[Protective effects of curcumin on neonatal rats with necrotizing enterocolitis]
This study examined the effects of curcumin on intestinal histopathological changes, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) concentrations in neonatal rats with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), in order to investigate the effects of curcumin against NEC.
Forty neonatal rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=10 each): normal control, solvent control, NEC model, and curcumin intervention. The general situations of rats were observed for 3 consecutive days, and the rats were then sacrificed on the 4th day. Intestinal tissues were obtained for examining the histopathological changes, COX-2 expression, and TNF-alpha and IL-10 concentrations.
Curcumin treatment ameliorated the general situations and histopathological signs in rats with NEC. TNF-alpha and IL-10 concentrations in the NEC model and the curcumin intervention groups increased significantly compared with those in the normal and solvent control groups (p<0.05). The concentration of TNF-alpha decreased (p<0.05), while the concentration of IL-10 increased significantly in the curcumin intervention group in comparison with the NEC model group (p<0.05). Immunohistochemistry results indicated that the positive expression of COX-2 in the curcumin intervention group was significantly lower than that in the NEC model group.
Curcumin has protective effects against NEC in neonatal rats, possibly through inhibiting COX-2 expression, reducing TNF-alpha content, and increasing IL-10 content.
Available from: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
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ABSTRACT: 1. Curcumin is the active ingredient of the dietary spice turmeric and has been consumed for medicinal purposes for thousands of years. Modern science has shown that curcumin modulates various signalling molecules, including inflammatory molecules, transcription factors, enzymes, protein kinases, protein reductases, carrier proteins, cell survival proteins, drug resistance proteins, adhesion molecules, growth factors, receptors, cell cycle regulatory proteins, chemokines, DNA, RNA and metal ions. 2. Because of this polyphenol's potential to modulate multiple signalling molecules, it has been reported to possess pleiotropic activities. First demonstrated to have antibacterial activity in 1949, curcumin has since been shown to have anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, pro-apoptotic, chemopreventive, chemotherapeutic, antiproliferative, wound healing, antinociceptive, antiparasitic and antimalarial properties as well. Animal studies have suggested that curcumin may be active against a wide range of human diseases, including diabetes, obesity, neurological and psychiatric disorders and cancer, as well as chronic illnesses affecting the eyes, lungs, liver, kidneys and gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems. 3. Although many clinical trials evaluating the safety and efficacy of curcumin against human ailments have already been completed, others are still ongoing. Moreover, curcumin is used as a supplement in several countries, including India, Japan, the US, Thailand, China, Korea, Turkey, South Africa, Nepal and Pakistan. Although inexpensive, apparently well tolerated and potentially active, curcumin has not been approved for the treatment of any human disease. 4. In the present article, we discuss the discovery and key biological activities of curcumin, with a particular emphasis on its activities at the molecular and cellular levels, as well as in animals and humans.
Available from: Bharat Aggarwal
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TNFs are major mediators of inflammation and inflammation-related diseases, hence, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved the use of blockers of the cytokine, TNF-α, for the treatment of osteoarthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, psoriasis and ankylosis. These drugs include the chimeric TNF antibody (infliximab), humanized TNF-α antibody (Humira) and soluble TNF receptor-II (Enbrel) and are associated with a total cumulative market value of more than $20 billion a year. As well as being expensive ($15 000-20 000 per person per year), these drugs have to be injected and have enough adverse effects to be given a black label warning by the FDA. In the current report, we describe an alternative, curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a component of turmeric (Curcuma longa) that is very inexpensive, orally bioavailable and highly safe in humans, yet can block TNF-α action and production in in vitro models, in animal models and in humans. In addition, we provide evidence for curcumin's activities against all of the diseases for which TNF blockers are currently being used. Mechanisms by which curcumin inhibits the production and the cell signalling pathways activated by this cytokine are also discussed. With health-care costs and safety being major issues today, this golden spice may help provide the solution.
This article is part of a themed section on Emerging Therapeutic Aspects in Oncology. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2013.169.issue-8.
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