Use of Avian Bornavirus Isolates to Induce Proventricular Dilatation Disease in Conures

Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843-4467, USA.
Emerging Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 6.75). 03/2010; 16(3):473-9. DOI: 10.3201/eid1603.091257
Source: PubMed


Avian bornavirus (ABV) is a newly discovered member of the family Bornaviridae that has been associated with the development of a lethal neurologic syndrome in birds, termed proventricular dilatation disease (PDD). We successfully isolated and characterized ABV from the brains of 8 birds with confirmed PDD. One isolate was passed 6 times in duck embryo fibroblasts, and the infected cells were then injected intramuscularly into 2 healthy Patagonian conures (Cyanoliseus patagonis). Clinical PDD developed in both birds by 66 days postinfection. PDD was confirmed by necropsy and histopathologic examination. Reverse transcription-PCR showed that the inoculated ABV was in the brains of the 2 infected birds. A control bird that received uninfected tissue culture cells remained healthy until it was euthanized at 77 days. Necropsy and histopathologic examinations showed no abnormalities; PCR did not indicate ABV in its brain tissues.

Download full-text


Available from: Susan L Payne
  • Source
    • "In a formal attempt to prove Koch's postulates, Gray et al. (2010) isolated ABV in cultured DEF. After six passages, these infected cells were injected intramuscularly into two Patagonian conures (Cyanoliseus patagonis ). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In 2008, avian bornaviruses (ABV) were identified as the cause of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD). PDD is a significant condition of captive parrots first identified in the late 1970s. ABV infection has subsequently been shown to be widespread in wild waterfowl across the United States and Canada where the virus infects 10-20% of some populations of ducks, geese and swans. In most cases birds appear to be healthy and unaffected by the presence of the virus; however, infection can also result in severe non-suppurative encephalitis and lesions similar to those seen in parrots with PDD. ABVs are genetically diverse with seven identified genotypes in parrots and one in canaries. A unique goose genotype (ABV-CG) predominates in waterfowl in Canada and the northern United States. ABV appears to be endemic in North American waterfowl, in comparison to what appears to be an emerging disease in parrots. It is not known whether ABV can spread between waterfowl and parrots. The discovery of ABV infection in North American waterfowl suggests that European waterfowl should be evaluated for the presence of ABV, and also as a possible reservoir species for Borna disease virus (BDV), a related neurotropic virus affecting horses and sheep in central Europe. Although investigations have suggested that BDV is likely derived from a wildlife reservoir, for which the shrew and water vole are currently prime candidates, we suggest that the existence of other mammalian and avian reservoirs should not be discounted.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Animal Health Research Reviews
  • Source
    • "It is also of interest to note that the predominant genotype encountered in healthy cockatiels was ABV4. While ABV genotypes 1, 2, 3 and 5 have also been identified in the US, they have been reported less frequently from PDDaffected birds than has genotype 4 (Kistler et al. 2008;Gray et al. 2010;Staeheli et al. 2010). We had speculated whether ABV4 was the most common genotype or simply the most pathogenic. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A flock of 14 apparently healthy cockatiels, purchased from a single aviary, was tested for the presence of avian bornavirus (ABV). Twelve birds were found to be intermittently shedding ABV, predominantly genotype 4. Four of the cockatiels known to be shedding ABV4 were subsequently challenged with the tissue culture derived, virulent M24 strain of ABV4. The challenged birds remained in apparent good health until day 92 when one was found dead. The remaining three birds began to exhibit severe neurologic signs, ataxia and convulsions on day 110 and were euthanized. On necropsy, all four birds showed mild proventricular enlargement. In contrast, histopathological examination showed unusually severe and widespread tissue lesions. These included massive lymphocytic infiltration and lymphoid nodule formation within and around the ganglia throughout the gastrointestinal tract. There were similar lesions in the medullary cords of the adrenal gland, heart, spleen, liver, kidney, lungs, pancreas, testes and ovary. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated ABV P antigen not only in the cells of the central and autonomic nervous systems, but also within the mononuclear cells infiltrating the various organs. Two healthy cockatiels, one of which was a known ABV carrier, were inoculated with uninfected tissue culture cells and euthanized on day 150. These birds showed no gross lesions of proventricular dilatation disease but had a mild lymphocytic infiltration in their liver, spleen, and kidneys. Prior infection with ABV did not therefore confer significant immunity on these birds, and may have resulted in increased disease severity following challenge.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2011 · Avian Pathology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: AbstractStandards of care in avian medicine are a source of discussion and review any time 2 or more veterinarians who treat birds congregate. In selecting the topics that veterinarians need to know regarding avian medicine, it was important to cover those issues that some veterinarians may perform on a daily basis and to include others that may seem less common but still represent critical information. Avian patients may enter the hospital for routine care and evaluation, for evaluation of disease and follow-up care, or for emergency care. Birds from each group listed above undergo certain evaluations, diagnostic testing, and treatment. This article discusses procedures and treatments associated with avian veterinary medical care along with a review of some commonly diagnosed disease processes, toxicoses, and fracture stabilization techniques.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2010 · Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine
Show more