A case of diaphragmatic clear cell carcinoma in a patient with a medical history of ovarian endometriosis
Department of General Thoracic Surgery, Southern Tohoku General Hospital, 7-115 Yatsuyamada, Koriyama, Fukushima, 963-8563, Japan.International Journal of Clinical Oncology (Impact Factor: 2.13). 03/2010; 15(5):489-92. DOI: 10.1007/s10147-010-0052-y
We present a case of clear cell carcinoma located in the diaphragm in a patient with a medical history of ovarian endometriosis. Ultrasonography revealed the presence of a 2.5-cm nodule on the surface of the liver in a 65-year-old woman. She had undergone right salpingo-oophorectomy for treatment of an endometrial cyst of the right ovary at the age of 43 years and hysterectomy for treatment of a myoma of the uterus at the age of 51 years. We performed laparotomy and found that the tumor had originated from the diaphragm and invaded the liver. The diaphragm and liver were partially resected. Histopathological examination revealed the presence of clear cells and hobnail cells. The clear cells contained pale or eosinophilic cytoplasm and were arranged in a solid pattern. The hobnail cells lined the lumen and papillae. Immunohistochemical examination of the tumor cells showed positive staining for CK-7 and CA-125; negative staining for CK-20, TTF-1, and CA19-9; and weak positive staining for CEA. The findings were compatible with those of ovarian clear cell carcinoma. After 1 year, the patient had metastasis in the lung, and right lower lobectomy was performed.
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ABSTRACT: Ovarian carcinoma is the most lethal gynecological malignancy among women and its poor prognosis is mainly due to metastasis. Chemokine receptor CCR9 is primarily expressed by a small subset of immune cells. The interactions between CCL25 and CCR9 have been implicated in leukocyte trafficking to the small bowel, a frequent metastatic site for ovarian cancer cells. We have previously shown that ovarian cancer cells express CCR9 and play an important role in cell migration, invasion and survival in the presence of its natural ligand in vitro. In this study, we have evaluated the expression of CCR9 and CCL25 in ovarian cancer cells and clinical samples. Ovarian cancer tissue microarrays from University of Alabama at Birmingham and AccuMax were stained for CCR9 and CCL25. Aperio ScanScope was used to acquire 80X digital images and expression analysis of CCR9 and CCL25. Flow cytometry and the Image stream system were used to conform the expression of CCR9 and CCL25 in ovarian cancer cells. Our results show significantly higher (p<0.001) expression of CCR9 and CCL25 in serous adenocarcinoma followed by serous papillary cystadenoma, endometrioid adenocarcinoma, mucinous adenocarcinoma, cystadenoma, mucinous boderline adenocarcinoma, clear cell carcinoma, granulosa cell tumor, dysgerminoma, transitional cell carcinoma, Brenner tumor, yolk sac tumor, adenocarcinoma and fibroma cases, compared to non-neoplastic ovarian tissue. Similar to tissue expression, CCR9 was also significantly expressed by the ovarian cancer cell lines (OVCAR-3 and SK-OV-3) in comparison to normal adult ovarian epithelial cell. We provide the first evidence that CCR9 and its natural ligand CCL25 are highly expressed by ovarian cancer tissue and their expression correlates with histological subtypes. Expression of this chemokine receptor and its ligand CCL25 within primary tumor tissue further suggests a potential role of this chemokine-receptor axis in ovarian cancer progression.
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ABSTRACT: Clear cell carcinoma has a storied history in the female genital tract. From the initial designation of ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma as "mesonephroma" to the linkage between vaginal clear cell carcinoma and diethylstilbestrol exposure in utero, gynecologic tract clear cell tumors have puzzled investigators, posed therapeutic dilemmas for oncologists, and otherwise presented major differential diagnostic challenges for pathologists. One of the most common errors in gynecologic pathology is misdiagnosis of clear cell carcinoma, on both frozen section and permanent section. Given the poor response to platinum-based chemotherapy for advanced-stage disease and increased risk of thromboembolism, accurate diagnosis of clear cell carcinoma is important in the female genital tract. This review (1) presents the clinical and pathologic features of female genital tract clear cell carcinomas; (2) highlights recent molecular developments; (3) identifies areas of potential diagnostic confusion; and (4) presents solutions for these diagnostic problems where they exist.
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