A Revised Paranormal Belief Scale


A 26-item Revised Paranormal Belief Scale is introduced which provides a measure of degree of belief in each of seven dimensions: Traditional Religious Belief, Psi, Witchcraft, Superstition,Spiritualism, Extraordinary Life Forms, and Precognition. Improvements from the original 25- item Paranormal Belief Scale (Tobacyk & Milford, 1983) include adoption of a seven-point ratingscale as well as item changes for three subscales: Precognition, Witchcraft, and Extraordinary Life Forms. These improvements provide greater reliability and validity, less restriction of range,and greater cross-cultural validity.

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    • "L'interprétation des indices a été basée sur les conventions proposées par Hu et Bentler [16]. L'échelle originelle [9] comporte sept dimensions. Ainsi, nous avons testé ce modèle afin de savoir s'il s'ajuste aux données d'un échantillon français. "
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    ABSTRACT: For the last decades, many researchers have focused on paranormal beliefs. Beliefs in the existence of paranormal phenomena would be common and studies conducted in westernized countries have highlighted a high prevalence of individuals believing in the existence of such phenomena. Tobacyk and Milford (1984) developed the Revised Paranormal Belief Scale (RPBS) for assessing beliefs in paranormal phenomena. This 26-item self-reported questionnaire, measuring beliefs in phenomena such as witchcraft or superstition, is one of the most widely used questionnaires to assess such beliefs. While studies focusing on paranormal beliefs tend to develop, there is no French self-report instrument to assess this construct. Researchers have tried to identify specific variables that might be linked to such beliefs, and some have focused on personalities of individuals who believe in the paranormal. Schizotypy has been reported to be significantly and positively correlated with paranormal beliefs.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · L Encéphale
    • "Most commonly, belief in psi, precognition, extraordinary life forms, superstition, and witchcraft are included under paranormal beliefs. However, given Irwin's (1994) definition, conventional religious beliefs (i.e., organized spiritual beliefs through an institution) could also be considered paranormal and, in fact, are by some theorists (e.g., Tobacyk, 2004; see also Orenstein, 2002; Wain and Spinella, 2007). Clearly, given the prevalence of paranormal beliefs and experiences, research into their development and maintenance seems warranted. "
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    ABSTRACT: Belief in the paranormal is fairly prevalent in the general population. Previous research has shown a link between several personological characteristics and paranormal beliefs. The current study attempted to further investigate this link by replicating previous models that have shown a link between childhood trauma, fantasy proneness, and paranormal beliefs. In addition, the study attempted to expand on this model by including other variables such as stigma, resiliency, and coping style. The study used a sample of 198 undergraduate students. A significant correlation between trauma and paranormal beliefs was found. Partial correlations and path analyses revealed that fantasy proneness and avoidant coping style fully mediate the relationship between trauma and paranormal beliefs. The results imply that researchers need to take into account how a person responds to trauma via the development of coping strategies to accurately understand any observed relationship between trauma and paranormal beliefs.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · The Journal of nervous and mental disease
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    • "Apart from R/S, paranormal and magical ideation are also associated with a person’s individual belief system. Paranormal beliefs relate to paranormal phenomena that violate basic limiting principles in science.9,10 The term “magical ideation” refers to beliefs about causality, in which individuals believe they have some degree of control over events that defies currently accepted physical laws.11 "
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    ABSTRACT: The current paper presents literature relevant to the relationship of religiosity, spirituality, and personal beliefs with mental health and, in particular, anxiety disorders as an empirical narrative review, providing an overview on the most important and clinically relevant research results on the topic. The relationship between religiosity/spirituality, personal beliefs (ie, magical ideation and paranormal beliefs), and mental health has lately been studied extensively, and results have indicated significant associations among these variables. However, scientific approaches to this field are complex and multidimensional, partly leading to poor operationalization, incomparable data, and contradictory results. Literature demonstrates that higher religiosity/spirituality and magical ideation scores have often been associated with increased obsessive-compulsive traits. Similar results could not be confidently replicated for other anxiety disorders. However, it is still unclear if these differences suggest a specific association with obsessive-compulsive traits and reflect deviating etiopathogenetic and cognitive aspects between obsessive-compulsive disorder and other anxiety disorders, or if these results are biased through other factors. Religiosity/spirituality and personal beliefs constitute important parameters of human experience and deserve greater consideration in the psychotherapeutic treatment of psychiatric disorders.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Psychology Research and Behavior Management
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Apr 22, 2015