Rap GTPase-mediated adhesion and migration

Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Life Sciences Institute I3 and CELL research groups, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
Cell adhesion & migration (Impact Factor: 4.51). 07/2010; 4(3):327-32. DOI: 10.4161/cam.4.3.11114
Source: PubMed


B-cell lymphomas, which arise in lymphoid organs, can spread rapidly via the circulatory system and form solid tumors within multiple organs. Rate-limiting steps in this metastatic process may be the adhesion of lymphoma cells to vascular endothelial cells, their exit from the vasculature and their migration to tissue sites that will support tumor growth. Thus proteins that control B cell adhesion and migration are likely to be key factors in lymphoma dissemination, and hence potential targets for therapeutic intervention. The Rap GTPases are master regulators of integrin activation, cell motility and the underlying cytoskeletal, adhesion and membrane dynamics. We have recently shown that Rap activation is critical for B-lymphoma cells to undergo transendothelial migration in vitro and in vivo. As a consequence, suppressing Rap activation impairs the ability of intravenously injected B-lymphoma cells to form solid tumors in the liver and other organs. We discuss this work in the context of targeting Rap, its downstream effectors, or other regulators of B cell adhesion and migration as an approach for limiting the dissemination of B-lymphoma cells and the development of secondary tumors.

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    • "Moreover, Rap GTPases are master regulators of integrin activation, cell motility, and the underlying cytoskeletal, adhesion, and membrane dynamics. Rap activation is critical for B-lymphoma cells to undergo transendothelial migration in vitro and in vivo[25]. In addition, altered expression of hsa-miR-337-3p may be critical in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) development, although the analysis of circulating serum levels of hsa-miR-337-3p is unlikely to provide helpful diagnostic/prognostic information in RCC [26]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Metastasis is the major cause of cancer-related death in patients with gastric cancer, and aberrant expression of various microRNAs (miRNAs) is associated with cancer metastasis. Methods Profiling of differentially expressed miRNAs was performed in three cases of primary gastric cancer and the corresponding metastatic lymph node tissues. Then, the five most altered miRNAs were further verified in 16 paired samples. Two of these five miRNAs were further assessed for their effects on the regulation of gastric cancer cell growth and invasion. Results The miRNA profile data showed 151 upregulated miRNAs (≥ 1.5-fold) and 285 downregulated miRNAs (≤ 0.67-fold) in the metastatic tissues compared to the primary gastric cancer tissues. Among these five miRNAs (i.e., hsa-miR-508-5p, hsa-miR-30c, hsa-miR-337-3p, hsa-miR-483-5p, and hsa-miR-134), expression of hsa-miR-337-3p and hsa-miR-134 was significantly downregulated in these 16 lymph node metastatic tissues compared to their primary tumor tissues (P<0.05) and in nine gastric cancer cell lines compared to the nonmalignant GES cell line. Furthermore, induction of hsa-miR-134 or hsa-miR-337-3p expression did not dramatically affect gastric cancer cell proliferation, but transfection of the hsa-miR-337-3p mimic did reduce gastric cancer cell invasion capacity. Conclusions These findings indicate that hsa-miR-337-3p plays a role in the reduction of gastric cancer cell invasion capacity, and further studies on the mechanism of hsa-miR-337-3p in gastric cancer metastasis are warranted.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research