The structural insights of stem cell factor receptor (c-Kit) interaction with tyrosine phosphatase-2 (Shp-2): An in silico analysis

Stem Cell Biology Laboratory, National Institute of Immunology, New Delhi, India.
BMC Research Notes 01/2010; 3(1):14. DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-3-14
Source: PubMed


Stem cell factor (SCF) receptor c-Kit is recognized as a key signaling molecule, which transduces signals for the proliferation, differentiation and survival of stem cells. Binding of SCF to its receptor triggers transactivation, leading to the recruitment of kinases and phosphatases to the docking platforms of c-Kit catalytic domain. Tyrosine phosphatase-1 (Shp-1) deactivates/attenuates 'Kit' kinase activity. Whereas, Asp816Val mutation in the Kit activation loop transforms kinase domain to a constitutively activated state (switch off-to-on state), in a ligand-independent manner. This phenomenon completely abrogates negative regulation of Shp-1. To predict the possible molecular basis of interaction between c-Kit and Shp-1, we have performed an in silico protein-protein docking study between crystal structure of activated c-Kit (phosphorylated c-Kit) and full length crystal structure of Shp-2, a close structural counterpart of Shp-1.
Study revealed a stretch of conserved amino acids (Lys818 to Ser821) in the Kit activation domain, which makes decisive H-bonds with N-sh2 and phosphotyrosine binding pocket residues of the phosphatase. These H-bonds may impose an inhibitory steric hindrance to the catalytic domain of c-Kit, there by blocking further interaction of the activation loop molecules with incoming kinases. We have also predicted a phosphotyrosine binding pocket in SH2 domains of Shp-1, which is found to be predominantly closer to a catalytic groove like structure in c-Kit kinase domain.
This study predicts that crucial hydrogen bonding between N-sh2 domain of Shp-1 and Kit activation loop can modulate the negative regulation of c-Kit kinase by Shp-1. Thus, this finding is expected to play a significant role in designing suitable gain-of-function c-Kit mutants for inducing conditional proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells.

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    ABSTRACT: Stem cell factor receptor, c-kit, is considered to be the master signalling molecule of haematopoietic stem cells. It develops the orchestral pattern of haematopoietic cell lineages, seen by its varying degree of omnipresence in progenitors, lineage committed and mature cells. We have investigated the effect of over-expressing c-kit on early recovery of the haematopoietic compartment, in irradiated hosts. Normal bone marrow cells (BMCs) were transfected with Kit(wt) (wild-type c-kit) or its variant Kit(mu) (asp814tyr) by electroporation. Lethally irradiated mice were transplanted with normal or transfected congeneic BMCs. The effect of ectopic expression of c-kit on haematopoietic cell recovery was determined by analysing donor-derived cells. Furthermore, effects of both types of c-kit over-expression on progenitor and lineage-committed cells were examined by flow cytometric analysis of Sca-1 and lineage-committed (Lin(+)) cells respectively. Hyper-activating Kit(mu) significantly improved recovery of the haematopoietic system in irradiated hosts. In vivo results showed that the donor-derived c-kit(+) cell population was increased to more than 3-fold in the case of Kit(mu)-transfected cells compared to normal and Kit(wt) over-expressing BMCs. In general, survival of progenitor and committed cell was improved in the Kit(mu) over-expressing system compared to the other two cohorts. These results suggest that recruitment of the hyper-activating variant of c-kit (Kit(mu)) lead to early recovery of the bone marrow of lethally irradiated mice.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2011 · Cell Proliferation
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    ABSTRACT: The stem cell factor (SCF)/Kit system has served as a classic model in deciphering molecular signaling events in the hematopoietic compartment, and Kit expression is a most critical marker for hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and progenitors. However, it remains to be elucidated how Kit expression is regulated in HSCs. Herein we report that a cytoplasmic tyrosine phosphatase Shp2, acting downstream of Kit and other RTKs, promotes Kit gene expression, constituting a Kit-Shp2-Kit signaling axis. Inducible ablation of PTPN11/Shp2 resulted in severe cytopenia in BM, spleen, and peripheral blood in mice. Shp2 removal suppressed the functional pool of HSCs/progenitors, and Shp2-deficient HSCs failed to reconstitute lethally irradiated recipients because of defects in homing, self-renewal, and survival. We show that Shp2 regulates coordinately multiple signals involving up-regulation of Kit expression via Gata2. Therefore, this study reveals a critical role of Shp2 in maintenance of a functional HSC/progenitor pool in adult mammals, at least in part through a kinase-phosphatase-kinase cascade.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2011 · Blood