ArticlePDF Available

Effect of menstrual cycle phase on sprinting performance

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

This study examined the effects of menstrual cycle phase (MCP) upon sprinting and recovery as well as upon metabolic responses to such exercise. Eight females performed a repeated 30-s sprint on a non-motorised treadmill interspersed with a 2-min rest in three phases of the MCP, follicular (low 17beta-estradiol and progesterone), just prior to ovulation (midcycle trial, highest 17beta-estradiol concentration and low progesterone) and in the luteal phase (high 17beta-estradiol and high progesterone). MCP was verified later by radioimmunoassay of 17beta-estradiol and progesterone. Peak power output (PPO) and mean power output (MPO) were unaltered (P > 0.05) due to MCP [PPO for sprint 1: 463 (18) W vs. 443 (15) W vs. 449 (18) W; PPO for sprint 2: 395 (17) W vs. 359 (16) W vs. 397 (17) W; MPO for sprint 1: 302 (15) W vs. 298 (13) W vs. 298 (14) W; MPO for sprint 2: 252 (10) W vs. 248 (10) W vs. 259 (12) W for follicular, midcycle and luteal trial, mean (SEM), respectively]. Similarly, percentage recovery of PPO and MPO (the PPO or MPO during sprint 2 expressed as a percentage of the PPO or MPO during sprint 1) was also unchanged (P > 0.05). Blood lactate, blood pH and plasma ammonia after sprinting and estimated plasma volume were also unaltered by MCP (P > 0.05). These findings suggest that hormonal fluctuations due to MCP do not interfere with maximal intensity whole body sprinting and the metabolic responses to such exercise.
Content may be subject to copyright.
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Effect of menstrual cycle phase on sprinting performance
Antonios Tsampoukos Esther A. Peckham
Rhian James Mary E. Nevill
Accepted: 25 January 2010 / Published online: 3 March 2010
ÓSpringer-Verlag 2010
Abstract This study examined the effects of menstrual
cycle phase (MCP) upon sprinting and recovery as well as
upon metabolic responses to such exercise. Eight females
performed a repeated 30-s sprint on a non-motorised
treadmill interspersed with a 2-min rest in three phases of
the MCP, follicular (low 17b-estradiol and progesterone),
just prior to ovulation (midcycle trial, highest 17b-estradiol
concentration and low progesterone) and in the luteal phase
(high 17b-estradiol and high progesterone). MCP was
verified later by radioimmunoassay of 17b-estradiol and
progesterone. Peak power output (PPO) and mean power
output (MPO) were unaltered (P[0.05) due to MCP [PPO
for sprint 1: 463 (18) W vs. 443 (15) W vs. 449 (18) W;
PPO for sprint 2: 395 (17) W vs. 359 (16) W vs. 397
(17) W; MPO for sprint 1: 302 (15) W vs. 298 (13) W vs.
298 (14) W; MPO for sprint 2: 252 (10) W vs. 248 (10) W
vs. 259 (12) W for follicular, midcycle and luteal trial,
mean (SEM), respectively]. Similarly, percentage recovery
of PPO and MPO (the PPO or MPO during sprint 2
expressed as a percentage of the PPO or MPO during sprint
1) was also unchanged (P[0.05). Blood lactate, blood pH
and plasma ammonia after sprinting and estimated plasma
volume were also unaltered by MCP (P[0.05). These
findings suggest that hormonal fluctuations due to MCP do
not interfere with maximal intensity whole body sprinting
and the metabolic responses to such exercise.
Keywords Maximal intensity exercise
Running Recovery Metabolism 17b-Estradiol
Progesterone Sprinting Performance
Introduction
Increased participation in sport by women has led to
enhanced interest in the physiological and metabolic
responses of women to sport and exercise (e.g. Constantini
et al. 2005). It has been important, therefore, to examine
the effects of hormonal fluctuations, due to the female
menstrual cycle, upon metabolism and performance. The
majority of the studies to date have dealt with the effects of
menstrual cycle phase (MCP) on metabolic, ventilatory and
cardiovascular responses at rest and during sub-maximal
exercise and recovery as well as with sub-maximal inten-
sity exercise performance (Constantini et al. 2005). Few
studies have examined the effect of the MCP on sprinting
(all out effort of around 30 s or less) and the findings in the
literature are equivocal. For example, better performance
during the follicular phase has been shown for a single
swimming sprint and for repeated sprint cycling (Bale and
Nelson 1985; Parish and Jakeman 1987) whereas better
performance during the luteal phase has been shown for a
single cycle sprint and repeated cycling sprints (Masterson
1999; Middleton and Wenger 2006). Furthermore, two
studies examining a single cycle sprint and repeated cycle
ergometer sprints have shown no impact of the MCP on
performance (Busman et al. 2006; Miskec et al. 1997).
Finally, improved performance in the follicular phase
during jumping has been shown only where there were
Communicated by Susan Ward.
A. Tsampoukos (&)E. A. Peckham R. James M. E. Nevill
School of Sport and Exercise Sciences,
Loughborough University,
Leicestershire LE11 3TU, UK
e-mail: ATsampoukos@hotmail.com
M. E. Nevill
e-mail: M.E.Nevill@lboro.ac.uk
123
Eur J Appl Physiol (2010) 109:659–667
DOI 10.1007/s00421-010-1384-z
premenstrual or menstrual problems (Giacomoni et al.
2000). There have been no studies examining the impact of
the MCP on sprint running. These differences in findings
across studies may be due to the lack of hormonal docu-
mentation of the cycle phase in some studies (Bale and
Nelson 1985; Busman et al. 2006; Masterson 1999; Miskec
et al. 1997; Parish and Jakeman 1987), and/or due to pre-
menstrual or menstrual problems (Giacomoni et al. 2000)
towards the end of the ovarian cycle or during the first days
of the bleeding episode in some others (Bale and Nelson
1985; Masterson 1999; Parish and Jakeman 1987).
Strength plays an important role in sprinting (Delecluse
1997) and a relationship has been previously reported
between high concentrations of 17b-estradiol and proges-
terone and strength (Phillips et al. 1993; Reis et al. 1995;
Sarwar et al. 1996; Taaffe et al. 2005). Thus, through an
influence on strength, ovarian hormones may influence
sprinting and/or recovery from sprinting. Such an effect
would result in a better performance during the luteal phase
of the menstrual cycle (high concentrations of 17b-estra-
diol and progesterone) or just prior to ovulation (high
concentrations of 17b-estradiol) in comparison with the
follicular phase. There are no data, however, to date to
directly compare the effects of endogenous concentrations
of these hormones (follicular, prior to ovulation and luteal
phase) upon sprinting, or on recovery from sprinting.
In spite of the importance of repeated sprint ability in
many sports (Rechichi and Dawson 2009), recovery from
sprinting (the performance during the second sprint
expressed as a percentage of the performance during the
first sprint) has been little investigated. It has been sug-
gested that ovarian hormones may affect phosphocreatine
(PCr) recovery rates induced by the slower rates of PCr
recovery after plantar flexion exercises in amenorrheic-
endurance athletes in comparison with eumenorrheic
(Harber et al. 1998). Higher PCr recovery has also been
suggested by Middleton and Wenger (2006) where work
over a series of ten 6-s sprints was greater in the luteal phase
in comparison with the midfollicular. It has also been sug-
gested that increased concentrations of 17b-estradiol may
improve muscle buffering capacity during 10 s of sprint
rowing (Redman and Weatherby 2004). Since both PCr
recovery (Bogdanis et al. 1996) and muscle buffering
capacity (Maughan et al. 1997) are associated with sprinting
recovery, it could be postulated that in different phases of a
menstrual cycle sprinting recovery might also be different.
Rechichi and Dawson (2009) compared the effects of
exogenous oral contraception consumption phase (low
endogenous 17b-estradiol and progesterone) with early
(low endogenous 17b-estradiol and progesterone) and late
(low endogenous progesterone only) withdrawal phase
(withdrawal from the oral contraceptives) and did not find
differences in mean and/or peak power in any of the sprints.
Metabolic responses were not examined in this study.
Given the equivocal nature of findings in the literature,
the lack of studies examining sprint running per se, the
unknown metabolic responses to sprinting in various pha-
ses of the menstrual cycle, the sparsity of information on
repeated sprints, the perceived methodological limitations
of previous studies and the relatively recent identification
of oestrogen receptors in human skeletal muscles (Lemoine
et al. 2003), the purpose of the present study is to assess
whether sprinting, recovery from sprinting and metabolic
responses are influenced during three distinct and carefully
controlled phases of the menstrual cycle (Fig. 1, see the
below section for detail).
Methods
Subjects
Fourteen female sports science students volunteered to
participate in the present investigation. They were all
highly active and members of the university team in their
sports. All but one (recreational athlete but involved in
Fig. 1 A hypothetical 28-day
ovulatory cycle. Dark arrows
indicate sprint testing. In favour
of clarity, the scale is
hypothetical
660 Eur J Appl Physiol (2010) 109:659–667
123
power events) of the subjects were involved in multiple
sprints or power events (hockey, soccer, athletics, basket-
ball and rugby). Their mean (SEM) age, body mass and
stature were 20.1 (0.3) years (range 18–22), 64.5 (1.7) kg
and 1.68 (0.01) m, respectively. Volunteers were informed
of the purpose of the study, any known risks, benefits and
the right to terminate the participation at will, both orally
and in writing, prior to signing a consent form. The
experimental protocol had the approval of the Ethical
Committee of Loughborough University.
MCP information
All the subjects were eumenorrheic and had not used oral
contraceptives for at least 4 months before their participa-
tion in experimental procedures. Subjects were non-smok-
ers and were not on any medications that could interfere
with the experimental procedures. Their cycle length varied
between 25 and 40 days. Subjects were accepted for the
study only if their menstrual cycle length was no longer than
40 days (Lenton et al. 1984). Information about cycle
length was initially obtained by a menstrual cycle history
questionnaire. A cycle was calculated from the first day of
menstrual bleeding (included) until the first day of the next
bleeding (excluded). Hormonal verification of MCP was
determined later by analysis for 17b-estradiol and proges-
terone and subjects were excluded from the analysis if they
did not meet one or more of the pre-established criterion
which were a luteal phase length of 11–17 days (Lenton
et al. 1984) and a luteal phase serum progesterone con-
centration [9.54 nmol L
-1
(Shepard and Senturia 1977).
The length of the follicular phase was calculated from the
first day of menstrual cycle (included) until and including
the luteinising hormone (LH) surge. The luteal phase was
defined as the first day after the LH surge until the last day
of the cycle. Evidence of ovulation was obtained using the
Clear Plan Home Ovulation Test (Unipath Limited,
Bedford, UK), which detected the LH surge using urine
samples. The accuracy of these types of kits has been tested
experimentally and shown to be satisfactory (Bourne et al.
1996; Miller and Soules 1996). Depending on each partic-
ipant’s menstrual cycle length, urine testing started
9–17 days after the onset of the menses and continued until
the LH surge was detected. For the midcycle trial, the
subjects rang the laboratory on the morning of the positive
Clear Plan Home Ovulation Test result and reported to the
laboratory on that same day.
Figure 1gives the schematic representation of the test-
ing in parallel with the hormonal fluctuations. This design
meant that the present study was novel in that subjects were
tested just prior to ovulation when only 17b-estradiol
concentration was high (World Health Organisation 1980),
which practically was a rather short period of time (about a
day). The Clear Plan Home Ovulation Test detects not the
peak LH concentration, but rather the LH surge (the Clear
Plan Home Ovulation Test becomes ‘‘positive’’ when
concentration of LH is [40 IU L
-1
), which is a better
predictor of ovulation due to the episodic nature of LH
release from the anterior pituitary (Speroff 1999). Peak
17b-estradiol concentrations are attained 24–36 h prior to
ovulation (World Health Organisation 1980) and coincide
with the onset of the LH surge (Fritz et al. 1992), a period
that is in line with the urine detection of LH (Miller and
Soules 1996). Thus, theoretically, the method employed in
the present study should have facilitated exercise testing at
approximately the time of the 17b-estradiol peak. The
midcycle trial was included in the analysis only when the
urine detection of LH surge was accompanied by higher
midcycle 17b-estradiol concentrations than those observed
during the luteal phase and concomitant serum progester-
one concentrations higher than those observed in the early
follicular phase but B6.36 nmol L
-1
(Speroff 1999). The
rationale of testing at the preovulatory point (midcycle
trial) was to naturally isolate the 17b-estradiol and to
investigate its effects, if any, on metabolism and perfor-
mance during the repeated 30-s sprint without the con-
comitant influence of progesterone which has been shown
to have antagonistic effects in some metabolic conditions
(Bunt 1990; March et al. 1979; Speroff 1999).
Protocol and experimental design
After familiarisation and preliminary trials, subjects
undertook the performance test which was a repeated 30-s
sprint interspersed with a 2-min passive recovery period on
three occasions (follicular phase, just prior to ovulation,
luteal phase) in a random order and at the same time of the
day on a non-motorised treadmill (Woodway model AB).
The sprints were at a maximal self-regulated velocity and
participants were instructed to sprint as fast as possible (flat
out) from the beginning of each sprint (with the command
‘go’’). This procedure was rehearsed by the participants
during the familiarisation sessions. Figure 2illustrates the
schematic representation of the protocol. The treadmill was
modified and instrumented as previously described
(Lakomy 1987). The performance variables recorded during
these sprints were peak power output (PPO), mean power
output (MPO), fatigue index for power (FI
PO
), peak speed
(PS), mean speed (MS) and fatigue index for speed (FI
SP
).
Also, the recovery of the above variables (the result during
sprint 2 expressed as a percentage of the result during
sprint 1) was also recorded. Subjects undertook at least five
practices on separate days (each of 30 min duration) prior
to the main trials in order to be fully familiarised with
sprinting on the non-motorised treadmill. Each subject was
instructed to refrain (24 h) from alcohol and (12 h) from
Eur J Appl Physiol (2010) 109:659–667 661
123
caffeine prior to the experimental procedures whereas in
the same period (24 h) only light exercise was permitted.
Prior to each main trial subjects completed, a standard
warm-up consisted of 3 min of jogging at 2.0 m s
-1
fol-
lowed by 5-min stretching and two 30-s sub-maximal runs
at 3.0 and 3.5 m s
-1
, respectively, interspersed with 30-s
rest.
Preliminary tests
Prior to the performance trials, the endurance fitness of the
subjects was established by a _
VO2 max test (Taylor et al.
1955) and the determination of blood lactate concentration
at sub-maximal running speeds (speed-lactate test) on a
level treadmill (Woodway, USA) as the %_
VO2 max at a
given blood lactate concentration (%4 mM) has been
shown to increase with training (Hurley et al. 1984). The
speeds for the speed-lactate test were calculated to repre-
sent 60, 70, 80, and 90% (4 min for each stage) of the
subject’s _
VO2 max. These two tests were conducted on
separate days. For the speed-lactate test, duplicate capillary
blood samples were collected by means of fingertip for
later analysis of blood lactate (Maughan 1982). These
samples were drawn at rest (upright posture), at the end of
each 4-min stage while the subject was running on the
treadmill (for the first three stages) and at the end of the
fourth stage while the subject was in the upright posture.
These tests were conducted to enable comparison of the
training status of participants in this and other published
studies.
Blood collection and analysis
Venous blood samples were drawn at rest, post-warm-up,
immediately after the first sprint, immediately after the
second sprint and at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 min during the
recovery from the second sprint (Fig. 2), via an indwelling
cannula inserted into an antecubital or forearm vein. The
resting sample was taken after the volunteers had rested in
a semi-supine position on the experimental couch for at
least 20 min in order to standardise initial plasma volume
and thus minimise any confounding effect of posture. For
the same reasons, great care was also taken to keep the
sampling arm in the same position. Posture was also
standardised for the post-exercise samples. Blood pH was
determined immediately (ABL
TM
Blood Gas System,
Copenhagen, Denmark). Duplicate 20 lL blood samples
were dispensed into pre-treated tubes with 200 lLof
0.4 mol L
-1
perchloric acid to ensure deproteinisation and
blood lactate concentration was determined at a later date
(Maughan 1982). Another aliquot of blood (1.5 mL) was
dispensed immediately into a calcium heparinized tube,
centrifuged, and the plasma supernatant was stored at
-70°C. The ammonia assay was performed enzymatically
within 48 h after the collection of the blood (MPR
1Ammonia, Boehringer Mannheim UK, Ltd, Lewes, UK).
Haematocrit (Hct) was assessed in triplicate (Hawksley and
Sons Ltd, Lancing, UK). Haemoglobin (Hb) concentration
was determined using the cyanmethaemoglobin method
(Boehringer Mannheim, Gmbh Test-combination, Mann-
heim, Germany). Plasma volume relative changes were
then estimated from the Hb and Hct values using the
method described by Dill and Costill (1974). The 17b-
estradiol and progesterone assays were performed with the
Coat-A-Count 17b-estradiol and progesterone method,
respectively, which is a no-extraction, solid-phase
125
I
radioimmunoassay designed for the quantitative measure-
ment of 17b-estradiol and progesterone in serum (Coat-A-
Count 17b-estradiol/progesterone, Diagnostics Products
Corporation, Los Angeles, USA). Both assays were per-
formed with the aid of an automated gamma counter
(Cobra II, Packard Instrument Company Inc, USA). Intra-
assay coefficient of variations for 17b-estradiol and pro-
gesterone was 7.0 and 4.6%, respectively.
Statistical analysis
Prior to the statistical analysis tests, data were checked for
normality (using SPSS for windows version 15). A two-
way analysis of variance for within-subjects design was
Fig. 2 The schematic representation of the protocol. ‘‘PWP’’, ‘‘PS1’’ and ‘‘PS2’’ indicate post-warm-up, post-sprint 1 and post-sprint 2,
respectively. Numbers after PS2 indicate minutes during the recovery period after the sprint 2. Arrows indicate blood samples
662 Eur J Appl Physiol (2010) 109:659–667
123
used to assess whether there were any differences in per-
formance variables among MCPs (main effect: cycle
phase) and between the first and second sprints in each
phase (main effect: sprint). One-way analysis of variance
for a within-subjects design was used to examine if any
differences existed in recovery of performance variables
among MCPs (main effect: cycle phase). Two-way analysis
of variance for a within-subjects design was used to
ascertain any differences in metabolic responses between
MCPs (main effect: cycle phase) and the response to each
subject with respect to time, including in the analysis the
resting, post-warm-up, post-sprint and recovery responses
(main effect: time). When significant interactions (phase by
sprint or phase by time) were revealed, the Bonferroni
method was used for multiple comparisons. Relationships
between the variables were evaluated by means of Pearson
moment correlation coefficients. Results are expressed as
mean (SEM), unless otherwise stated. Significance was set
at P\0.05.
Results
Hormonal documentation of MCP
Resting serum 17b-estradiol and progesterone concentra-
tions confirmed the MCPs for 8 of the 14 subjects
(Table 1). For these eight subjects, there were 4.3- and
3-fold increase in 17b-estradiol (P\0.01 in both cases)
and 2.3- and 13.2-fold increase in progesterone (P\0.01
in both cases) at the midcycle and luteal phases, respec-
tively. The remainder of the subjects (n=6) was excluded
from the study due to their failure to meet one or more
from the pre-established criterion of hormonal concentra-
tions. No premenstrual or menstrual cycle discomfort was
reported from the subjects (from menstrual cycle history
questionnaire, data not shown).
Performance data
Body mass was not altered significantly due to MCP [62.9
(2.2) kg, 63.1 (2.1) kg and 62.8 (2.0) kg for follicular,
midcycle and luteal phases, respectively, P[0.05] and,
therefore, data are not normalised for body mass (e.g.
divided by body mass). Performance variables (i.e. MPO,
PPO, PS) are presented in Table 2. None of these variables
were altered due to MCP (P[0.05). However, the per-
formance profile in sprint 1 was always higher than in
sprint 2 (P\0.05), apart from the FI
PO
and FI
SP
which
were not different (P[0.05). Percentage recovery of
power output and speed was also unaffected by MCP
(P[0.05; Table 3). There was a significant correlation
between recovery of MPO in the midcycle trial and 17b-
estradiol (r=0.75, P\0.05). On the other hand, no such
relationships were found between 17b-estradiol and per-
formance variables for the luteal phase trial. Mean maxi-
mum oxygen uptake was 50.1 (2.1) mL kg
-1
min
-1
while
mean %4 mM was 81 (3)%.
Table 1 Hormonal profile for resting 17b-estradiol and progesterone during the follicular, midcycle and luteal phase of the menstrual cycle
Follicular Midcycle Luteal
Progesterone (nmol L
-1
) 2.2 (0.03)
bc
5.1 (0.4)
ac
29.4 (3.5)
ab
17b-Estradiol (pmol L
-1
) 170 (21)
bc
731 (70)
ac
508 (64)
ab
Ratio of 17b-estradiol to progesterone 79 (8)
bc
147 (15)
ac
17 (1)
ab
a
P\0.01 from follicular concentrations,
b
P\0.01 from midcycle concentrations,
c
P\0.01 from luteal concentrations [mean (SEM), n=8].
For the ratio of 17b-estradiol to progesterone, the ‘a’, ‘b’, ‘c’ values indicate P\0.001
Table 2 Power output profile [PPO, MPO and fatigue index for
power (FI
po
)] and speed profile [peak speed, mean speed and fatigue
index for speed (FI
SP
)] during a repeated 30-s sprint interspersed with
2-min passive recovery during the follicular, midcycle and luteal
phase of the menstrual cycle [mean (SEM), n=8]
Follicular Midcycle Luteal
PPO (W)
Sprint 1 463 (18)
a
443 (15)
a
449 (18)
a
Sprint 2 395 (17) 359 (16) 397 (17)
MPO (W)
Sprint 1 302 (15)
a
298 (13)
a
298 (14)
a
Sprint 2 252 (10) 248 (10) 252 (12)
FI
PO
(%)
Sprint 1 52 (3) 54 (2) 54 (3)
Sprint 2 53 (2) 49 (4) 54 (3)
Peak speed (m s
-1
)
Sprint 1 5.63 (0.11)
a
5.58 (0.09)
a
5.59 (0.08)
a
Sprint 2 5.28 (0.11) 5.15 (0.10) 5.16 (0.08)
Mean speed (m s
-1
)
Sprint 1 4.87 (0.12)
a
4.88 (0.12)
a
4.82 (0.11)
a
Sprint 2 4.38 (0.10) 4.41 (0.11) 4.36 (0.11)
FI
SP
(m s
-1
)
Sprint 1 28 (2) 26 (2) 28 (2)
Sprint 2 30 (2) 27 (2) 31 (3)
a
Main effect: sprint, P\0.01. No menstrual cycle phase effect was
found (P[0.05)
Eur J Appl Physiol (2010) 109:659–667 663
123
Change in plasma volume
Estimated percentage changes in mean plasma volume for
post-sprint 1 and post-sprint 2 (greatest changes) were:
post-sprint 1: -18.5 (1.3)%, -16.1 (1.6)% and -16.3
(1.1)% for follicular, midcycle and luteal phase trials,
respectively; post-sprint 2: -20.8 (1.3)%, -19.5 (2.2)%
and -18.1 (1.8)% for follicular, midcycle and luteal phase
trials, respectively. Statistical analysis revealed no signifi-
cant changes due to MCP (P[0.05). Subsequently, none
of the metabolic responses were corrected for plasma
volume changes.
Metabolic responses
All the blood metabolites changed over time during each
cycle phase (P\0.01), but MCP did not affect the meta-
bolic responses (Figs. 3,4).
Discussion
The principal finding of the present study was that the
performance profile during a repeated 30-s sprint with
2-min passive recovery was not altered by the hormonal
fluctuations of 17b-estradiol and progesterone. In addition,
the metabolic responses to a repeated sprint were also
unaffected by MCP.
The present study included the novel methodological
approach of studying the subjects exactly prior to ovulation
where the highest 17b-estradiol concentration exists while
progesterone concentration remains low. This period prior
to ovulation was verified by radioimmunoassay of resting
serum 17b-estradiol and progesterone, in 8 of the 14
individuals who participated in the study. Indeed, resting
serum concentrations of 17b-estradiol and progesterone
were within the reference range for eumenorrheic women
in the respective phases according to the criteria presented
in ‘Methods’’. The rigorous design, i.e., the combination of
indirect methods (Clear Plan Home Ovulation Test kit and
cycle history questionnaire) and hormonal documentation
of cycle phase, is of crucial importance when the precise
timing of experimental procedures in the context of MCP
is to be performed. The need for a well-controlled
methodology is even greater when the subjects are young
(&20-year old) as in the present study because of high
incidence of anovulatory cycles that occur about that age
(Speroff 1999).
The lack of impact of MCP on sprint running is in
agreement with earlier studies using maximal intensity
cycling exercise (Busman et al. 2006; Miskec et al. 1997).
In addition, the current investigation is in line with the
findings of Giacomoni et al. (2000) who reported that, as
long as the subjects did not suffer with premenstrual and
menstrual symptoms (as was the case in this investigation),
no alterations in exercise performance that involves
eccentric muscle actions will occur. The present study
involved sprint running during which eccentric muscle
actions play an important role but trials were not under-
taken during the first days of the menstrual cycle, when
menstrual discomfort usually takes place (Giacomoni et al.
2000), while in the luteal phase trial of the menstrual cycle
no such symptoms were reported from the volunteers (from
the questionnaire that was given to the subjects, data not
shown). The impairment of physical performance due to
premenstrual and menstrual pain in the late luteal phase
and first days of the menstrual cycle, respectively, could
also explain some of the previously reported studies where
findings conflict with the present research. In the Bale and
Nelson (1985) study, the best 50-m sprint swimming was
achieved in days 8–15 in comparison with day 21 to the
first day of the next menstrual cycle (their subjects com-
plained of perimenstrual symptoms) defined as the pre-
menstrual period. Menstrual discomfort may also explain
the differences in sprinting in Masterson’s (1999) experi-
ment where participants were tested at day 2 from the onset
of the menstrual cycle bleeding and during the luteal phase.
The findings of the present investigation do not support
the hypothesis that 17b-estradiol has muscle-strengthening
effects and that force will be increased, at least, just prior to
ovulation (midcycle trial in the present experiment) where
17b-estradiol will be at the highest concentrations while
progesterone will be still low. Sarwar et al. (1996), using an
isometric contraction experimental model, proposed that
17b-estradiol can alter the negative feedback of inorganic
phosphate (Pi) upon cross-bridge kinetics (McLester 1997).
Indeed, all studies to date that have shown improvements
in force or performance when high concentrations of 17b-
estradiol were present have used an isometric exercise
model (Phillips et al. 1993; Sarwar et al. 1996; Taaffe et al.
Table 3 Recovery of power output profile [PPO, MPO and fatigue
index for power (FI
po
)] and speed profile [peak speed, mean speed and
fatigue index for speed (FI
SP
)] during a repeated 30-s sprint inter-
spersed with 2-min passive recovery during follicular, midcycle and
luteal phase of the menstrual cycle [mean (SEM), n=8]
Follicular Midcycle Luteal
PPO recovery (%) 86 (3) 81 (3) 89 (3)
MPO recovery (%) 84 (2) 83 (2) 85 (2)
FI
PO
recovery (%) 105 (6) 91 (6) 101 (4)
Peak speed recovery (%) 94 (1) 92 (1) 92 (1)
Mean speed recovery (%) 90 (1) 90 (1) 90 (1)
FI
SP
recovery (%) 111 (10) 104 (7) 111 (6)
Recovery of each performance variable is defined as the result during
sprint 2 expressed as a percentage of the result during sprint 1. No
menstrual cycle phase effect was found (P[0.05)
664 Eur J Appl Physiol (2010) 109:659–667
123
2005). However, in dynamic exercise, as in the present
study, type II fibres produce more force than type I fibres
(Fitts and Widrick 1996) and it is known, from animal
research, that muscle type II fibres are considerably less
sensitive to inorganic phosphate both in isometric
(Altringham and Johnston 1985) and in dynamic muscle
contraction (Widrick 2002) which may explain the lack of
influence of 17b-estradiol on sprinting in the present study.
Alternatively, based on findings from animal research, this
lack of influence could be due to the noticeably lower
oestrogen receptors in type II fibres (Saartok 1984).
There was a significant positive correlation between
mean resting 17b-estradiol concentrations at the midcycle
phase and recovery of MPO (r=0.75, P\0.05). One
possible explanation for this relationship is that ovarian
hormones may affect PCr recovery rates as suggested by the
slower rates of PCr recovery after plantar flexion exercises
in amenorrheic-endurance athletes in comparison with
eumenorrheic (Harber et al. 1998). However, Harber et al.
(1998) reported that amenorrheic subjects had a different
hypothalamic–pituitary thyroid axis profile compared with
eumenorrheic-endurance athletes as indicated by lower
thyroxine and triiodothyronine concentrations complicating
any clear influences of reproductive hormones on recovery
of PCr and thus on the recovery of sprinting (Bogdanis et al.
1996). However, Middleton and Wenger (2006) did find
higher work performed over a series of sprints during the
luteal phase of the cycle and associated this improvement
with the positive influence of 17b-estradiol on PCr resto-
ration. However, peak power or recovery of power was
unaltered due to MCP as it was in the present study.
MCP did not alter the metabolic responses to a repeated
30-s sprint. Mean peak whole blood lactate concentration did
not change due to MCP, a finding which is consistent with
previous investigations (Lynch and Nimmo 1998; Middleton
and Wenger 2006). In addition, blood pH values were similar
across MCPs. It has been previously suggested that varia-
tions in 17b-estradiol due to MCP are only likely to influence
metabolism by glycogen sparing in favour of fat oxidation at
relatively low exercise intensities below 75% of %_
VO2 max
(Hackney et al. 1994). Thus, the findings of the present study,
with no impact of MCP on metabolism during sprinting, are
in agreement with these earlier suggestions.
It has been suggested that bioavailability (free and not
specifically bound) of hormones, rather than total
Fig. 3 Venous whole blood
lactate and pH concentrations at
rest, post-warm-up (PWP), post-
sprint 1 (PS1), post-sprint 2
(PS2) and at 5 (5) min, 10
(10) min, 15 (15) min, 20
(20) min and 30 (30) min of
recovery after the second sprint
at follicular, midcycle and luteal
phases of the menstrual cycle
[mean (SEM), n=8]. Venous
whole blood lactate and pH
responses were increased over
time (P\0.01); however, no
menstrual cycle effect was
found (P[0.05)
Fig. 4 Venous plasma ammonia concentrations at rest, post-warm-up
(PWP), post-sprint 1 (PS1), post-sprint 2 (PS2) and at 5 (5) min, 10
(10) min, 15 (15) min, 20 (20) min and 30 (30) min of recovery after
the second sprint at follicular, midcycle and luteal phases of the
menstrual cycle [mean (SEM), n=8]. Venous plasma ammonia
responses were increased over time (P\0.01); however, no
menstrual cycle effect was found (P[0.05)
Eur J Appl Physiol (2010) 109:659–667 665
123
concentrations, may reflect more accurately the clinical
situation (Vermeulen et al. 1999). To date, bioavailability
of progesterone has not been determined. Bioavailability of
17b-estradiol has been determined, but the studies are
equivocal as to whether or not free and/or not specifically
bound 17b-estradiol concentration differs across MCPs
(Elliott et al. 2003). Thus, it is possible that while the total
concentration of 17b-estradiol was higher during the mid-
cycle trial its bioavailability, and thereby its influence, was
similar across the MCPs. When methodology allows it,
future studies should measure both total and bioavailable
concentrations of the hormones in question.
One limitation of the present study is that the small
sample size and resultant low power could have masked
real differences in performance and metabolism as a result
of MCPs. However, the observed variations in performance
and metabolism across phases were very small and prob-
ably not of importance in a performance context.
In conclusion, this study has shown that sprinting and
recovery from sprinting are unaffected during three distinct
and carefully controlled phases of the menstrual cycle.
Furthermore, blood metabolites following such a repeated
sprint were also unaffected by MCP. In addition, the study
has shown that naturally isolated higher 17b-estradiol
concentrations with low progesterone do not have any
significant effect on sprinting and recovery or on the
metabolic responses to such exercise. These findings sug-
gest that in future studies it may not be necessary to control
the timing of testing due to MCP, as long as pre- and/or
perimenstrual problems do not exist.
Acknowledgments This study and Antonios Tsampoukos were
supported by funding from the Greek State Scholarships Foundation.
The authors would like to thank Dr Henryk K.A. Lakomy for his
advice with respect to the non-motorised treadmill. The authors
declare that the experiments comply with the current laws of the
country in which they were performed.
Conflict of interest statement None.
References
Altringham JD, Johnston IA (1985) Effects of phosphate on the
contractile properties of fast and slow muscle fibres from an
Antarctic fish. J Physiol 368:491–500
Bale P, Nelson G (1985) The effects of menstruation on performance
of swimmers. Aust J Sci Med Sport 17:19–22
Bogdanis GC, Nevill ME, Boobis LH et al (1996) Contribution of
phosphocreatine and aerobic metabolism to energy supply during
repeated sprint exercise. J Appl Physiol 80:876–884
Bourne TH, Hagstrom H, Hahlin M et al (1996) Ultrasound studies of
vascular and morphological changes in the human corpus luteum
during the menstrual cycle. Fertil Steril 65:753–758
Bunt JC (1990) Metabolic actions of estradiol: significance for
acute and chronic exercise responses. Med Sci Sports Exerc
22:286–290
Busman B, Masterson G, Nelsen J (2006) Anaerobic performance and
the menstrual cycle: eumenorrheic and oral contraceptive users.
J Sport Med Phys Fitness 46:132–137
Constantini NW, Dubnow G, Lebrun CM (2005) The menstrual cycle
and sport performance. Clin Sports Med 24:e51–e82. Available
via PubMed. http://www.sportsmed.theclinics.com/title of the
article
Delecluse C (1997) Influence of strength training on sprint running
performance. Current findings and implications for training.
Sports Med 24:147–156
Dill DB, Costill DL (1974) Calculation of percentages changes in
volumes of blood, plasma, and red cells in dehydration. J Appl
Physiol 37:247–248
Elliott KJ, Cable NT, Reilly T et al (2003) Effect of menstrual cycle
phase on the concentration of bioavailable 17b-oestradiol and
testosterone and muscle strength. Clin Sci 105:663–669
Fitts RH, Widrick JJ (1996) Muscle mechanics: adaptations with
exercise-training. Exerc Sports Sci Rev 24:427–473
Fritz MA, McLachlan RI, Cohen NL et al (1992) Onset and
characteristics of the midcycle surge in bioactive and immuno-
active luteinizing hormone secretion in normal women: influence
of physiological variations in periovulatory ovarian steroid
hormone secretion. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 75:489–493
Giacomoni M, Bernard T, Gavarry O et al (2000) Influence of
menstrual cycle phase and menstrual symptoms on maximal
anaerobic performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 32:486–492
Hackney AC, McCracken-Compton MA, Aisworth B (1994) Sub-
strate responses to submaximal exercise in the midfollicular and
midluteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Int J Sport Nutr 4:299–
308
Harber VJ, Petersen SR, Chilibeck PD (1998) Thyroid hormone
concentrations and muscle metabolism in amenorrheic and
eumenorrheic athletes. Can J Appl Physiol 23:293–306
Hurley BF, Hagberg JM, Allen WK et al (1984) Effect of training on
blood lactate levels during submaximal exercise. J Appl Physiol
56:1260–1264
Lakomy HKA (1987) The use of a non-motorised treadmill for
analysing sprint performance. Ergonomics 30:627–637
Lemoine S, Granier P, Tiffoche C et al (2003) Estrogen receptor
Alpha mRNA in human skeletal muscles. Med Sci Sports Exerc
35:439–443
Lenton EA, Landgren BM, Sexton L (1984) Normal variation in the
length of the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle: identification of
the short luteal phase. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 91:685–689
Lynch NJ, Nimmo MA (1998) Effects of menstrual cycle phase and
oral contraceptive use on intermittent exercise. Eur J Appl
Physiol 78:565–572
March CM, Goebelsmann U, Nakamura RM, Mishell DR Jr (1979)
Roles of estradiol and progesterone in eliciting the midcycle
luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone surges.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 49:507–513
Masterson G (1999) The impact of menstrual cycle phases on
anaerobic power performance in collegiate women. J Strength
Cond Res 13:325–329
Maughan R (1982) A simple, rapid method for the determination of
glucose, lactate pyruvate, alanine, 3-hydroxyburate and aceto-
acetate on a single 20-ll blood sample. Clin Chim Acta
122:231–240
Maughan R, Gleeson M, Greenhaff PL (1997) Biochemistry of
exercise and training. Oxford University Press, Oxford
McLester JR (1997) Muscle contraction and fatigue. The role of
adenosine 50-diphosphate and inorganic phosphate. Sports Med
23:287–305
Middleton LE, Wenger HA (2006) Effects of menstrual cycle phase
on performance and recovery in intense intermittent activity. Eur
J Appl Physiol 96:53–58. doi:10.1007/s00421-005-0073-9
666 Eur J Appl Physiol (2010) 109:659–667
123
Miller PB, Soules MR (1996) The usefulness of a urinary LH kit for
ovulation prediction during menstrual cycles of normal women.
Obstet Gynecol 87:13–17
Miskec CM, Potteiger JA, Nau KL et al (1997) Do varying
environment and menstrual cycle conditions affect anaerobic
power output in female athletes. J Strength Cond Res 11:219–
223
Parish HC, Jakeman PM (1987) The effects of menstruation upon
repeated maximal sprint performance (abstract). J Sports Sci
5:78
Phillips SK, Rook LM, Siddle NC et al (1993) Muscle weakness in
women occurs at an earlier age than in men, but strength is
preserved by hormone replacement therapy. Clin Sci 84:95–98
Rechichi C, Dawson B (2009) Effect of oral contraceptive cycle phase
on performance in team sport players. J Sci Med Sport 12:190–
195
Redman LM, Weatherby RP (2004) Measuring performance during
the menstrual cycle: a model using oral contraceptives. Med Sci
Sports Exerc 36:130–136
Reis E, Frick U, Schmdtbleicher D (1995) Frequency variations of
strength training sessions triggered by the phases of the
menstrual cycle. Int J Sports Med 16:545–550
Saartok T (1984) Steroid receptors in two types of rabbit skeletal
muscle. Int J Sports Med 5:130–136
Sarwar R, Niclos BB, Rutherford OM (1996) Changes in muscle
strength, relaxation rate and fatiguability during the human
menstrual cycle. J Physiol 493:267–272
Shepard MK, Senturia YD (1977) Comparison of serum progesterone
and endometrial biopsy for confirmation of ovulation and
evaluation of luteal function. Fertil Steril 28:541–548
Speroff L (1999) Clinical gynecologic endocrinology and infertility,
6th edn. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia
Taaffe DR, Newman AB, Haggerty CL et al (2005) Estrogen
replacement, muscle composition, and physical function: the
health ABC study. Med Sci Sports Exerc 37:1741–1747
Taylor HL, Buskirk E, Henschel A (1955) Maximal oxygen uptake as
an objective measure of cardiorespiratory performance. J Appl
Physiol 8:73–80
Vermeulen A, Verdonck L, Kaufman JM (1999) A critical evaluation
of simple methods for the estimation of free testosterone in
serum. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 84:3666–3672
Widrick JJ (2002) Effect of P
i
on unloaded shortening velocity of
slow and fast mammalian muscle fibers. Am J Physiol Cell
Physiol 282:C647–C653
World Health Organisation, Task Force for Methods for the
Determination of the Fertile Period, Special Programme of
Research, Development and Research Training in Human
Reproduction (1980) Temporal relationships between ovulation
and defined changes in the concentration of plasma estradiol-
17b, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and
progesterone. Am J Obstet Gynecol 138:383–390
Eur J Appl Physiol (2010) 109:659–667 667
123
... Specifically, one study from Giacomoni et al. [156] [165,166]. Whereas, more recent research has either suggested that no differences are apparent between MCP [157,167,168] or that greater performance exists during the LP [169]. Middleton and Wenger [169], found a significant enhancement in average 6-s work over 10 maximal sprints on a cycle ergometer in the LP. ...
... In the limited number of studies that directly measure sprint running performance across the menstrual cycle, the current literature suggests that there is no difference between MCP [109,167,168]. For example, a recent study from Tsampoukos and colleagues, [168] investigated sprinting performance and recovery during two 30s all-out sprints during the FP, LFP and the LP. ...
... In the limited number of studies that directly measure sprint running performance across the menstrual cycle, the current literature suggests that there is no difference between MCP [109,167,168]. For example, a recent study from Tsampoukos and colleagues, [168] investigated sprinting performance and recovery during two 30s all-out sprints during the FP, LFP and the LP. Contrary to Middleton and Wenger [169], the latter did not observed any difference in sprinting performance. ...
... On the contrary, a better average power in repeated sprints (2.61%) has been obtained in the FL over the FF (Middleton & Wenger, 2006), together with a worse running economy in FF than in FL (Dokumacı & Hazır, 2019 ). On the other hand, no significant differences have been obtained in power performance in a 30-second sprint (Tsampoukos et al., 2010) in time in a 30-m sprint (Julian et al., 2017), in the lower body strength under different loads (Romero-Moraleda et al., 2019) or in time to exhaustion (Matsuda et al., 2020) or in VO2max depending on the phase of the menstrual cycle (Dokumacı & Hazır, 2019 ). Given these results, more research is needed to clarify the effects of phases on performance. ...
... The results obtained did not show significant differences (p <0.05) in linear speed (40-m) Julian et al., 2017). Hormonal changes caused by the menstrual cycle may not cause changes in sprint performance because naturally isolated 17b-estradiol concentrations with low progesterone have no effect on performance (Tsampoukos et al. 2010 ). Likewise, Wiecek et al. (2016) showed that hormonal changes in the menstrual cycle have no effect on anaerobic performance, speed, or anaerobic endurance. ...
... Performance in eccentric muscular actions will not be affected in the different phases of the cycle, as long as women do not suffer from premenstrual and menstrual symptoms (Lebrun, 1993), justifying that this absence of differences in the cycle could be related to specificity of the exercise they are familiar with (Giacomoni et al., 2000;Martínez-Lagunas et al., 2014;Tsampoukos et al., 2010;Villa-del Bosque, 2016). In fact, physical performance in elite women's soccer is closely related to training status and maximum capabilities (Krustrup et al., 2005;Julian et al., 2017), so maintaining an optimal level during the menstrual cycle is essential for athletic success. ...
Article
The aim of the study was to analyze variations in performance and subjective perception of well-being in young soccer players between menstrual (FM), follicular (FF) and luteal (FL) phases. Twelve female soccer players participated (16.18 ± 1.68 years; 164 ± 7.27 cm; 61.90 ± 6.37 kg) with 4 years of competitive experience and 3.1 ± 1 years with regular menstrual cycle. Maximum speed in 40-m, ability to change direction (25-m with 5 changes of direction of 45º every 5 m), explosive strength of the lower body with dominant, non-dominant, bipodal leg and vertical jump height were evaluated using Squat Jump into each phase, along with Hooper's subjective well-being questionnaire. No significant differences were obtained in any variable of performance or sleep, fatigue, stress and muscle pain between the phases of the menstrual cycle (p> 0.05). If a significantly worse general well-being state (p <0.01) in FM and FL with respect to FF. Knowing the subjective perception of well-being can be a tool that provides relevant information to the technical bodies of women's teams.
... . The increased participation of women in sports has sparked additional interest in understanding their physiological responses to exercise and muscle exertion [5,6]. Studies on the relationship between the menstrual cycle and sports performance in women based on whether they use OCs often focus on the hormones involved in menstruation [7,8]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background It is suspected that hormonal fluctuations during menstruation may cause different responses to strength training in women who use oral contraceptives (OC) versus those who do not. However, previous studies that investigated the existence of such differences produced conflicting results. In this study, we hypothesized that OC use has no effect on muscle strength and hypertrophy among women undergoing strength training. Thus, we compared the differences in muscle strength and thickness among women who used OCs and those who did not. Methods We investigated the influence of OC use on muscle strength (F max ), muscle thickness (Mtk), type 1-to-type 2 muscle fiber (NO) ratio, muscle fiber thickness (MFT), and nuclear-to-fiber (N/F) ratio. Seventy-four healthy young women (including 34 who used OCs and 40 who did not) underwent 12 weeks of submaximal strength training, after which F max was evaluated using a leg-press machine with a combined force and load cell, while Mtk was measured using real-time ultrasonography. Moreover, the NO ratio, MFT, and N/F ratio were evaluated using muscle needle biopsies. Results Participants in the non-OC and OC groups experienced increases in F max (+ 23.30 ± 10.82 kg and + 28.02 ± 11.50 kg respectively, p = 0.073), Mtk (+ 0.48 ± 0.47 cm ² and + 0.50 ± 0.44 cm ² respectively, p = 0.888), F max /Mtk (+ 2.78 ± 1.93 kg/cm ² and + 3.32 ± 2.37 kg/cm ² respectively, p = 0.285), NO ratio (type 2 fibers: + 1.86 ± 6.49% and − 4.17 ± 9.48% respectively, p = 0.169), MFT (type 2 fibers: + 7.15 ± 7.50 µm and + 4.07 ± 9.30 µm respectively, p = 0.435), and N/F ratio (+ 0.61 ± 1.02 and + 0.15 ± 0.97 respectively, p = 0.866) after training. There were no significant differences between the non-OC and OC groups in any of these parameters ( p > 0.05 ) . Conclusions The effects of 12 weeks of strength training on F max , muscle thickness, muscle fiber size, and composition were similar in young women irrespective of their OC use.
... The determination criteria for all out at two or more points were as follows: the participants could no longer maintain the specified pedal speed of 60 rpm; the rating for perceived exertion reached 20; the respiratory exchange ratio (RER) exceeded 1.2; and the participants almost reached the maximum heart rate estimated for age (i.e., 220 -age ± 5 beats/min). W max and VO 2max were mostly unchanged by the menstrual cycle (Redman, Scroop and Norman, 2003;Smekal et al., 2007;Tsampoukos et al., 2010); therefore, the W max and VO 2max were randomly measured in each menstrual cycle phase. ...
Article
This study aimed to assess the effects of co-ingestion of carbohydrate with milk (MILK) and isocaloric carbohydrate beverage (CHO) on post-exercise recovery and subsequent exercise capacity, considering the menstrual cycle. This study included 12 women with regular menstrual cycles who completed four test days, which started with glycogen-depleting exercise using a cycle ergometer in the early follicular phase (EF) and late follicular phase (LF), followed by 240 min of recovery from the ingestion of 200 mL of CHO or MILK every 30 min immediately after the exercise (POST0) until 210 min post-exercise. After 240 min, participants performed an exercise capacity test. Blood samples and breathing gas samples were collected before the exercise (PRE), POST0, and 120 (POST120) and 240 min after the end of exercise (POST240) to determine the concentrations of estradiol, progesterone, blood glucose, blood lactate, free fatty acid (FFA), and insulin and the respiratory exchange ratio, fat oxidation, and carbohydrate oxidation. The exercise time at exercise capacity test was not significantly different in terms of menstrual cycle phases and recovery beverages ingested. However, there was a significant positive correlation between the exercise capacity test and area under the curve (AUC) of FFA concentrations from POST0 to POST240 in each group (EF + CHO, p < 0.05; LF + CHO, p < 0.05; EF + MILK, p < 0.01; and LF + MILK, p < 0.05). The AUC of FFA from POST120 to POST240 showed no difference between EF (CHO and MILK) and LF (CHO and MILK). However, the AUC of FFA concentrations from POST120 to POST240 was significantly greater in MILK (EF and LF) than that in CHO (EF and LF) (p < 0.05). In active women, circulating substrates and hormone concentrations during short recovery post-exercise are not affected by the menstrual cycle. However, MILK may affect circulating substrates during recovery and the exercise capacity after recovery.
... Additionally, the menstrual cycle of participants was not strictly controlled for, which could possibly influence results. However, it is worth noting that our rationale for omitting this control is due to previous evidence showing that anaerobic performance is unchanged regardless of menstrual cycle phase in addition to the fact females are grossly understudied in exercise research [42,53,54]. The physiology of YHM supplementation in females is an area of dire need especially in the context of male comparison. ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a single acute dose of yohimbine hydrochloride on repeated anaerobic sprint ability. Physically active females (n = 18) completed two separate repeated supramaximal sprint trials each with a different single-dose treatment: placebo (PL; gluten-free corn starch) or yohimbine hydrochloride (YHM; 2.5 mg). For each trial, participants consumed their respective treatment 20 min before exercise. Following a warm-up, participants completed 3 × 15 s Wingate anaerobic tests (WAnTs) separated by 2 min of active recovery. A capillary blood sample was obtained pre- and immediately post-exercise to measure blood concentrations of lactate (LA), epinephrine (EPI), and norepinephrine (NE). Heart rate (HR) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured following each WAnT. Findings showed that mean power (p < 0.001; η2 = 0.024), total work (p < 0.001; η2 = 0.061), and HR (p < 0.001; η2 = 0.046), were significantly higher with YHM supplementation versus PL. Fatigue index (p < 0.001; η2 = 0.054) and post-exercise LA (p < 0.001; d = 1.26) were significantly lower with YHM compared to PL. YHM resulted in significantly higher EPI concentrations versus PL (p < 0.001; η2 = 0.225) pre- and post-exercise while NE only increased as a function of time (p < 0.001; η2 = 0.227) and was unaffected by treatment. While RPE increased after each WAnT, no differences between treatments were observed (p = 0.539; η2 < 0.001). Together, these results suggest that acute YHM ingestion imparts ergogenic benefits which may be mediated by lower blood LA and fatigue concomitantly occurring with blood EPI increases. Thus, YHM may improve sprint performance although more mechanistic study is warranted to accentuate underlying processes mediating performance enhancement.
... The aging process impairs balance of fluids and electrolytes [67,68], leading to reduced PV among elderly individuals [69]. Intensity dependent PV losses have been reported in response to exercise lasting 6 min [70] and 20 min [71] and changes of similar magnitude have been previously reported following sprinting [67,[72][73][74][75]. Moreover, changes (12.5%) in PV postwarmup were followed by a further 5.5% PV reduction immediately post-sprint, reinforcing the potential influence of intensity of exercise on PV change. ...
Article
The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the evidence on the acute and long-term effects of exercise training on PV, in both trained and untrained individuals and to examine associations between changes in %PVV and change in physical/physiological performance. Despite the status of participants and the exercise duration or intensity, all the acute studies reported a significant decrease of PV (effect size: 0.85<d<3.45, very large), and ranged between 7% and 19.9%. In untrained individuals, most of studies reported a significant increase of PV in response to different kind of training including endurance training and high intensity interval training (effect size: 0.19<d<3.52, small to very large), and ranged from 6.6% to 16%. However, in trained individuals the results are equivocal. We showed that acute exercise appears to induce a significant decrease of PV in both healthy untrained and trained individuals in response to several exercise modalities. Moreover, there is evidence that long-term exercise training induced a significant increase of PV in healthy untrained individuals. However, it seems that there is no consensus concerning the effect of long-term exercise training on PV in trained individuals.
... There are a few limitations in our study. We did not consider menstrual cycle for female athletes; however, several studies [40,41] show no effect of menstrual cycle on sports performance. The effectiveness of blinding was not tested by asking participants to identify the solutions they had rinsed. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Carbohydrate (CHO) and caffeine (CAF) mouth rinsing have been shown to enhance endurance and sprint performance. However, the effects of CHO and CAF mouth rinsing on muscular and cognitive performance in comparison between male and female athletes are less well-established. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of CHO and CAF rinsing on squat and bench press 1 repetition maximum (1-RM) strength, 3 sets of 40% of 1-RM muscular endurance and cognitive performance in both male and female athletes. Methods Thirteen male and fourteen female resistance-trained participants completed four testing sessions following the rinsing of 25 ml of i) 6% of CHO (1.5 g); ii) 2% CAF (500 mg), iii) combined CHO and CAF (CHOCAF) solutions or iv) water (PLA) for 10 s. Heart rate (HR), felt arousal (FA), ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and glucose (GLU) were recorded throughout the test protocol. Results There were no significant differences in squat and bench press 1-RM, HR, RPE and GLU ( p > 0.05) for males and females, respectively. FA was significantly increased with CAF ( p = 0.04, p = 0.01) and CHOCAF ( p = 0.03, p = 0.01) condition in both males and females, respectively. Squat endurance performance in the first set was significantly increased with CHOCAF condition compared to PLA in both males ( p = 0.01) and females ( p = 0.02). Bench press endurance was similar for all conditions in both genders ( p > 0.05). Cognitive performance was significantly increased with CHOCAF compared to PLA in males ( p = 0.03) and females ( p = 0.02). Conclusion Combined CHO and CAF mouth rinsing significantly improved lower body muscular endurance and cognitive performance in both males and females.
Chapter
Full-text available
Parámetros de prescripción del ejercicio posterior a un evento de rabdomiólisis: una revisión narrativa
Book
Objetivo Establecer parámetros de prescripción del ejercicio posterior a un evento de rabdomiólisis (>3meses). Metodología Revisión de literatura científica que contempla 70 artículos indexados en bases de datos: Science Direct, PubMed, Proquest, Scielo, Springer, Google académico y páginas web digitales relacionadas con la temática incluyendo artículos publicados entre 1993 y 2017. Palabras clave: rabdomiólisis, prescripción, ejercicio físico, salud No fueron agregados aquellos en idiomas diferentes al inglés y al español. Resultados De acuerdo con la búsqueda de información se seleccionaron 42 artículos revisando títulos y resúmenes, los cuales cumplieron los criterios de inclusión final; 19 fueron revisiones (narrativas o sistemáticas); 2 fueron revisión de capítulos de libro, 4 reportes de caso y 17 artículos clínico experimentales los cuales contienen datos epidemiológicos sobre tratamiento para pacientes con rabdomiolisis. El análisis de los parámetros en la prescripción del ejercicio establece que es posible plantear, diseñar, ejecutar y aplicar un programa de reacondicionamiento físico mejorando la fuerza, la resistencia cardiovascular, la flexibilidad y el estado integral de un individuo. Conclusiones De acuerdo a la revisión de literatura y adicional al tratamiento médico, se propone un programa de prescripción del ejercicio físico para rabdomiolisis el cual destaca la necesidad de establecer parámetros de prescripción de ejercicio con el fin de reacondicionar físicamente al individuo a través del ejercicio de la resistencia cardiovascular de orden adaptativo y progresivo (Inicio de 2 a 3 días por semana, ≤40% VO2Reserva y <59% de la frecuencia cardiaca de reserva. (10 a 30 minutos de ejercicio por sesión según tolerancia). Trabajos de fuerza resistencia adaptativa (2 a 3 días por semana, 20 a 40 minutos de duración) logrando una adaptación neuromuscular con bandas elásticas (resistencia amarillo, rojo y verde entre 25 a 100% de elongación 2 series de 25 repeticiones). Progresión con trabajos de fuerza resistencia entre 8 a 12 repeticiones y 2 series (30%–40% RM) y teniendo en cuenta que la ejecución no debe generar dolor muscular. Desempeño de la flexibilidad dinámica (2 a 3 días por semana, 20 a 40 minutos) con intensidad leve a moderada (6,7) según escala de percepción del esfuerzo, sin provocar dolor en presencia de tensiones y esfuerzo en los músculos.
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of the menstrual cycle on vertical jumping, sprint performance and force-velocity profiling in resistance-trained women. A group of resistancetrained eumenorrheic women (n = 9) were tested in three phases over the menstrual cycle: bleeding phase, follicular phase, and luteal phase (i.e., days 1–3, 7–10, and 19–21 of the cycle, respectively). Each testing phase consisted of a battery of jumping tests (i.e., squat jump [SJ], countermovement jump [CMJ], drop jump from a 30 cm box [DJ30], and the reactive strength index) and 30 m sprint running test. Two different applications for smartphone (My Jump 2 and My Sprint) were used to record the jumping and sprinting trials, respectively, at high speed (240 fps). The repeated measures ANOVA reported no significant differences (p � 0.05, ES < 0.25) in CMJ, DJ30, reactive strength index and sprint times between the different phases of the menstrual cycle. A greater SJ height performance was observed during the follicular phase compared to the bleeding phase (p = 0.033, ES = −0.22). No differences (p � 0.05, ES < 0.45) were found in the CMJ and sprint force-velocity profile over the different phases of the menstrual cycle. Vertical jump, sprint performance and the force-velocity profiling remain constant in trained women, regardless of the phase of the menstrual cycle.
Article
One hundred seventy-seven women have been studied over the periovulatory period, in order to obtain detailed information on temporal relationships between ovulation and defined changes in the concentrations of estradiol-17β (E2), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and progesterone (P) in peripheral plasma. Serial samples of blood were taken, the surfaces of the ovaries were examined at laparotomy, and the mature follicle or corpus luteum was removed for histologic examination. The results in 107 cases fulfilled the criteria for statistical analysis, and in 78 the operation was performed after the follicle had ruptured. A probit analysis was undertaken with use of the proportion of women who had ovulated at a given time in relation to the interval from a defined rise or peak in the concentration of a circulating hormone. The median time intervals (in hours) from the hormonal event to ovulation and the 95% confidence limits of the estimates are as follows: 17β-estradiol—rise 82.5 (54.0 to 100.5), peak 24.0 (16.9 to 32.1); LH—rise 32.0 (23.6 to 38.2), peak 16.5 (9.5 to 23.0); FSH—rise 21.1 (14.1 to 30.9), peak 15.3 (8.1 to 21.7); progesterone—rise 7.8 (−12.5 to 15.9). From the statistical model for LH it was possible to estimate that ovulation in 90% of the cases had occurred between 16 (±6) and 48 (±6) hours after the first significant rise in the concentration of this hormone and between −3 (±5) and 36 (±5) hours after the peak. An examination of the individual results in every woman gave corresponding ranges of between 24 and 56 hours from the first significant rise in LH and between 8 and 40 hours after the peak. From a practical standpoint, the conclusion is that a defined rise in the concentration of circulating LH is the best indirect parameter of impending ovulation.
Article
Limited studies in nonhuman primates suggest that the midcycle LH surge is characterized by distinctly different patterns of bioactive (LH-BIO) and immunoactive (LH-RIA) LH secretion. To further examine the patterns of midcycle LH-BIO and LH-RIA secretion and explore the influence of physiological variations in steroid hormone feedback on LH surge dimensions we studied seven normal ovulatory women over the periovulatory interval. In each, blood samples were obtained every 3 h and transvaginal ultrasonography was performed every 12 h over a 5-7 day interval at midcycle. Serum levels of LH-RIA, FSH, estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), and 17-hydroxyprogesterone were determined by RIA; LH-BIO was estimated using a mouse leydig cell bioassay. Hormone data were standardized to the time of surge onset in LH-RIA (time zero), defined as a 100% increase above a 6-point running mean baseline value; surge cessation was defined as a decline to below baseline concentration. Mean LH-RIA surge duration was 54.0 +/- 4.0 h...
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects, if any, of the menstrual cycle on the physical performance of 20 student team swimmers, all of whom were not on the contraceptive pill at the time of the investigation. The methodology used in the investigation was twofold. A practical element was involved in which the time taken to swim 50m at four specific periods during the month was recorded for each student. Analysis of the data indicated that the best swimming performances were achieved during the postmenstrual periods and the poorest performances during the premenstrual and menstrual periods. Swimming performance over 50m was significantly faster in the postmenstrual periods (33.27 vis 34.66 and 34.25 sec; p < 0.01). Secondly, a questionnaire was administered to the subjects. An analysis of the answers indicated the spread of and types of problems that occur during the premenstrual and menstrual periods and gave insight into how the swimmers feel their performance is affected by menstruation.
Book
Established for more than thirty years as one of the world's most widely read gynecology texts, Clinical Gynecologic Endocrinology and Infertility is now in its Eighth Edition. In a clear, user-friendly style enhanced by abundant illustrations, algorithms, and tables, the book provides a complete explanation of the female endocrine system and its disorders and offers practical guidance on evaluation and treatment of female endocrine problems and infertility. Major sections cover reproductive physiology, clinical endocrinology, contraception and infertility. This edition has a modern full-color design.A companion website includes the fully searchable text, image bank and links to PubMed references.
Article
Though many explanations are offered for the fatigue process in contracting skeletal muscle (both central and peripheral factors), none completely explain the decline in force production capability because fatigue is specific to the activity being performed. However, one needs to look no further than the muscle contraction crossbridge cycle itself in order to explain a major contributor to the fatigue process in exercise of any duration. The bypdoducts of adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis, adenosine 5′-diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate (Pi) are released during the crossbridge cycle and can be implicated in the fatigue process due to the requirement of their release for proper crossbridge activity. Pi release is coupled to the powerstroke of the crossbridge cycle. The accumulation of Pi during exercise would lead to a reversal of its release step, therefore causing a decrement in force production capability. Due to the release of Pi with both the immediate (phosphagen) energy system and the hydrolysis of ATP, Pi accumulation is probably the largest contributor to the fatigue process in exercise of any duration. ADP release occurs near the end of the crossbridge cycle and therefore controls the velocity of crossbridge detachment. Therefore, ADP accumulation, which occurs during exercise of extended duration (or in ischaemic conditions), causes a slowing of the rate constants (and therefore a decrease in the maximal velocity of shortening) in the crossbridge cycle and a reduced oscillatory power output. The combined effects of these accumulated hydrolysis byproducts accounts for a large amount of the fatigue process in exercise of any intensity or duration.
Article
The measurement of human power output and anaerobic capacity in high-intensity exercise has traditionally been made using cycle ergometers. The assessment of power output during running has proved difficult because previous approaches have limited themselves to using motorized treadmills. In the present study the problems associated with motorized treadmills were overcome by using a non-motorized treadmill which was instrumented so as to allow the measurement of power output during sprint running. A non-motorized treadmill (Woodway model AB) was used because it allows rapid changes in running velocity normally found in sprinting to be monitored. In order to calculate the horizontal component of the applied power the instantaneous values of both the horizontal component of applied force and the treadmill belt speed were measured, and their product determined. A harness, attached to a force transducer, was passed around the waist securing the subject to the crossbar without restricting the movement of the limbs. The force measured was assumed to be the same as that horizontally applied to the treadmill belt.The outputs from the speed detector, force transducer and heart rate monitor were continuously monitored by a microcomputer.The results of the study showed that:(1)the peak speed attained on the treadmill is approximately 80% of that achieved in free-sprinting.(2)peak force is attained earlier than peak power and in turn peak power occurs before peak speed.(3)the force and power required to propel the treadmill belt at a constant speed increase with body weight.(4)the power required to propel the treadmill belt increases with speed.(5)stride length and frequency could be monitored.(6)elasticity in the tethering system acted as a low pass filter on the force profile.
Article
The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of the menstrual phases on power performance in fairly active collegiate women. After the initial screening of 100 potential subjects who engaged in exercise 2 and no more than 3 days a week for 30 minutes or less, 32 subjects were selected to completed the study. The subjects underwent 2 Wingate tests to estimate anaerobic power, anaerobic capacity, and fatigue. One test was administered during the follicular phase; the other test was administered during the luteal phase. The data from this study indicate that there are differences between power performance during the follicular and luteal phases for these women. The women in this study demonstrated greater anaerobic capacity, produced greater peak power, and were less fatigued by the end of the exercise during the luteal phase than during the follicular phase. The results indicate that menstrual phase in fairly active collegiate women can have an influence on anaerobic performance. (C) 1999 National Strength and Conditioning Association