, season or degree of urbanization.

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Available from: Wilfrid Van Pelt
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    • "The strains in the first enteritis collection (n = 21) were isolated between 1990 and 1999 and have been previously described [11]. A second enteritis collection originates from a Dutch study performed by the Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu in 2002–2003, on behalf of a national Campylobacter and Salmonella surveillance study [27] [28]. From this large collection, we selected 122 enteritis strains that matched our GBS/MFS-associated strains based on age (decade) and sex. "
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    ABSTRACT: In about one in thousand cases, a Campylobacter jejuni infection results in the severe polyneuropathy Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). It is established that sialylated lipooligosaccharides (LOS) of C. jejuni are a crucial virulence factor in GBS development. Frequent detection of C. jejuni with sialylated LOS in stools derived from patient with uncomplicated enteritis implies that additional bacterial factors should be involved. To assess whether the polysaccharide capsule is a marker for GBS, the capsular genotype of two geographical distinct GBS-associated C. jejuni strains collections, and an uncomplicated enteritis control collection was determined. Capsule genotyping of C. jejuni strains from the Netherlands revealed that three capsule types, HS1/44c, HS2 and HS4c, were dominant in GBS-associated strains and capsular types HS1/44c and HS4c were significantly associated with GBS (P = 0.05 and P = 0.01 respectively) when compared to uncomplicated enteritis. In a GBS-associated strain collection from Bangladesh, capsular types HS23/36c, HS19, and HS41 were most prevalent and the capsular types HS19 and HS41 associated with GBS (P = 0.008 and P = 0.02 respectively). Next, specific combinations of the LOS class and capsular genotypes were identified that were related to the occurrence of GBS. Multilocus sequence tying revealed restricted genetic diversity for strains populations with the capsular types HS2, HS19 and HS41. We conclude that capsular types HS1/44c, HS2, HS4c, HS19, HS23/36c and HS41 are markers for GBS. Besides a crucial role for sialylated LOS of C. jejuni in GBS pathogenesis, the identified capsules may contribute to GBS susceptibility. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Clinical Microbiology and Infection
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    • "The reported severity of illness appears to be slightly higher compared to others [48]. Compared to other countries the proportion of hospitalised patients (14 %) was higher [13, 48] or slightly lower [52]. This variability could be due to differences in health systems, including differing notification criteria, case definitions and health care provider structures. "
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    ABSTRACT: Campylobacteriosis is the most frequently reported food borne infection in Switzerland. We investigated determinants of infections and illness experience in wintertime. A case-control study was conducted in Switzerland between December 2012 and February 2013. Cases were recruited among laboratory-confirmed campylobacteriosis patients. Population-based controls were matched according to age group, sex and canton of residence. We determined risk factors associated with campylobacteriosis, and help seeking behaviour and illness perception. The multivariable analysis identified two factors associated with an increased risk for campylobacteriosis: consumption of meat fondue (matched odds ratio [mOR] 4.0, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 2.3-7.1) and travelling abroad (mOR 2.7, 95 % CI 1.1-6.4). Univariable analysis among meat fondue consumers revealed chicken as the type of meat with the highest risk of disease (mOR 3.8, 95 % CI 1.1-13.5). Most frequently reported signs and symptoms among patients were diarrhoea (98 %), abdominal pain (81 %), fever (66 %), nausea (44 %) and vomiting (34 %). The median perceived disease severity was 8 on a 1-to-10 rating scale. Patients reported a median duration of illness of 7 days and 14 % were hospitalised. Meat fondues, mostly "Fondue chinoise", traditionally consumed during the festive season in Switzerland, are the major driver of the epidemic campylobacteriosis peak in wintertime. At these meals, individual handling and consumption of chicken meat may play an important role in disease transmission. Laboratory-confirmed patients are severely ill and hospitalisation rate is considerable. Public health measures such as decontamination of chicken meat and improved food handling behaviour at the individual level are urgently needed.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · European Journal of Epidemiology
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    • "Most research has focused on C. jejuni, but the role of C. coli in human disease is being increasingly recognized [4-7]. Both species share common risk factors for human infections, such as consumption of poultry, foreign travel, and drinking untreated water [6,8-10]. However, several case-case studies have also observed differences in the risk factors associated with either species, such as C. coli being more common in the elderly and those living in rural areas [4,7,9,11]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli share a multitude of risk factors associated with human gastrointestinal disease, yet their phylogeny differs significantly. C. jejuni is scattered into several lineages, with no apparent linkage, whereas C. coli clusters into three distinct phylogenetic groups (clades) of which clade 1 has shown extensive genome-wide introgression with C. jejuni, yet the other two clades (2 and 3) have less than 2% of C. jejuni ancestry. We characterized a C. coli strain (76339) with four novel multilocus sequence type alleles (ST-5088) and having the capability to express gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT); an accessory feature in C. jejuni. Our aim was to further characterize unintrogressed C. coli clades 2 and 3, using comparative genomics and with additional genome sequences available, to investigate the impact of horizontal gene transfer in shaping the accessory and core gene pools in unintrogressed C. coli. Here, we present the first fully closed C. coli clade 3 genome (76339). The phylogenomic analysis of strain 76339, revealed that it belonged to clade 3 of unintrogressed C. coli. A more extensive respiratory metabolism among unintrogressed C. coli strains was found compared to introgressed C. coli (clade 1). We also identified other genes, such as serine proteases and an active sialyltransferase in the lipooligosaccharide locus, not present in C. coli clade 1 and we further propose a unique scenario for the evolution of Campylobacter ggt. We propose new insights into the evolution of the accessory genome of C. coli clade 3 and C. jejuni. Also, in silico analysis of the gene content revealed that C. coli clades 2 and 3 have genes associated with infection, suggesting they are a potent human pathogen, and may currently be underreported in human infections due to niche separation.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · BMC Genomics
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