Bernard HU, Burk RD, Chen Z, van Doorslaer K, Hausen H, de Villiers EMClassification of papillomaviruses (PVs) based on 189 PV types and proposal of taxonomic amendments. Virology 401(1): 70-79

Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry and Program of Public Health, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697, USA. <>
Virology (Impact Factor: 3.32). 03/2010; 401(1):70-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.virol.2010.02.002
Source: PubMed


We present an expansion of the classification of the family Papillomaviridae, which now contains 29 genera formed by 189 papillomavirus (PV) types isolated from humans (120 types), non-human mammals, birds and reptiles (64, 3 and 2 types, respectively). To accommodate the number of PV genera exceeding the Greek alphabet, the prefix "dyo" is used, continuing after the Omega-PVs with Dyodelta-PVs. The current set of human PVs is contained within five genera, whereas mammalian, avian and reptile PVs are contained within 20, 3 and 1 genera, respectively. We propose standardizations to the names of a number of animal PVs. As prerequisite for a coherent nomenclature of animal PVs, we propose founding a reference center for animal PVs. We discuss that based on emerging species concepts derived from genome sequences, PV types could be promoted to the taxonomic level of species, but we do not recommend implementing this change at the current time.

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Available from: Zigui Chen
    • "BPVs infect primarily cattle determining diseases of considerable economic relevance as they cause various forms of cutaneous and mucosal lesions ranging from papillomatosis to malignant tumors at the urinary bladder and digestive tract level (Batista et al., 2013). Recently, developement of specific biomolecular analysis, mostly based on L1 gene sequencing (Bernard et al., 2010) resulted in identification and characterization of novel viral types. Particularly, improvement of diagnostic procedures resulted in new classification approaches and determined the evolution of the former viral classification, (Jarrett et al., 1984) dividing viral types in subgroups A (BPV type 1, 2 and 5) and B (BPV type 3, 4 and 6) in reason of their genetic and biological features, in a new taxonomy based predominantly on L1 nucleotide sequence similarities (Araldi et al., 2014). "
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    ABSTRACT: Bovine papillomaviruses (BPVs) are group of worldwide-spread DNA virus that infect primarily cattle determining diseases of considerable economic relevance. Recently, research on BPVs, received a great impulse owing to the development of specific biomolecular analysis, mostly based on L1 gene sequencing, that resulted in the identification of new viral types. This work is aimed at the identification and molecular and histopathological characterization of BPVs circulating in North West Italy, one of the main national cattle breeding areas. In this study, 71 bioptic specimens were submitted both to histological examination and to PCR and sequencing analysis. Histopathology revealed various lesion types; however, no connections were demonstrated between involved viral types and histopathological findings. BPV DNA was demonstrated in all the analyzed samples and several viral types were detected. Particularly, molecular investigations revealed a broad diffusion of highly pathogenic BPV1 and 2 Deltapapillomavirus and presence of BPV3 and 9 Xipapillomavirus. Two cases of co-infection were also demonstrated. Phylogenetic analysis revealed presence of different clusters and therefore a noteworthy genetic variety among the analyzed viral types. This study provides information on the main BPVs types in North West Italy and our results demonstrate the complexity of viral epidemiology which is characterized by circulation of multiple viral types even inside single herds. Knowledge of the prevalence and of the variety of BPVs is a milestone for the development of appropriate prophylactic and therapeutic measures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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    • "To date, more than 180 HPV types have been fully sequenced ( HPVs are not monophyletic and belong instead into five genera, with different types showing differential association with different diseases (Bernard et al., 2010; Bravo et al., 2010; de Villiers, 2013). 1567-1348/Ó 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. "
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    ABSTRACT: Invasive cervical cancer (ICC) is the third most frequent cancer among women worldwide and is associated with persistent infection by carcinogenic human papillomaviruses (HPVs). The combination of large populations of viral progeny and decades of sustained infection may allow for the generation of intra-patient diversity, in spite of the assumedly low mutation rates of PVs. While the natural history of chronic HPVs infections has been comprehensively described, within-host viral diversity remains largely unexplored. In this study we have applied next generation sequencing to the analysis of intra-host genetic diversity in ten ICC and one condyloma cases associated to single HPV16 infection. We retrieved from all cases near full-length genomic sequences. All samples analyzed contained polymorphic sites, ranging from 3 to 125 polymorphic positions per genome, and the median probability of a viral genome picked at random to be identical to the consensus sequence in the lesion was only 40%. We have also identified two independent putative duplication events in two samples, spanning the L2 and the L1 gene, respectively. Finally, we have identified with good support a chimera of human and viral DNA. We propose that viral diversity generated during HPVs chronic infection may be fuelled by innate and adaptive immune pressures. Further research will be needed to understand the dynamics of viral DNA variability, differentially in benign and malignant lesions, as well as in tissues with differential intensity of immune surveillance. Finally, the impact of intralesion viral diversity on the long-term oncogenic potential may deserve closer attention. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
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    • "Currently, thirteen BPV types have been identified in cattle and characterized in the genera Deltapapillomavirus (BPV1, 2, and 13); Xipapillomavirus (BPV3, 4, 6, 9, 10, 11, and 12); and Epsilonpapillomavirus (BPV5 and 8). While the BPV7 has not been designated into a papillomavirus (PV) genus (Bernard et al. 2010, Lunardi et al. 2013a "
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    ABSTRACT: Sarcoids are fibroblastic lesions, which are considered as the most common skin tumors of horses; spontaneous regression rarely occurs. The bovine papillomavirus (BPV) types 1 and 2 may be involved in the pathogenesis of sarcoids, and probably the recently described BPV type (BPV13) might be associated with the pathogenesis of this lesion. This study characterized the DNA of BPVs in sarcoids from 15 horses from Brazil by analyzing 20 cutaneous lesions (12 recently collected; 8 from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues). Histopathology confirmed the proliferative lesions as sarcoids. Three PCRs were performed to amplify papillomavirus (PV) DNA. For screening, the primers IFNR2/IDNT2 were used to amplify a fragment of the PV L1 ORF. The second primer set was complementary to a common sequence of the E5L2 genomic region of BPV1, 2, and 13. The third primer pair (FAP59/FAP64) targeted a fragment of the PVs L1 ORF. The screening and E5L2 PCRs yielded amplicons in all samples evaluated. The FAP amplicons identified BPV1, 2, and 13 only from fresh tissue samples. The phylogenetic analyses of E5L2 resulted in the identification of BPV1, 2, and 13 in 14 (70%), 2 (10%), and 4 (20%) sarcoids, respectively. Two horses demonstrated multiple lesions: the sarcoids of one of these contained only BPV1 DNA and those of the other contained three types of bovine Deltapapillomavirus (BPV1, 2, and 13). This study confirmed the presence of BPV1, 2, and 13 DNA in equine sarcoids. Moreover, these findings represent the first description of three types of BPV diagnosed in the same horse, as well as the first confirmation of BPV1 and 2 in horses from Brazil.
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